Crystal structure of c5321: a protective antigen present in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains displaying an SLR fold.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance among uropathogens led, among other efforts, to the application of subtractive reverse vaccinology for the identification of antigens present in extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strains but absent or variable in non-pathogenic strains, in a quest for a broadly protective Escherichia coli vaccine. The protein coded by locus c5321 from CFT073 E. coli was identified as one of nine potential vaccine candidates against ExPEC and was able to confer protection with an efficacy of 33% in a mouse model of sepsis. c5321 (known also as EsiB) lacks functional annotation and structurally belongs to the Sel1-like repeat (SLR) family. Herein, as part of the general characterization of this potential antigen, we have focused on its structural properties. RESULTS: We report the 1.74 Å-resolution crystal structure of c5321 from CFT073 E. coli determined by Se-Met SAD phasing. The structure is composed of 11 SLR units in a topological organisation that highly resembles that found in HcpC from Helicobacter pylori, with the main difference residing in how the super-helical fold is stabilised. The stabilising effect of disulfide bridges in HcpC is replaced in c5321 by a strengthening of the inter-repeat hydrophobic core. A metal-ion binding site, uncharacteristic of SLR proteins, is detected between SLR units 3 and 4 in the region of the inter-repeat hydrophobic core. Crystal contacts are observed between the C-terminal tail of one molecule and the C-terminal amphipathic groove of a neighbouring one, resembling interactions between ligand and proteins containing tetratricopeptide-like repeats. CONCLUSIONS: The structure of antigen c5321 presents a mode of stabilization of the SLR fold different from that observed in close homologs of known structure. The location of the metal-ion binding site and the observed crystal contacts suggest a potential role in regulation of conformational flexibility and interaction with yet unidentified target proteins, respectively. These findings open new perspectives in both antigen design and for the identification of a functional role for this protective antigen.
Project description:Terminally misfolded proteins are selectively recognized and cleared by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. SEL1L, a component of the ERAD machinery, plays an important role in selecting and transporting ERAD substrates for degradation. We have determined the crystal structure of the mouse SEL1L central domain comprising five Sel1-Like Repeats (SLR motifs 5 to 9; hereafter called SEL1L(cent)). Strikingly, SEL1L(cent) forms a homodimer with two-fold symmetry in a head-to-tail manner. Particularly, the SLR motif 9 plays an important role in dimer formation by adopting a domain-swapped structure and providing an extensive dimeric interface. We identified that the full-length SEL1L forms a self-oligomer through the SEL1L(cent) domain in mammalian cells. Furthermore, we discovered that the SLR-C, comprising SLR motifs 10 and 11, of SEL1L directly interacts with the N-terminus luminal loops of HRD1. Therefore, we propose that certain SLR motifs of SEL1L play a unique role in membrane bound ERAD machinery.
Project description:Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) strains cause a large spectrum of infections. The majority of ExPEC strains are closely related to the B2 or the D phylogenetic group. The aim of our study was to develop a protein-based vaccine against these ExPEC strains. To this end, we identified ExPEC-specific genomic regions, using a comparative genome analysis, between the nonpathogenic E. coli strain K-12 MG1655 and ExPEC strains C5 (meningitis isolate) and CFT073 (urinary tract infection isolate). The analysis of these genomic regions allowed the selection of 40 open reading frames, which are conserved among B2/D clinical isolates and encode proteins with putative outer membrane localization. These genes were cloned, and recombinant proteins were purified and assessed as vaccine candidates. After immunization of BALB/c mice, five proteins induced a significant protective immunity against a lethal challenge with a clinical E. coli strain of the B2 group. In passive immunization assays, antigen-specific antibodies afforded protection to naive mice against a lethal challenge. Three of these antigens were related to iron acquisition metabolism, an important virulence factor of the ExPEC, and two corresponded to new, uncharacterized proteins. Due to the large number of genetic differences that exists between commensal and pathogenic strains of E. coli, our results demonstrate that it is possible to identify targets that elicit protective immune responses specific to those strains. The five protective antigens could constitute the basis for a preventive subunit vaccine against diseases caused by ExPEC strains.
Project description:Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strain 536 (O6:K15:H31) is one of the model organisms of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). To analyze this strain's genetic basis of urovirulence, we sequenced the entire genome and compared the data with the genome sequence of UPEC strain CFT073 (O6:K2:H1) and to the available genomes of nonpathogenic E. coli strain MG1655 (K-12) and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. The genome of strain 536 is approximately 292 kb smaller than that of strain CFT073. Genomic differences between both UPEC are mainly restricted to large pathogenicity islands, parts of which are unique to strain 536 or CFT073. Genome comparison underlines that repeated insertions and deletions in certain parts of the genome contribute to genome evolution. Furthermore, 427 and 432 genes are only present in strain 536 or in both UPEC, respectively. The majority of the latter genes is encoded within smaller horizontally acquired DNA regions scattered all over the genome. Several of these genes are involved in increasing the pathogens' fitness and adaptability. Analysis of virulence-associated traits expressed in the two UPEC O6 strains, together with genome comparison, demonstrate the marked genetic and phenotypic variability among UPEC. The ability to accumulate and express a variety of virulence-associated genes distinguishes ExPEC from many commensals and forms the basis for the individual virulence potential of ExPEC. Accordingly, instead of a common virulence mechanism, different ways exist among ExPEC to cause disease.
Project description:Extraintestinal Escherichia coli (ExPEC) organisms are the leading cause of Gram-negative bacterial bloodstream infections. These bacteria adapt to survival in the bloodstream through expression of factors involved in scavenging of nutrients and resisting the killing activity of serum. In this study, the transcriptional response of a prototypic ExPEC strain (CFT073) to human serum was investigated. Resistance of CFT073 to the bactericidal properties of serum involved increased expression of envelope stress regulators, including CpxR, ?E, and RcsB. Many of the upregulated genes induced by active serum were regulated by the Rcs two-component system. This system is triggered by envelope stress such as changes to cell wall integrity. RcsB-mediated serum resistance was conferred through induction of the exopolysaccharide colanic acid. Production of this exopolysaccharide may be protective while cell wall damage caused by serum components is repaired.
Project description:In this study the transcriptional response of an ExPEC E. coli strain (CFT073) to human serum was investigated. In response, CFT073 up-regulated expression of iron and manganese acquisition systems and induced expression of iron regulated genes. High osmolarity of serum induced the osmotic shock response genes, promoting uptake of osmoprotectants by CFT073. Resistance of CFT073 to the bactericidal properties of serum involved increased expression of envelope stress regulators including CpxR, ?E and RcsB. Many of the up-regulated genes induced by active serum were regulated by the Rcs two component system. This system is triggered by envelope stress such as changes to cell wall integrity. RcsB-mediated serum resistance was conferred through induction of the exopolysaccharide colanic acid. Production of this exopolysaccharide may be protective while cell wall damage caused by serum components is repaired. Experimental Design: Two experiments are reported: 1) . The transcriptome of E. coli CFT073 exposed to LB supplemented with 50 % normal human serum was compared to that of bacteria grown in LB alone for 45 min, and 2) The transcriptome of CFT073 in response to normal healthy serum and heat inactivated serum (which has no bactericidal activity). Four biological replicates were performed per experiment with Dye swaps performed on sample replicates to eliminate any dye bias
Project description:Escherichia coli strains that cause disease outside the intestine are known as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and include pathogens of humans and animals. Previously, the genome of avian-pathogenic E. coli (APEC) O1:K1:H7 strain O1, from ST95, was sequenced and compared to those of several other E. coli strains, identifying 43 genomic islands. Here, the genomic islands of APEC O1 were compared to those of other sequenced E. coli strains, and the distribution of 81 genes belonging to 12 APEC O1 genomic islands among 828 human and avian ExPEC and commensal E. coli isolates was determined. Multiple islands were highly prevalent among isolates belonging to the O1 and O18 serogroups within phylogenetic group B2, which are implicated in human neonatal meningitis. Because of the extensive genomic similarities between APEC O1 and other human ExPEC strains belonging to the ST95 phylogenetic lineage, its ability to cause disease in a rat model of sepsis and meningitis was assessed. Unlike other ST95 lineage strains, APEC O1 was unable to cause bacteremia or meningitis in the neonatal rat model and was significantly less virulent than uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) CFT073 in a mouse sepsis model, despite carrying multiple neonatal meningitis E. coli (NMEC) virulence factors and belonging to the ST95 phylogenetic lineage. These results suggest that host adaptation or genome modifications have occurred either in APEC O1 or in highly virulent ExPEC isolates, resulting in differences in pathogenicity. Overall, the genomic islands examined provide targets for further discrimination of the different ExPEC subpathotypes, serogroups, phylogenetic types, and sequence types.
Project description:Capsule expression may be important during ascending Escherichia coli urinary tract infections (UTIs).An isogenic ksl(k2)ABCDE mutant of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) strain CFT073 that could not synthesize the K2 capsule was compared with wild-type CFT073, to determine virulence in a murine model of ascending UTI and in vitro killing assays.No significant differences were observed regarding the abilities of the mutant and the wild-type CFT073 strains to colonize the murine urinary tract in single-challenge infection experiments. However, in competitive-colonization experiments, the mutant was significantly outcompeted by the wild-type strain in urine and the kidneys. The mutant strain was also more susceptible to human serum. Complementation of the mutant with a plasmid containing the ksl(k2)ABCDE genes restored capsule expression, enhanced survival in the murine urinary tract, and restored serum resistance.These results indicate that expression of the K2 capsule is important for the pathogenesis of UTI and provides protection against complement-mediated killing. To our knowledge, this is the first study in which the E. coli capsule has been proven to play a role in infection by use of isogenic mutants and genetic complementation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Scaffolding is an important step in genome assembly that orders and orients the contigs produced by assemblers. However, repetitive regions in contigs usually prevent scaffolding from producing accurate results. How to solve the problem of repetitive regions has received a great deal of attention. In the past few years, long reads sequenced by third-generation sequencing technologies (Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore) have been demonstrated to be useful for sequencing repetitive regions in genomes. Although some stand-alone scaffolding algorithms based on long reads have been presented, scaffolding still requires a new strategy to take full advantage of the characteristics of long reads. RESULTS:Here, we present a new scaffolding algorithm based on long reads and contig classification (SLR). Through the alignment information of long reads and contigs, SLR classifies the contigs into unique contigs and ambiguous contigs for addressing the problem of repetitive regions. Next, SLR uses only unique contigs to produce draft scaffolds. Then, SLR inserts the ambiguous contigs into the draft scaffolds and produces the final scaffolds. We compare SLR to three popular scaffolding tools by using long read datasets sequenced with Pacific Biosciences and Oxford Nanopore technologies. The experimental results show that SLR can produce better results in terms of accuracy and completeness. The open-source code of SLR is available at https://github.com/luojunwei/SLR. CONCLUSION:In this paper, we describes SLR, which is designed to scaffold contigs using long reads. We conclude that SLR can improve the completeness of genome assembly.
Project description:Although dogs have been proposed as carriers of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) with infectious potential for humans, presumed host species-specific differences between canine and human ExPEC strains have cast doubt on this hypothesis. The recent discovery that allele III of papG (the P fimbrial adhesin gene) predominates among human cystitis isolates and confers an adherence phenotype resembling that of canine ExPEC prompted the present reevaluation of the canine-human ExPEC connection. Sixteen paired pap-positive urine and rectal E. coli isolates from dogs with urinary tract infection were studied. papG (adhesin) and papA (pilin) allele type, agglutination phenotypes, virulence factor genotypes, and randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis fingerprints were analyzed and compared with those of human ExPEC controls. The 16 canine strains contained predominantly papG allele III. Agglutination phenotypes segregated strictly according to papG allele status and were homogeneous among strains with the same papG allele profile irrespective of their human versus canine origin. Canine and human PapG variant III peptide sequences were highly homologous, without host species-specific differences. The most prevalent canine papA allele was F48, a novel variant recently identified among human urosepsis isolates. In addition to pap, human ExPEC-associated virulence genes detected among the canine strains included sfa/focDE, sfaS, fyuA, hlyA, cnf1, cdtB, kpsMT-II and -III, rfc, traT, ompT, and a marker for a pathogenicity-associated island from archetypal human ExPEC strain CFT073. Molecular fingerprinting confirmed the fecal origin of all but one canine urine isolate and showed one pair of O6 canine urine and fecal isolates to be extremely similar to an O6 human urosepsis isolate with which they shared all other genotypic and phenotypic characteristics analyzed. These data demonstrate that canine ExPEC strains are similar to, and in some instances essentially indistinguishable from, human ExPEC strains, which implicates dogs and their feces as potential reservoirs of E. coli with infectious potential for humans.
Project description:Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal microbe that colonizes the human nasopharynx but occasionally invades the bloodstream to cause life-threatening infection. N. meningitidis MC58 NMB0419 encodes a Sel1-like repeat (SLR)-containing protein, previously implicated in invasion of epithelial cells. A gene-regulatory function was revealed in Escherichia coli expressing plasmid-borne NMB0419 and showing significantly increased epithelial adherence compared to the wild type, due to increased expression of mannose-sensitive type 1 pili. While a meningococcal NMB0419 mutant did not have altered epithelial adherence, in a transcriptome-wide comparison of the wild type and an NMB0419 mutant, a large proportion of genes differentially regulated in the mutant were involved in iron acquisition and metabolism. Fifty-one percent and 38% of genes, respectively, up- and downregulated in the NMB0419 mutant had previously been identified as being induced and repressed by meningococcal Fur. An in vitro growth defect of the NMB0419 mutant under iron restriction was consistent with the downregulation of tbpAB and hmbR, while an intraepithelial replication defect was consistent with the downregulation of tonB, exbB, and exbD, based on a known phenotype of a meningococcal tonB mutant. Disruption of the N-terminal NMB0419 signal peptide, predicted to export the protein beyond the cytoplasmic membrane, resulted in loss of functional traits in N. meningitidis and E. coli Our study indicates that the expression of NMB0419 is associated with transcriptional changes counterbalancing the regulatory function of Fur, offering a new perspective on regulatory mechanisms involved in meningococcal interaction with epithelial cells, and suggests new insights into the roles of SLR-containing genes in other bacteria.