Chiral cationic polyamines for chiral microcapsules and siRNA delivery.
ABSTRACT: Reported herein is the use of chiral cationic polyamines for two intriguing applications: fabrication of chiral covalently-linked microcapsules, and enantiospecific delivery of siRNA to Huh 7 cells. The microcapsules are easily fabricated from homochiral polymers, and the resulting architectures can be used for supramolecular chiral catalysis and many other potential applications. Enantiospecific delivery of siRNA to Huh 7 cells is seen by one 'enantiomer' of the polymers delivering siRNA with significantly improved transfection efficiency and reduced toxicity compared to the 'enantiomeric' polymer and commercially available transfection reagents. Taken together, the use of these easily accessible polyamine structures for diverse applications is highlighted in this Letter herein and can lead to numerous future research efforts.
Project description:Chiral diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-helicene polymers were synthesized to develop efficient red circularly polarized (CP) light emitters. These original chiral dyes display intense electronic circular dichroism (ECD) and CP luminescence (CPL) in the far-red spectral region owing to the presence of excitonic coupling between achiral DPPs within the chiral environment of the polymeric structure. This work affords an interesting example illustrating the potential of ?-conjugated helical polymers for chiral optoelectronic applications.
Project description:Self-assembled helical polymers hold great promise as new functional materials, where helical handedness controls useful properties such as circularly polarized light emission or electron spin. The technique of subcomponent self-assembly can generate helical polymers from readily prepared monomers. Here we present three distinct strategies for chiral induction in double-helical metallopolymers prepared via subcomponent self-assembly: (1) employing an enantiopure monomer, (2) polymerization in a chiral solvent, (3) using an enantiopure initiating group. Kinetic and thermodynamic models were developed to describe the polymer growth mechanisms and quantify the strength of chiral induction, respectively. We found the degree of chiral induction to vary as a function of polymer length. Ordered, rod-like aggregates more than 70 nm long were also observed in the solid state. Our findings provide a basis to choose the most suitable method of chiral induction based on length, regiochemical, and stereochemical requirements, allowing stereochemical control to be established in easily accessible ways.
Project description:The biosynthesis of eicosanoids occurs enzymatically via lipoxygenases, cyclooxygenases, and cytochrome P450, or through nonenzymatic free radical reactions. The enzymatic routes are highly enantiospecific. Chiral separation and high-sensitivity detection methods are required to differentiate and quantify enantioselective HETEs in complex biological fluids. We report here a targeted chiral lipidomics analysis of human blood using ultra-HPLC-electron capture (EC) atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/high-resolution MS. Monitoring the high-resolution ions formed by the fragmentation of pentafluorobenzyl derivatives of oxidized lipids during the dissociative EC, followed by in-trap fragmentation, increased sensitivity by an order of magnitude when compared with the unit resolution MS. The 12(S)-HETE, 12(S)-hydroxy-(5Z,8E,10E)-heptadecatrienoic acid [12(S)-HHT], and 15(S)-HETE were the major hydroxylated nonesterified chiral lipids in serum. Stimulation of whole blood with zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) resulted in stimulus- and time-dependent effects. An acute exposure to zymosan induced ?80% of the chiral plasma lipids, including 12(S)-HHT, 5(S)-HETE, 15(R)-HETE, and 15(S)-HETE, while a maximum response to LPS was achieved after a long-term stimulation. The reported method allows for a rapid quantification with high sensitivity and specificity of enantiospecific responses to in vitro stimulation or coagulation of human blood.
Project description:Unravelling the main initial dynamics responsible for chiral recognition is a key step in the understanding of many biological processes. However, this challenging task requires a sensitive enantiospecific probe to investigate molecular dynamics on their natural femtosecond time scale. Here we show that, in the gas phase, the ultrafast relaxation dynamics of photoexcited chiral molecules can be tracked by recording time-resolved photoelectron circular dichroism (TR-PECD) resulting from the photoionization by a circularly polarized probe pulse. A large forward-backward asymmetry along the probe propagation axis is observed in the photoelectron angular distribution. Its evolution with pump-probe delay reveals ultrafast dynamics that are inaccessible in the angle-integrated photoelectron spectrum or via the usual electron emission anisotropy parameter (?). PECD, which originates from the electron scattering in the chiral molecular potential, appears as a new sensitive observable for ultrafast molecular dynamics in chiral systems.
Project description:We have synthesized novel chiral polymers containing a cinchona-based squaramide in the main chain. We designed a novel cinchona squaramide dimer that contains two cinchona squaramide units connected by diamines. The olefinic double bonds in the cinchona squaramide dimer were used for Mizoroki-Heck (MH) polymerization with aromatic diiodides. The MH polymerization of the cinchona squaramide dimer and aromatic diiodide proceeded well to give the corresponding chiral polymers in good yields. The catalytic activity of the chiral polymers was investigated for asymmetric Michael addition reactions. The effect of the squaramide structure of the polymeric catalyst on the catalytic performance is discussed in detail. We have surveyed the influence of the chiral polymer structure on the catalytic activity and enantioselectivity of the asymmetric reaction. The asymmetric Michael addition of ?-ketoesters to nitroolefins was successfully catalyzed by polymeric cinchona squaramide organocatalysts to obtain the corresponding Michael adducts in good yields with excellent enantio- and diastereoselectivities. The polymeric catalysts were insoluble in commonly used organic solvents and easily recovered from the reaction mixture and reused several times without the loss of catalytic activity.
Project description:Construction of predominantly one-handed helical polyacetylenes with a desired helix sense utilizing noncovalent chiral interactions with nonracemic chiral guest compounds based on a supramolecular approach is described. As with the conventional dynamic helical polymers possessing optically active pendant groups covalently bonded to the polymer chains, this noncovalent helicity induction system can show significant chiral amplification phenomena, in which the chiral information of the nonracemic guests can transfer with high cooperativity through noncovalent bonding interactions to induce an almost single-handed helical conformation in the polymer backbone. An intriguing "memory effect" of the induced macromolecular helicity is observed for some polyacetylenes, which means that the helical conformations induced in dynamic helical polyacetylene can be transformed into metastable static ones by tuning their helix-inversion barriers. Potential applications of helical polyacetylenes with controlled helix sense constructed by the "noncovalent helicity induction and/or memory effect" as chiral materials are also described.
Project description:Optical vortices, a type of structured beam with helical phase wavefronts and 'doughnut'-shaped intensity distributions, have been used to fabricate chiral structures in metals and spiral patterns in anisotropic polarization-dependent azobenzene polymers. However, in isotropic polymers, the fabricated microstructures are typically confined to non-chiral cylindrical geometry due to the two-dimensional 'doughnut'-shaped intensity profile of the optical vortices. Here we develop a powerful strategy to realize chiral microstructures in isotropic material by coaxial interference of a vortex beam and a plane wave, which produces three-dimensional (3D) spiral optical fields. These coaxial interference beams are generated by designing contrivable holograms consisting of an azimuthal phase and an equiphase loaded on a liquid-crystal spatial light modulator. In isotropic polymers, 3D chiral microstructures are achieved under illumination using coaxial interference femtosecond laser beams with their chirality controlled by the topological charge. Our further investigation reveals that the spiral lobes and chirality are caused by interfering patterns and helical phase wavefronts, respectively. This technique is simple, stable and easy to perform, and it offers broad applications in optical tweezers, optical communications and fast metamaterial fabrication.
Project description:Chirality is widespread in natural systems, and artificial reproduction of chiral recognition is a major scientific challenge, especially owing to various potential applications ranging from catalysis to sensing and separation science. In this context, molecular imprinting is a well-known approach for generating materials with enantioselective properties, and it has been successfully employed using polymers. However, it is particularly difficult to synthesize chiral metal matrices by this method. Here we report the fabrication of a chirally imprinted mesoporous metal, obtained by the electrochemical reduction of platinum salts in the presence of a liquid crystal phase and chiral template molecules. The porous platinum retains a chiral character after removal of the template molecules. A matrix obtained in this way exhibits a large active surface area due to its mesoporosity, and also shows a significant discrimination between two enantiomers, when they are probed using such materials as electrodes.
Project description:Both the enantiomers of 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid are valuable chiral synthons for enantiospecific synthesis of therapeutic agents such as (S)-doxazosin mesylate, WB 4101, MKC 242, 2,3-dihydro-2-hydroxymethyl-1,4-benzodioxin, and N-[2,4-oxo-1,3-thiazolidin-3-yl]-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide. Pharmaceutical applications require these enantiomers in optically pure form. However, currently available methods suffer from one drawback or other, such as low efficiency, uncommon and not so easily accessible chiral resolving agent and less than optimal enantiomeric purity. Our interest in finding a biocatalyst for efficient production of enantiomerically pure 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid lead us to discover an amidase activity from Alcaligenes faecalis subsp. parafaecalis, which was able to kinetically resolve 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxyamide with E value of >200. Thus, at about 50% conversion, (R)-2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxylic acid was produced in >99% e.e. The remaining amide had (S)-configuration and 99% e.e. The amide and acid were easily separated by aqueous (alkaline)-organic two phase extraction method. The same amidase was able to catalyse, albeit at much lower rate the hydrolysis of (S)-amide to (S)-acid without loss of e.e. The amidase activity was identified as indole-3-acetamide hydrolase (IaaH). IaaH is known to catalyse conversion of indole-3-acetamide (IAM) to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), which is phytohormone of auxin class and is widespread among plants and bacteria that inhabit plant rhizosphere. IaaH exhibited high activity for 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide, which was about 65% compared to its natural substrate, indole-3-acetamide. The natural substrate for IaaH indole-3-acetamide shared, at least in part a similar bicyclic structure with 2,3-dihydro-1,4-benzodioxin-2-carboxamide, which may account for high activity of enzyme towards this un-natural substrate. To the best of our knowledge this is the first application of IaaH in production of industrially important molecules.
Project description:The electronic properties of conducting polymers are influenced by their micro- and macrostructural orders, which can be tailored by substituent modification. However, while the effect of substituents on conducting polymers is extensively investigated, chiral substituents are far less studied. Furthermore, many chiral conducting polymers have regioirregular structures, which result in polymer films with inferior properties. In this work, we apply electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy to study the morphological changes to the chiral polymers under different polymerization conditions. For this purpose, we investigated 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT) derivatives having two stereogenic centers on each monomer and bearing methyl or phenyl side groups (dimethyl-EDOT and diphenyl-EDOT, respectively). Polymerizing the enantiomerically pure monomers produces regioregular and stereoregular dimethyl-PEDOT and diphenyl-PEDOT, respectively. The effect of the electrolyte and solvent on polymer film morphology was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ECD, showing a correlation between the polymer's morphology and the chiroptical properties of its films. We found that, for diphenyl-PEDOT, the combination of perchlorate anion electrolyte and acetonitrile solvent resulted in a unique morphology characterized by significant intermolecular interactions. These interactions were clearly observable in the ECD spectra in the form of exciton couplings, whose presence was supported by TD-DFT calculations. A small enantiomeric excess was sufficient to induce very intense ECD signals, demonstrating chiral amplification in electropolymerized films.