Quantifying the dynamic interactions between a clathrin-coated pit and cargo molecules.
ABSTRACT: Clathrin-mediated endocytosis takes place through the recruitment of cargo molecules into a growing clathrin-coated pit (CCP). Despite the importance of this process to all mammalian cells, little is yet known about the interaction dynamics between cargo and CCPs. These interactions are difficult to study because CCPs display a large degree of lifetime heterogeneity and the interactions with cargo molecules are time dependent. We use single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, in combination with automatic detection and tracking algorithms, to directly visualize the recruitment of individual voltage-gated potassium channels into forming CCPs in living cells. We observe association and dissociation of individual channels with a CCP and, occasionally, their internalization. Contrary to widespread ideas, cargo often escapes from a pit before abortive CCP termination or endocytic vesicle production. Thus, the binding times of cargo molecules associating to CCPs are much shorter than the overall endocytic process. By measuring tens of thousands of capturing events, we build the distribution of capture times and the times that cargo remains confined to a CCP. An analytical stochastic model is developed and compared with the measured distributions. Due to the dynamic nature of the pit, the model is non-Markovian and it displays long-tail power law statistics. The measured distributions and model predictions are in excellent agreement over more than five orders of magnitude. Our findings identify one source of the large heterogeneities in CCP dynamics and provide a mechanism for the anomalous diffusion of proteins in the plasma membrane.
Project description:VIDEO ABSTRACT:Some endocytic cargoes control clathrin-coated pit (CCP) maturation, but it is not known how such regulation is communicated. We found that ?-opioid neuropeptide receptors signal to their enclosing CCPs by ubiquitination. Nonubiquitinated receptors delay CCPs at an intermediate stage of maturation, after clathrin lattice assembly is complete but before membrane scission. Receptor ubiquitination relieves this inhibition, effectively triggering CCP scission and producing a receptor-containing endocytic vesicle. The ubiquitin modification that conveys this endocytosis-promoting signal is added to the receptor's first cytoplasmic loop, catalyzed by the Smurf2 ubiquitin ligase, and coordinated with activation-dependent receptor phosphorylation and clustering through Smurf2 recruitment by the endocytic adaptor beta-arrestin. Epsin1 detects the signal at the CCP and is required for ubiquitin-promoted scission. This cargo-to-coat communication system mediates a biochemical checkpoint that ensures appropriate receptor ubiquitination for later trafficking, and it controls specific receptor loading into CCPs by sensing when a sufficient quorum is reached.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is key to maintaining the transmembrane protein composition of cells' limiting membranes. During mammalian CME, a reversible phosphorylation event occurs on Thr156 of the ?2 subunit of the main endocytic clathrin adaptor, AP2. We show that this phosphorylation event starts during clathrin-coated pit (CCP) initiation and increases throughout CCP lifetime. ?2Thr156 phosphorylation favors a new, cargo-bound conformation of AP2 and simultaneously creates a binding platform for the endocytic NECAP proteins but without significantly altering AP2's cargo affinity in vitro. We describe the structural bases of both. NECAP arrival at CCPs parallels that of clathrin and increases with ?2Thr156 phosphorylation. In turn, NECAP recruits drivers of late stages of CCP formation, including SNX9, via a site distinct from where NECAP binds AP2. Disruption of the different modules of this phosphorylation-based temporal regulatory system results in CCP maturation being delayed and/or stalled, hence impairing global rates of CME.
Project description:Diverse cargo molecules (i.e., receptors and ligand/receptor complexes) are taken into the cell by clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) utilizing a core machinery consisting of cargo-specific adaptors, clathrin and the GTPase dynamin. Numerous endocytic accessory proteins are also required, but their differential roles and functional hierarchy during CME are not yet understood. Here, we used a combination of quantitative live-cell imaging by total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIR-FM), and decomposition of the lifetime distributions of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) to measure independent aspects of CCP dynamics, including the turnover of abortive and productive CCP species and their relative contributions. Capitalizing on the sensitivity of this assay, we have examined the effects of specific siRNA-mediated depletion of endocytic accessory proteins on CME progression. Of the 12 endocytic accessory proteins examined, we observed seven qualitatively different phenotypes upon protein depletion. From this data we derive a temporal hierarchy of protein function during early steps of CME. Our results support the idea that a subset of accessory proteins, which mediate coat assembly, membrane curvature, and cargo selection, can provide input into an endocytic restriction point/checkpoint mechanism that monitors CCP maturation.
Project description:In recent years, fluorescence microscopy has enabled researchers to observe the dynamics of clathrin-coated pit (CCP) assembly in real time. The assembly dynamics of CCPs shows striking heterogeneity. Some CCPs are long-lived (productive CCPs); they bind cargo and grow in size to form clathrin-coated vesicles. In contrast, other CCPs (abortive CCPs) are relatively short-lived and disassemble well before reaching vesicle size. Within both populations there is significant variance in CCP lifetime. We propose a stochastic biophysical model that links these observations with the energetics of CCPs and kinetics of their assembly. We show that without cargo, CCP assembly faces a high energy barrier that is difficult to overcome. As a consequence, CCPs without cargo are almost always abortive. We suggest a mechanism by which cargo binding stabilizes CCPs and facilitates their growth. The lifetime distribution of abortive pits calculated from our model agrees well with published experimental data. We also estimate the lifetimes of productive CCPs and show that the stochastic nature of CCP assembly plays a crucial role in causing their observed wide distribution.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the most characterized pathway for the endocytic entry of proteins and lipids at the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. Numerous studies have probed the roles of different endocytic accessory proteins in regulating the dynamics of clathrin-coated pit (CCP) assembly. However, it is not completely clear how physical cues regulate CCP dynamics. Here we employ microcontact printing to control cell shape and examine CCP dynamics as a function of cell spreading area for three differently sized cells. Cells with a large spreading area had more short-lived CCPs but a higher CCP initiation rate. Interestingly, we found that fluorescence intensity of CCPs decreased with increasing cell spreading area in a manner that was dependent on the cortical actin network. Our results point to another facet of the regulation of CCP dynamics, suggesting that CME may be modulated while cells change their mechanical state and remodel their actin cytoskeleton during various processes.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis has long been viewed as a process driven by core endocytic proteins, with internalized cargo proteins being passive. In contrast, an emerging view suggests that signaling receptor cargo may actively control its fate by regulating the dynamics of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) that mediate their internalization. Despite its physiological implications, very little is known about such "cargo-mediated regulation" of CCPs by signaling receptors. Here, using multicolor total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging and quantitative analysis in live cells, we show that the ?-opioid receptor, a physiologically relevant G protein-coupled signaling receptor, delays the dynamics of CCPs in which it is localized. This delay is mediated by the interactions of two critical leucines on the receptor cytoplasmic tail. Unlike the previously known mechanism of cargo-mediated regulation, these residues regulate the lifetimes of dynamin, a key component of CCP scission. These results identify a novel means for selectively controlling the endocytosis of distinct cargo that share common trafficking components and indicate that CCP regulation by signaling receptors can operate via divergent modes.
Project description:Phosphoinositides are thought to play an important role in clathrin-coated pit (CCP) dynamics. Biochemical and structural studies have shown a direct interaction of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] with endocytic clathrin adaptors, whereas functional studies using cell-free systems or intact cells have demonstrated the importance of PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and dephosphorylation in clathrin coating and uncoating, respectively. Furthermore, genetic manipulations of kinases and phosphatases involved in PI(4,5)P2 metabolism result in major defects in synaptic vesicle recycling and other forms of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. However, live imaging studies of these enzymes at CCPs have not been conducted. We have used multicolor total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to visualize the spatial-temporal recruitment of synaptojanin 1 (SJ1), a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase, and its binding partner endophilin to CCPs. Strikingly, we observed differential temporal recruitment of the two major SJ1 splice variants to CCPs. The 145-kDa isoform, the predominant isoform expressed in the brain, was rapidly recruited as a "burst," together with endophilin, at a late stage of CCP formation. In contrast, the nonneuronal ubiquitously expressed 170-kDa isoform of SJ1 was present at all stages of CCP formation. These results raise the possibility that dynamic phosphoinositide metabolism may occur throughout the lifetime of a CCP.
Project description:The critical initiation phase of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) determines where and when endocytosis occurs. Heterotetrameric adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complexes, which initiate clathrin-coated pit (CCP) assembly, are activated by conformational changes in response to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and cargo binding at multiple sites. However, the functional hierarchy of interactions and how these conformational changes relate to distinct steps in CCP formation in living cells remains unknown. We used quantitative live-cell analyses to measure discrete early stages of CME and show how sequential, allosterically regulated conformational changes activate AP2 to drive both nucleation and subsequent stabilization of nascent CCPs. Our data establish that cargoes containing Yxx? motif, but not dileucine motif, play a critical role in the earliest stages of AP2 activation and CCP nucleation. Interestingly, these cargo and PIP2 interactions are not conserved in yeast. Thus, we speculate that AP2 has evolved as a key regulatory node to coordinate CCP formation and cargo sorting and ensure high spatial and temporal regulation of CME.
Project description:Numerous endocytic accessory proteins (EAPs) mediate assembly and maturation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) into cargo-containing vesicles. Analysis of EAP function through bulk measurement of cargo uptake has been hampered due to potential redundancy among EAPs and, as we show here, the plasticity and resilience of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Instead, EAP function is best studied by uncovering the correlation between variations in EAP association to individual CCPs and the resulting variations in maturation. However, most EAPs bind to CCPs in low numbers, making the measurement of EAP association via fused fluorescent reporters highly susceptible to detection errors. Here, we present a framework for unbiased measurement of EAP recruitment to CCPs and their direct effects on CCP dynamics. We identify dynamin and the EAP-binding ?-adaptin appendage domain of the AP2 adaptor as switches in a regulated, multistep maturation process and provide direct evidence for a molecular checkpoint in CME.
Project description:Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIR-FM) has become a powerful tool for studying clathrin-mediated endocytosis. However, due to difficulties in tracking and quantifying their heterogeneous dynamic behavior, detailed analyses have been restricted to a limited number of selected clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). To identify intermediates in the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles and factors that regulate progression through these stages, we used particle-tracking software and statistical methods to establish an unbiased and complete inventory of all visible CCP trajectories. We identified three dynamically distinct CCP subpopulations: two short-lived subpopulations corresponding to aborted intermediates, and one longer-lived productive subpopulation. In a manner dependent on AP2 adaptor complexes, increasing cargo concentration significantly enhances the maturation efficiency of productive CCPs, but has only minor effects on their lifetimes. In contrast, small interfering RNA (siRNA) depletion of dynamin-2 GTPase and reintroduction of wild-type or mutant dynamin-1 revealed dynamin's role in controlling the turnover of abortive intermediates and the rate of CCP maturation. From these data, we infer the existence of an endocytic restriction or checkpoint, responsive to cargo and regulated by dynamin.