Antimicrobial resistance in human and animal pathogens in Zambia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique and Tanzania: an urgent need of a sustainable surveillance system.
ABSTRACT: A review of the published and unpublished literature on bacterial resistance in human and animals was performed. Sixty-eight articles/reports from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Mozambique, Tanzania and Zambia were reviewed. The majority of these articles were from Tanzania. There is an increasing trend in the incidence of antibiotic resistance; of major concern is the increase in multidrug- resistant Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholera, non-typhoid Salmonella and other pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections. The increase in methicillin- resistant Staphylococcus aureus and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producers in the countries under review confirms the spread of these clones worldwide. Clinical microbiology services in these countries need to be strengthened in order to allow a coordinated surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and provide data for local treatment guidelines and for national policies to control antimicrobial resistance. While the present study does not provide conclusive evidence to associate the increasing trend in antibiotic resistance in humans with the use of antibiotics in animals, either as feed additives or veterinary prescription, we strongly recommend a one-health approach of systematic surveillance across the public and animal health sectors, as well as the adherence to the FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization)-OIE (World Organization of animal Health) -WHO(World Health Organization) recommendations for non-human antimicrobial usage.
Project description:Background:Antibiotic resistance poses burden to the community and health-care services. Efforts are being made at local, national and global level to combat the rise of antibiotic resistance including antibiotic stewardship. Surveillance to antibiotic resistance is of importance to aid in planning and implementing infection prevention and control measures. The study was conducted to assess the resistance pattern to cefepime, clindamycin and meropenem, which are reserved antibiotics for use at tertiary hospitals in Tanzania. Methods:A hospital-based antibiotic resistance surveillance was conducted between July and November 2019 at Muhimbili National Hospital and Bugando Medical Center, Tanzania. All organisms isolated were identified based on colony morphology, Gram staining and relevant biochemical tests. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed on Muller-Hinton agar using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed according to the protocol by National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Results:A total of 201 clinical samples were tested in this study. Urine (39.8%, n=80) and blood (35.3%, n=71) accounted for most of the collected samples followed by pus (16.9%, n=34). The bacterial resistance to clindamycin, cefepime and meropenem was 68.9%, 73.2% and 8.5%, respectively. About 68.4% Staphylococcus aureus isolates were resistant to clindamycin whereby 56.3%, 75.6%, 93.8% and 100% of the tested Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter cloacae, respectively, were cefepime resistant. About 8.5% of isolated Klebsiella spp were resistant and 6.4% had intermediate susceptibility to meropenem. Also, Pseudomonas aeruginosa was resistant by 31.2% and 25% had intermediate susceptibility to meropenem. Conclusion:The bacterial resistance to clindamycin and cefepime is high and low in meropenem. Henceforth, culture and susceptibility results should be used to guide the use of these antibiotics. Antibiotics with low resistance rate should be introduced to the reserve category and continuous antibiotic surveillance is warranted.
Project description:Even though antibiotic resistance in bacteria is a natural phenomenon, the alarming increase in pathogenic bacteria refractory to a wide range of antimicrobials is attracting attention worldwide. Indeed, the World Health Organization (WHO) has recently published a list of priority pathogens for which new antimicrobial alternatives are urgently needed. Among these pathogens, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are perhaps the best known by the general public. In addition to its potential to acquire antibiotic resistance, S. aureus can produce a large number of virulence factors, such as hemolysins, enterotoxins, and proteases, and exhibits the ability to form biofilms as well as to evolve into different clones that can spread and colonize new environments. This review provides a brief overview of the latest options in antibacterial therapies, mainly focusing on phage therapy. In this regard, the current stage of research about antimicrobial compounds based on bacteriophages and endolysins against MRSA infections is shown and discussed.
Project description:The emergence of global antibiotic resistance necessitates the urgent need to develop new and effective antimicrobial agents. Combination of two antimicrobial agents can potentially improve antimicrobial potency and mitigate the development of resistance. Therefore, we have utilized metal molecular doping methodology whereby antimicrobial random peptides mixture (RPMs) are entrapped in a bactericidal copper metal matrix. The copper/RPM composite exhibits greater antimicrobial activity toward methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) than either copper or RPMs alone. Our findings indicate that this bactericidal antimicrobial biomaterial could be utilized to efficiently eradicate antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria for health, agricultural and environmental applications.
Project description:Background:Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) thwarts the curative power of drugs and is a present-time global problem. We present data on antimicrobial susceptibility and resistance determinants of bacteria the WHO has highlighted as being key antimicrobial resistance concerns in Africa, to strengthen knowledge of AMR patterns in the region. Methods:Blood, stool, and urine specimens of febrile patients, aged between ? 30 days and ? 15 years and hospitalized in Burkina Faso, Gabon, Ghana, and Tanzania were cultured from November 2013 to March 2017 (Patients > 15 years were included in Tanzania). Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed for all Enterobacterales and Staphylococcus aureus isolates using disk diffusion method. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production was confirmed by double-disk diffusion test and the detection of bla CTX-M, bla TEM and bla SHV. Multilocus sequence typing was conducted for ESBL-producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae, ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica and S. aureus. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Salmonella enterica were screened for plasmid-mediated resistance genes and mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE. S. aureus isolates were tested for the presence of mecA and Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL) and further genotyped by spa typing. Results:Among 4,052 specimens from 3,012 patients, 219 cultures were positive of which 88.1% (n = 193) were Enterobacterales and 7.3% (n = 16) S. aureus. The prevalence of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales (all CTX-M15 genotype) was 45.2% (14/31; 95% CI: 27.3, 64.0) in Burkina Faso, 25.8% (8/31; 95% CI: 11.9, 44.6) in Gabon, 15.1% (18/119; 95% CI: 9.2, 22.8) in Ghana and 0.0% (0/12; 95% CI: 0.0, 26.5) in Tanzania. ESBL positive non-typhoid Salmonella (n = 3) were detected in Burkina Faso only and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (n = 2) were detected in Ghana only. While sequence type (ST)131 predominated among ESBL E. coli (39.1%;9/23), STs among ESBL K. pneumoniae were highly heterogenous. Ciprofloxacin resistant nt Salmonella were commonest in Burkina Faso (50.0%; 6/12) and all harbored qnrB genes. PVL were found in 81.3% S. aureus. Conclusion:Our findings reveal a distinct susceptibility pattern across the various study regions in Africa, with notably high rates of ESBL-producing Enterobacterales and ciprofloxacin-resistant nt Salmonella in Burkina Faso. This highlights the need for local AMR surveillance and reporting of resistances to support appropriate action.
Project description:Antibiotic resistance became an increasing risk for population health threatening our ability to fight infectious diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the activity of laser irradiated thioridazine (TZ) against clinically-relevant bacteria in view to fight antibiotic resistance. TZ in ultrapure water solutions was irradiated (1-240 min) with 266 nm pulsed laser radiation. Irradiated solutions were characterized by UV-Vis and FTIR absorption spectroscopy, thin layer chromatography, laser-induced fluorescence, and dynamic surface tension measurements. Molecular docking studies were made to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of photoproducts action against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA. More general, solutions were evaluated for their antimicrobial and efflux inhibitory activity against a panel of bacteria of clinical relevance. We observed an enhanced antimicrobial activity of TZ photoproducts against Gram-positive bacteria. This was higher than ciprofloxacin effects for methicillin- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular docking showed the Penicillin-binding proteins PBP3 and PBP2a inhibition by sulforidazine as a possible mechanism of action against Staphylococcus aureus and MRSA strains, respectively. Irradiated TZ reveals possible advantages in the treatment of infectious diseases produced by antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacteria. TZ repurposing and its photoproducts, obtained by laser irradiation, show accelerated and low-costs of development if compared to chemical synthesis.
Project description:In animal husbandry, antimicrobial agents have been administered as supplements to increase production over the last 60 years. Large-scale animal production has increased the importance of antibiotic management because it may favor the evolution of antimicrobial resistance and select resistant strains. Brazil is a significant producer and exporter of animal-derived food. Although Brazil is still preparing a national surveillance plan, several changes in legislation and timely programs have been implemented. Thus, Brazilian data on antimicrobial resistance in bacteria associated with animals come from official programs and the scientific community. This review aims to update and discuss the available Brazilian data on this topic, emphasizing legal aspects, incidence, and genetics of the resistance reported by studies published since 2009, focusing on farm animals and derived foods with the most global public health impact. Studies are related to poultry, cattle, and pigs, and mainly concentrate on non-typhoid Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. We also describe legal aspects of antimicrobial use in this context; and the current occurrence of genetic elements associated with resistance to beta-lactams, colistin, and fluoroquinolones, among other antimicrobial agents. Data here presented may be useful to provide a better understanding of the Brazilian status on antimicrobial resistance related to farm animals and animal-derived food products.
Project description:Infectious diseases caused by pathogens and food poisoning caused by spoilage microorganisms are threatening human health all over the world. The efficacies of some antimicrobial agents, which are currently used to extend shelf-life and increase the safety of food products in food industry and to inhibit disease-causing microorganisms in medicine, have been weakened by microbial resistance. Therefore, new antimicrobial agents that could overcome this resistance need to be discovered. Many spices-such as clove, oregano, thyme, cinnamon, and cumin-possessed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities against food spoilage bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and Pseudomonas fluorescens, pathogens like Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio parahaemolyticus, harmful fungi like Aspergillus flavus, even antibiotic resistant microorganisms such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Therefore, spices have a great potential to be developed as new and safe antimicrobial agents. This review summarizes scientific studies on the antibacterial and antifungal activities of several spices and their derivatives.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>In spite of the evident general negative effects of armed conflict on countries' health systems and populations' health outcomes, little is known about similar impacts of conflicts on the spread of antimicrobial resistances (AMR). This review was to address this evidence gap and describe: 1. Patterns of AMR in the Middle East (ME) and resistance profiles of pathogens included in the Global AMR Surveillance System (GLASS) supported by the World Health Organization; 2. Differences in proportions of AMR isolates between conflict and non-conflict countries.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>A systematic literature review was conducted following PRISMA guidelines and searching five electronic databases. Subject heading and free text were searched for "antimicrobial resistances" and "Middle East", to identify observational studies on AMR published from January 2011 to June 2018. Data were extracted from included articles on a predefined set of variables. Percentages of AMR were analysed as median and interquartile ranges. Risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale.<br><br><b>Results: </b>A total of 132 articles met the inclusion criteria. Included studies showed heterogeneity in study design, laboratory methods and standards for interpretation of results, and an overall high risk of bias. Main findings were the following: 1. High proportions of carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter spp. (median 74.2%), and both carbapenem resistance (median 8.1 and 15.4% for E. coli and K. pneumoniae respectively) and ESBL-production (median 32.3 and 27.9% for E. coli and K. pneumoniae respectively) amongst Enterobacteriaceae. S. aureus isolates showed a median methicillin resistance percentage of 45.1%, while vancomycin resistance was almost absent. A median of 50% of the strains of S. pneumoniae showed non-susceptibility to penicillin. 2. Similar trends were observed in conflict and non-conflict affected countries.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>There is a lack of standardization in the methodological approach to AMR research in the Middle East. The proportion of antibiotic resistances among specific GLASS pathogens is high, particularly among Acinetobacter spp.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The overuse of antimicrobials in food animals and the subsequent contamination of the environment have been associated with development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. This review presents information on antimicrobial use, resistance and status of surveillance systems in food animals and the environment in Africa. METHODS:Information was searched through PubMed, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and African Journal Online databases. Full-length original research and review articles on antimicrobial use, prevalence of AMR from Africa covering a period from 2005 to 2018 were examined. The articles were scrutinized to extract information on the antimicrobial use, resistance and surveillance systems. RESULTS:A total of 200 articles were recovered. Of these, 176 studies were included in the review while 24 articles were excluded because they were not relevant to antimicrobial use and/or resistance in food animals and the environment. The percentage of farms using antimicrobials in animal production ranged from 77.6% in Nigeria to 100% in Tanzania, Cameroon, Zambia, Ghana and Egypt. The most antibiotics used were tetracycline, aminoglycoside and penicillin groups. The percentage of multi drug resistant isolates ranged from 20% in Nigeria to 100% in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Tunisia. In the environment, percentage of multi drug resistant isolates ranged from 33.3% in South Africa to 100% in Algeria. None of the countries documented national antimicrobial use and resistance surveillance system in animals. CONCLUSION:There is high level of antimicrobial use, especially tetracycline, aminoglycoside and penicillin in animal production systems in Africa. This is likely to escalate the already high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and multi drug resistance in the continent. This, coupled with weak antimicrobial resistance surveillance systems in the region is a great concern to the animals, environment and humans as well.
Project description:An unorthodox, surprising mechanism of resistance to the antibiotic linezolid was revealed by cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) in the 70S ribosomes from a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus This high-resolution structural information demonstrated that a single amino acid deletion in ribosomal protein uL3 confers linezolid resistance despite being located 24 Å away from the linezolid binding pocket in the peptidyl-transferase center. The mutation induces a cascade of allosteric structural rearrangements of the rRNA that ultimately results in the alteration of the antibiotic binding site.IMPORTANCE The growing burden on human health caused by various antibiotic resistance mutations now includes prevalent Staphylococcus aureus resistance to last-line antimicrobial drugs such as linezolid and daptomycin. Structure-informed drug modification represents a frontier with respect to designing advanced clinical therapies, but success in this strategy requires rapid, facile means to shed light on the structural basis for drug resistance (D. Brown, Nat Rev Drug Discov 14:821-832, 2015, https://doi.org/10.1038/nrd4675). Here, detailed structural information demonstrates that a common mechanism is at play in linezolid resistance and provides a step toward the redesign of oxazolidinone antibiotics, a strategy that could thwart known mechanisms of linezolid resistance.