Assessment of glycan interactions of clinical and avian isolates of Campylobacter jejuni.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Campylobacter jejuni strain 11168 was demonstrated to have a broad specificity for eukaryotic surface glycosylation using glycan array analysis. The initial screen indicated that sialic acid and mannose are important binding partners after environmental stress, while galactose and fucose structures are likely to be involved in persistent infection. RESULTS: In this broader study, five additional human/clinical isolates and six chicken isolates were fully assessed to determine their glycan binding capacity using an extended glycan array. C. jejuni 11168 was rescreened here due to the presence of glycoaminoglycan (GAG) and other structures that were not available on our previous glycan array. The current array analysis of additional C. jejuni strains confirmed the growth condition dependent differences in glycan binding that was previously observed for C. jejuni 11168. We noted strain to strain variations, particularly for the human isolates C. jejuni 520 and 81116 and the chicken isolate C. jejuni 331, with the majority of differences observed in galactose, mannose and GAG binding. Chicken isolates were found to bind to a broader range of glycans compared to the human isolates, recognising branched mannose and carageenan (red seaweed) glycans. Glycan array data was confirmed using cell-based lectin inhibition assays with the fucose (UEA-I) and mannose (ConA) binding lectins. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirms that all C. jejuni strains tested bind to a broad range of glycans, with the majority of strains (all except 81116) altering recognition of sialic acid and mannose after environmental stress. Galactose and fucose structures were bound best by all strains when C. jejuni was grown under host like conditions confirming the likelihood of these structures being involved in persistent infection.
Project description:The pathogenic clinical strain NCTC11168 was the first Campylobacter jejuni strain to be sequenced and has been a widely used laboratory model for studying C. jejuni pathogenesis. However, continuous passaging of C. jejuni NCTC11168 has been shown to dramatically affect its colonisation potential. Glycan array analysis was performed on C. jejuni NCTC11168 using the frequently passaged, non-colonising, genome sequenced (11168-GS) and the infrequently passaged, original, virulent (11168-O) isolates grown or maintained under various conditions. Glycan structures recognised and bound by C. jejuni included terminal mannose, N-acetylneuraminic acid, galactose and fucose. Significantly, it was found that only when challenged with normal oxygen at room temperature did 11168-O consistently bind to sialic acid or terminal mannose structures, while 11168-GS bound these structures regardless of growth/maintenance conditions. Further, binding of un-capped galactose and fucosylated structures was significantly reduced when C. jejuni was maintained at 25 degrees C under atmospheric oxygen conditions. These binding differences identified through glycan array analysis were confirmed by the ability of specific lectins to competitively inhibit the adherence of C. jejuni to a Caco-2 intestinal cell line. Our data suggests that the binding of mannose and/or N-acetylneuraminic acid may provide the initial interactions important for colonisation following environmental exposure.
Project description:The enteropathogenic bacterium, Campylobacter jejuni, was considered to be non-saccharolytic, but recently it emerged that l-fucose plays a central role in C. jejuni virulence. Half of C. jejuni clinical isolates possess an operon for l-fucose utilisation. In the intestinal tract, l-fucose is abundantly available in mucin O-linked glycan structures, but C. jejuni lacks a fucosidase enzyme essential to release the l-fucose. We set out to determine how C. jejuni can gain access to these intestinal l-fucosides. Growth of the fuc?+?C. jejuni strains, 129,108 and NCTC 11168, increased in the presence of l-fucose while fucose permease knockout strains did not benefit from additional l-fucose. With fucosidase assays and an activity-based probe, we confirmed that Bacteriodes fragilis, an abundant member of the intestinal microbiota, secretes active fucosidases. In the presence of mucins, C. jejuni was dependent on B. fragilis fucosidase activity for increased growth. Campylobacter jejuni invaded Caco-2 intestinal cells that express complex O-linked glycan structures that contain l-fucose. In infection experiments, C. jejuni was more invasive in the presence of B. fragilis and this increase is due to fucosidase activity. We conclude that C. jejuni fuc?+?strains are dependent on exogenous fucosidases for increased growth and invasion.
Project description:The fastidious nature of the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contrasts with its ability to survive in the food chain. The formation of biofilms, or the integration into existing biofilms by C. jejuni, is thought to contribute to food chain survival. As extracellular DNA (eDNA) has previously been proposed to play a role in C. jejuni biofilms, we have investigated the role of extracellular DNases (eDNases) produced by C. jejuni in biofilm formation. A search of 2791 C. jejuni genomes highlighted that almost half of C. jejuni genomes contains at least one eDNase gene, but only a minority of isolates contains two or three of these eDNase genes, such as C. jejuni strain RM1221 which contains the cje0256, cje0566 and cje1441 eDNase genes. Strain RM1221 did not form biofilms, whereas the eDNase-negative strains NCTC 11168 and 81116 did. Incubation of pre-formed biofilms of NCTC 11168 with live C. jejuni RM1221 or with spent medium from a RM1221 culture resulted in removal of the biofilm. Inactivation of the cje1441 eDNase gene in strain RM1221 restored biofilm formation, and made the mutant unable to degrade biofilms of strain NCTC 11168. Finally, C. jejuni strain RM1221 was able to degrade genomic DNA from C. jejuni NCTC 11168, 81116 and RM1221, whereas strain NCTC 11168 and the RM1221 cje1441 mutant were unable to do so. This was mirrored by an absence of eDNA in overnight cultures of C. jejuni RM1221. This suggests that the activity of eDNases in C. jejuni affects biofilm formation and is not conducive to a biofilm lifestyle. These eDNases do however have a potential role in controlling biofilm formation by C. jejuni strains in food chain relevant environments.
Project description:Here we present a Caenorhabditis elegans N-glycan shotgun array. This nematode serves as a model organism for many areas of biology including but not limited to tissue development, host-pathogen interactions, innate immunity, and genetics. Caenorhabditis elegans N-glycans contain structural motifs that are also found in other nematodes as well as trematodes and lepidopteran species. Glycan binding toxins that interact with C. elegans glycoconjugates also do so with some agriculturally relevant species, such as Haemonchus contortus, Ascaris suum, Oesophagostomum dentatum and Trichoplusia ni. This situation implies that protein-carbohydrate interactions seen with C. elegans glycans may also occur in other species with related glycan structures. Therefore, this array may be useful to study these relationships in other nematodes as well as trematode and insect species. The array contains 134 distinct glycomers spanning a wide range of C. elegans N-glycans including the subclasses high mannose, pauci mannose, high fucose, mammalian-like complex and phosphorylcholine substituted forms. The glycans presented on the array have been characterized by two-dimensional separation, ion trap mass spectrometry, and lectin affinity. High fucose glycans were well represented and contain many novel core structures found in C. elegans as well as other species. This array should serve as an investigative platform for carbohydrate binding proteins that interact with N-glycans of C. elegans and over a range of organisms that contain glycan motifs conserved with this nematode.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of foodborne bacterial enteritis in humans, and yet little is known in regard to how genetic diversity and metabolic capabilities among isolates affect their metabolic phenotype and pathogenicity. OBJECTIVES:For instance, the C. jejuni 11168 strain can utilize both L-fucose and L-glutamate as a carbon source, which provides the strain with a competitive advantage in some environments and in this study we set out to assess the metabolic response of C. jejuni 11168 to the presence of L-fucose and L-glutamate in the growth medium. METHODS:To achieve this, untargeted hydrophilic liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry was used to obtain metabolite profiles of supernatant extracts obtained at three different time points up to 24 h. RESULTS:This study identified both the depletion and the production and subsequent release of a multitude of expected and unexpected metabolites during the growth of C. jejuni 11168 under three different conditions. A large set of standards allowed identification of a number of metabolites. Further mass spectrometry fragmentation analysis allowed the additional annotation of substrate-specific metabolites. The results show that C. jejuni 11168 upon L-fucose addition indeed produces degradation products of the fucose pathway. Furthermore, methionine was faster depleted from the medium, consistent with previously-observed methionine auxotrophy. CONCLUSIONS:Moreover, a multitude of not previously annotated metabolites in C. jejuni were found to be increased specifically upon L-fucose addition. These metabolites may well play a role in the pathogenicity of this C. jejuni strain.
Project description:The N-glycosylation of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has proven to be highly variable and rather complex; it is an example to contradict the existing impression that "simple" organisms possess also a rather simple glycomic capacity. In previous studies in a number of laboratories, N-glycans with up to four fucose residues have been detected. However, although the linkage of three fucose residues to the N,N'-diacetylchitobiosyl core has been proven by structural and enzymatic analyses, the nature of the fourth fucose has remained uncertain. By constructing a triple mutant with deletions in the three genes responsible for core fucosylation (fut-1, fut-6 and fut-8), we have produced a nematode strain lacking products of these enzymes, but still retaining maximally one fucose residue on its N-glycans. Using mass spectrometry and HPLC in conjunction with chemical and enzymatic treatments as well as NMR, we examined a set of ?-mannosidase-resistant N-glycans. Within this glycomic subpool, we can reveal that the core ?-mannose can be trisubstituted and so carries not only the ubiquitous ?1,3- and ?1,6-mannose residues, but also a "bisecting" ?-galactose, which is substoichiometrically modified with fucose or methylfucose. In addition, the ?1,3-mannose can also be ?-galactosylated. Our data, showing the presence of novel N-glycan modifications, will enable more targeted studies to understand the biological functions and interactions of nematode glycans.
Project description:Complex glycans cover the gut epithelial surface to protect the cell from the environment. Invasive pathogens must breach the glycan layer before initiating infection. While glycan degradation is crucial for infection, this process is inadequately understood. Salmonella contains 47 glycosyl hydrolases (GHs) that may degrade the glycan. We hypothesized that keystone genes from the entire GH complement of Salmonella are required to degrade glycans to change infection. This study determined that GHs recognize the terminal monosaccharides (N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), galactose, mannose, and fucose) and significantly (p?<?0.05) alter infection. During infection, Salmonella used its two GHs sialidase nanH and amylase malS for internalization by targeting different glycan structures. The host glycans were altered during Salmonella association via the induction of N-glycan biosynthesis pathways leading to modification of host glycans by increasing fucosylation and mannose content, while decreasing sialylation. Gene expression analysis indicated that the host cell responded by regulating more than 50 genes resulting in remodeled glycans in response to Salmonella treatment. This study established the glycan structures on colonic epithelial cells, determined that Salmonella required two keystone GHs for internalization, and left remodeled host glycans as a result of infection. These data indicate that microbial GHs are undiscovered virulence factors.
Project description:Glycosylated human IgG contains fucosylated biantennary N-glycans with different modifications including N-acetylglucosamine, which bisects the mannose core. Although only a limited number of IgG N-glycan structures are possible, human IgG N-glycans are predominantly biantennary and fucosylated and contain varying levels of ?2-6-linked sialic acid, galactose, and bisected N-acetylglucosamine. Monitoring the relative abundance of bisecting N-acetylglucosamine is relevant to physiological processes. A rapid, inexpensive, and automated method is used to successfully profile N-linked IgG glycans and is suitable to distinguish differences in bisection, galactosylation, and sialylation in N-glycans derived from different sources of human IgG. The separation is facilitated with self-assembled nanogels that also contain a single stationary zone of lectin. When the lectin specificity matches the N-glycan, the peak disappears from the electropherogram, identifying the N-glycan structure. The nanogel electrophoresis generates separation efficiencies of 500?000 plates and resolves the positional isomers of monogalactosylated biantennary N-glycan and the monogalactosylated bisected N-glycan. Aleuria aurantia lectin, Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECL), Sambucus nigra lectin, and Phaseolus vulgaris Erythroagglutinin (PHA-E) are used to identify fucose, galactose, ?2-6-linked sialic acid, and bisected N-acetylglucosamine, respectively. Although PHA-E lectin has a strong binding affinity for bisected N-glycans that also contain a terminal galactose on the ?1-6-linked mannose branch, this lectin has lower affinity for N-glycans containing terminal galactose and for agalactosylated bisected biantennary N-glycans. The lower affinity to these motifs is observed in the electropherograms as a change in peak width, which when used in conjunction with the results from the ECL lectin authenticates the composition of the agalactosylated bisected biantennary N-glycan. For runs performed at 17 °C, the precision in migration time and peak area was less than or equal to 0.08 and 4% relative standard deviation, respectively. The method is compatible with electrokinetic and hydrodynamic injections, with detection limits of 70 and 300 pM, respectively.
Project description:Saccharides in our diet are major sources of carbon for the formation of biomass such as proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and glycans. Among the dietary monosaccharides, glucose occupies a central role in metabolism, but human blood contains regulated levels of other monosaccharides as well. Their influence on metabolism and how they are utilized have not been explored thoroughly. Applying metabolic flux analysis on glycan synthesis can reveal the pathways that supply glycosylation precursors and provide a snapshot of the metabolic state of the cell. In this study, we traced the incorporation of six 13C uniformly labeled monosaccharides in the N-glycans, O-glycans and glycosphingolipids of both pluripotent and neural NTERA-2 cells. We gathered detailed isotopologue data for hundreds of glycoconjugates using mass spectrometry methods. The contributions of de novo synthesis and direct incorporation pathways for glucose, mannose, fructose, galactose, N-acetylglucosamine and fucose were determined based on their isotope incorporation. Co-feeding studies revealed that fructose incorporation is drastically decreased by the presence of glucose, while mannose and galactose were much less affected. Furthermore, increased sialylation slowed down the turnover of glycans, but fucosylation attenuated this effect. Our results demonstrated that exogenous monosaccharide utilization can vary markedly depending on the cell differentiation state and monosaccharide availability, and that the incorporation of carbons can also differ among different glycan structures. We contend that the analysis of metabolic isotope labeling of glycans can yield new insights about cell metabolism.
Project description:Lectin microarray technology has been used to profile the glycosylation of a multitude of biological and clinical samples, leading to new clinical biomarkers and advances in glycobiology. Lectin microarrays, which include >90 plant lectins, recombinant lectins, and selected antibodies, are used to profile N-linked, O-linked, and glycolipid glycans. The specificity and depth of glycan profiling depends upon the carbohydrate-binding proteins arrayed. The current set targets mammalian carbohydrates including fucose, high mannose, branched and complex N-linked, ?- and ?-galactose and GalNAc, ?-2,3- and ?-2,6-sialic acid, LacNAc, and Lewis X epitopes. Previous protocols have described the use of a contact microarray printer for lectin microarray production. Here, an updated protocol that uses a non-contact, piezoelectric printer, which leads to increased lectin activity on the array, is presented. Optimization of print and sample hybridization conditions and methods of analysis are discussed.