Antiproliferative activity of Cyanophora paradoxa pigments in melanoma, breast and lung cancer cells.
ABSTRACT: The glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa (Cp) was chemically investigated to identify pigments efficiently inhibiting malignant melanoma, mammary carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma cells growth. Cp water and ethanol extracts significantly inhibited the growth of the three cancer cell lines in vitro, at 100 µg · mL(-1). Flash chromatography of the Cp ethanol extract, devoid of c-phycocyanin and allophycocyanin, enabled the collection of eight fractions, four of which strongly inhibited cancer cells growth at 100 µg · mL(-1). Particularly, two fractions inhibited more than 90% of the melanoma cells growth, one inducing apoptosis in the three cancer cells lines. The detailed analysis of Cp pigment composition resulted in the discrimination of 17 molecules, ten of which were unequivocally identified by high resolution mass spectrometry. Pheophorbide a, ?-cryptoxanthin and zeaxanthin were the three main pigments or derivatives responsible for the strong cytotoxicity of Cp fractions in cancer cells. These data point to Cyanophora paradoxa as a new microalgal source to purify potent anticancer pigments, and demonstrate for the first time the strong antiproliferative activity of zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin in melanoma cells.
Project description:The nature of the cytoplasmic pathway of starch biosynthesis was investigated in the model glaucophyte Cyanophora paradoxa. The storage polysaccharide granules are shown to be composed of both amylose and amylopectin fractions, with a chain length distribution and crystalline organization similar to those of green algae and land plant starch. A preliminary characterization of the starch pathway demonstrates that Cyanophora paradoxa contains several UDP-glucose-utilizing soluble starch synthase activities related to those of the Rhodophyceae. In addition, Cyanophora paradoxa synthesizes amylose with a granule-bound starch synthase displaying a preference for UDP-glucose. A debranching enzyme of isoamylase specificity and multiple starch phosphorylases also are evidenced in the model glaucophyte. The picture emerging from our biochemical and molecular characterizations consists of the presence of a UDP-glucose-based pathway similar to that recently proposed for the red algae, the cryptophytes, and the alveolates. The correlative presence of isoamylase and starch among photosynthetic eukaryotes is discussed.
Project description:Cronobacter sakazakii could form yellow-pigmented colonies. However, the chemical structure and the biosynthetic pathway of the yellow pigments have not been identified. In this study, the yellow pigments of C. sakazakii BAA894 were purified and analyzed. The major components of the yellow pigments were confirmed as zeaxanthin-monoglycoside and zeaxanthin-diglycoside. A gene cluster containing seven genes responsible for the yellow pigmentation in C. sakazakii BAA894 was identified. The seven genes of C. sakazakii BAA894 or parts of them were reconstructed in a heterologous host Escherichia coli DH5α. The pigments formed in these E. coli strains were isolated and analyzed by thin layer chromatography, UV-visible spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography, and electron spray ionization-mass spectrometry. These redesigned E. coli strains could produce different carotenoids. E. coli strain expressing all the seven genes could produce zeaxanthin-monoglycoside and zeaxanthin-diglycoside; E. coli strains expressing parts of the seven genes could produce lycopene, β-carotene, cryptoxanthin or zeaxanthin. This study identified the gene cluster responsible for the yellow pigmentation in C. sakazakii BAA894.
Project description:Carotenoids are naturally occurring pigments that function as vitamin A precursors, antioxidants, anti-inflammatory agents or biomarkers of recent vegetable and fruit intake, and are thus important for population health and nutritional assessment. An assay approach that measures proteins could be more technologically feasible than chromatography, thus enabling more frequent carotenoid status assessment. We explored associations between proteomic biomarkers and concentrations of 6 common dietary carotenoids (α-carotene, β-carotene, lutein/zeaxanthin, β-cryptoxanthin, and lycopene) in plasma from 500 6-8 year old Nepalese children. Samples were depleted of 6 high-abundance proteins. Plasma proteins were quantified using tandem mass spectrometry and expressed as relative abundance. Linear mixed effects models were used to determine the carotenoid:protein associations, accepting a false discovery rate of q < 0.10. We quantified 982 plasma proteins in >10% of all child samples. Among these, relative abundance of 4 were associated with β-carotene, 11 with lutein/zeaxanthin and 51 with β-cryptoxanthin. Carotenoid-associated proteins are notably involved in lipid and vitamin A transport, antioxidant function and anti-inflammatory processes. No protein biomarkers met criteria for association with α-carotene or lycopene. Plasma proteomics may offer an approach to assess functional biomarkers of carotenoid status, intake and biological function for public health application. Original maternal micronutrient trial from which data were derived as a follow-up activity was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00115271.
Project description:?-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) is an important enzyme in tetrapyrrole synthesis. ALAD combines two ?-aminolevulinic acid (?-ALA) molecules to form the pyrrole molecule, porphobilinogen, an important precursor for plant pigments involved in photosynthesis, respiration, and nutrient uptake. In this study, we investigated the effects of silencing of ALAD gene on citrus leaf pigments and metabolites. The ALAD enzyme was inhibited using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology using citrus tristeza virus (CTV). ?-ALA accumulated in citrus plants inoculated with the recombinant virus (CTV-tALAD) to silence ALAD and resulted in discrete yellow spots (yellow islands) and necrosis in leaves and stems. The levels of chlorophylls, starch, sucrose, trans- and cis-violaxanthin, and ?- and ?-cryptoxanthin were reduced in CTV-tALAD plants, whereas zeaxanthin was increased. The increase in zeaxanthin and the decrease in its precursors indicated that the reduction in chlorophylls resulted in light damage. Salicylic acid and jasmonic acid levels, as well as emission of (E)-?-bergamotene and (E)-?-farnesene, increased in CTV-tALAD plants indicating these plants were under stress. Our results showed that silencing of ALAD induces stress in plants and that VIGS using mild CTV strains is a promising technique to study biological function of citrus genes.
Project description:A fast and high-resolution UPLC-MSE analysis was used to identify phytoplankton pigments in an ethanol extract of Porphyridium purpureum (Pp) devoid of phycobiliproteins. In a first step, 22 standard pigments were analyzed by UPLC-MSE to build a database including retention time and accurate masses of parent and fragment ions. Using this database, seven pigments or derivatives previously reported in Pp were unequivocally identified: ?,?-carotene, chlorophyll a, zeaxanthin, chlorophyllide a, pheophorbide a, pheophytin a, and cryptoxanthin. Minor amounts of Divinyl chlorophyll a, a chemotaxonomic pigment marker for prochlorophytes, were also unequivocally identified using the database. Additional analysis of ionization and fragmentation patterns indicated the presence of ions that could correspond to hydroxylated derivatives of chlorophyll a and pheophytin a, produced during the ethanolic extraction, as well as previously described galactosyldiacylglycerols, the thylakoid coenzyme plastoquinone, and gracilamide B, a molecule previously reported in the red seaweed Gracillaria asiatica. These data point to UPLC-MSE as an efficient technique to identify phytoplankton pigments for which standards are available, and demonstrate its major interest as a complementary method for the structural elucidation of ionizable marine molecules.
Project description:Calcium signaling is one of the most extensively employed signal transduction mechanisms in life. As life evolved into increasingly complex organisms, Ca(2+) acquired more extensive and varied functions. Here, we compare genes encoding proteins that govern Ca(2+) entry and exit across cells or organelles within organisms of early eukaryotic evolution into fungi, plants, and animals. Recent phylogenomics analyses reveal a complex Ca(2+) signaling machinery in the apusozoan protist Thecamonas trahens, a putative unicellular progenitor of Opisthokonta. We compare T. trahens Ca(2+) signaling to that in a marine bikont protist, Aurantiochytrium limacinum, and demonstrate the conservation of key Ca(2+) signaling molecules in the basally diverging alga Cyanophora paradoxa. Particularly, our findings reveal the conservation of the CatSper channel complex in Au. limacinum and C. paradoxa, suggesting that the CatSper complex likely originated from an ancestral Ca(2+) signaling machinery at the root of early eukaryotic evolution prior to the unikont/bikont split.
Project description:Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly ?-citraurin (3-hydroxy-?-apo-8'-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and Mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of ?-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in ?-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7',8' double bond in zeaxanthin and ?-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7',8' double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration.
Project description:A significant limitation when testing the putative single origin of primary plastids and the monophyly of the Archaeplastida supergroup, comprised of the red algae, viridiplants, and glaucophytes, is the scarce nuclear and organellar genome data available from the latter lineage. The Glaucophyta are a key algal group when investigating the origin and early diversification of photosynthetic eukaryotes. However, so far only the plastid and mitochondrial genomes of the glaucophytes Cyanophora paradoxa (strain CCMP 329) and Glaucocystis nostochinearum (strain UTEX 64) have been completely sequenced. Here, we present the complete mitochondrial genomes of Gloeochaete wittrockiana SAG 46.84 (36.05 kb; 33 protein-coding genes, 6 unidentified open reading frames [ORFs], and 28 transfer RNAs [tRNAs]) and Cyanoptyche gloeocystis SAG 4.97 (33.24 kb; 33 protein-coding genes, 6 unidentified ORFs, and 26 tRNAs), which represent two genera distantly related to the "well-known" Cyanophora and Glaucocystis. The mitochondrial gene repertoire of the four glaucophyte species is highly conserved, whereas the gene order shows considerable variation. Phylogenetic analyses of 14 mitochondrial genes from representative taxa from the major eukaryotic supergroups, here including novel sequences from the glaucophytes Cyanophora tetracyanea (strain NIES-764) and Cyanophora biloba (strain UTEX LB 2766), recover a clade uniting the three Archaeplastida lineages; this recovery is dependent on our novel glaucophyte data, demonstrating the importance of greater taxon sampling within the glaucophytes.
Project description:We describe a 1132 bp sequence of the cyanelle genome of Cyanophora paradoxa containing the rpl3 gene. This gene, which is not chloroplast encoded in plants, is the first of a long cyanelle ribosomal operon whose organization resembles that of the S10 operon of E. coli. We have shown that the rpl3 gene is transcribed in cyanelles as a 7500 nucleotide precursor and that the 5'-end of the mRNA starts approximately 90 nucleotides upstream from the initiation codon. However, no typical procaryotic promoter could be found for this gene. We have detected, using anti E. coli L3 antibodies, the cyanelle L3 protein in cyanelle extracts and in E. coli cells transformed with the cyanelle rpl3 gene.
Project description:RNAi (RNA interference) relies on the production of small RNAs (sRNAs) from double-stranded RNA and comprises a major pathway in eukaryotes to restrict the propagation of selfish genetic elements. Amplification of the initial RNAi signal by generation of multiple secondary sRNAs from a targeted mRNA is catalyzed by RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs). This phenomenon is known as transitivity and is particularly important in plants to limit the spread of viruses. Here we describe, using a genome-wide approach, the distribution of sRNAs in the glaucophyte alga Cyanophora paradoxa. C. paradoxa is a member of the supergroup Plantae (also known as Archaeplastida) that includes red algae, green algae, and plants. The ancient (>1 billion years ago) split of glaucophytes within Plantae suggests that C. paradoxa may be a useful model to learn about the early evolution of RNAi in the supergroup that ultimately gave rise to plants. Using next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic analyses we find that sRNAs in C. paradoxa are preferentially associated with mRNAs, including a large number of transcripts that encode proteins arising from different functional categories. This pattern of exonic sRNAs appears to be a general trend that affects a large fraction of mRNAs in the cell. In several cases we observe that sRNAs have a bias for a specific strand of the mRNA, including many instances of antisense predominance. The genome of C. paradoxa encodes four sequences that are homologous to RdRPs in Arabidopsis thaliana. We discuss the possibility that exonic sRNAs in the glaucophyte may be secondarily derived from mRNAs by the action of RdRPs. If this hypothesis is confirmed, then transitivity may have had an ancient origin in Plantae.