ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:Adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) have been isolated, expanded, and applied in the treatment of many diseases. ADSCs have also been used to treat injured articular cartilage. However, there is controversy regarding the treatment efficiency. We considered that ADSC transplantation with activated platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may improve injured articular cartilage compared with that of ADSC transplantation alone. In this study, we determined the role of PRP in ADSC transplantation to improve the treatment efficiency. METHODS:ADSCs were isolated and expanded from human adipose tissue. PRP was collected and activated from human peripheral blood. The effects of PRP were evaluated in vitro and in ADSC transplantation in vivo. In vitro, the effects of PRP on ADSC proliferation, differentiation into chondrogenic cells, and inhibition of angiogenic factors were investigated at three concentrations of PRP (10%, 15% and 20%). In vivo, ADSCs pretreated with or without PRP were transplanted into murine models of injured articular cartilage. RESULTS:PRP promoted ADSC proliferation and differentiation into chondrogenic cells that strongly expressed collagen II, Sox9 and aggrecan. Moreover, PRP inhibited expression of the angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor. As a result, PRP-pretreated ADSCs improved healing of injured articular cartilage in murine models compared with that of untreated ADSCs. CONCLUSION:Pretreatment of ADSCs with PRP is a simple method to efficiently apply ADSCs in cartilage regeneration. This study provides an important step toward the use of autologous ADSCs in the treatment of injured articular cartilage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cartilage tissue engineering is a promising technique for repairing cartilage defect. Due to the limitation of cell number and proliferation, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been developed as a substitute to chondrocytes as a cartilage cell-source. This study aimed to develop cartilage tissue from human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) cultured on a Bombyx mori silk fibroin scaffold and supplemented with 10% platelet-rich plasma (PRP). METHODS:Human ADSCs and PRP were characterized. A silk fibroin scaffold with 500??m pore size was fabricated through salt leaching. ADSCs were then cultured on the scaffold (ADSC-SS) and supplemented with 10% PRP for 21?days to examine cell proliferation, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, and surface marker expression. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression of type 2 collagen, aggrecan, and type 1 collagen was analysed. The presence of type 2 collagen confirming chondrogenesis was validated using immunocytochemistry. The negative and positive controls were ADSC-SS supplemented with 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS) and ADSC-SS supplemented with commercial chondrogenesis medium, respectively. RESULTS:Cells isolated from adipose tissue were characterized as ADSCs. Proliferation of the ADSC-SS PRP was significantly increased (p?<?0.05) compared to that of controls. Chondrogenesis was observed in ADSC-SS PRP and was confirmed through the increase in glycosaminoglycans (GAG) and transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) secretion, the absence of mineral deposition, and increased surface marker proteins on chondrogenic progenitors. The mRNA expression of type 2 collagen in ADSC-SS PRP was significantly increased (p?<?0.05) compared to that in the negative control on days 7 and 21; however, aggrecan was significantly increased on day 14 compared to the controls. ADSC-SS PRP showed stable mRNA expression of type 1 collagen up to 14?days and it was significantly decreased on day 21. Confocal analysis showed the presence of type 2 collagen in the ADSC-SS PRP and positive control groups, with high distribution outside the cells forming the extracellular matrix (ECM) on day 21. CONCLUSION:Our study showed that ADSC-SS with supplemented 10% PRP medium can effectively support chondrogenesis of ADSCs in vitro and promising for further development as an alternative for cartilage tissue engineering in vivo.
Project description:Articular cartilage is an avascular tissue with limited regenerative property. Therefore, a defect or trauma in articular cartilage due to disease or accident can lead to progressive tissue deterioration. Cartilage tissue engineering, by replacing defective cartilage tissue, is a method for repairing such a problem. In this research, three main aspects-cell, biomaterial scaffold, and bioactive factors-that support tissue engineering study were optimized. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSC) that become cartilage were grown in an optimized growth medium supplemented with either platelet rich plasma (PRP) or L-ascorbic acid (LAA). As the characterization result, the ADSC used in this experiment could be classified as Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC) based on multipotency analysis and cell surface marker analysis. The biomaterial scaffold was fabricated from the Bombyx morii cocoon using silk fibroin by salt leaching method and was engineered to form different sizes of pores to provide optimized support for cell adhesion and growth. Biocompatibility and cytotoxicity evaluation was done using MTT assay to optimize silk fibroin concentration and pore size. Characterized ADSC were grown on the optimized scaffold. LAA and PRP were chosen as bioactive factors to induce ADSC differentiation to become chondrocytes. The concentration optimization of LAA and PRP was analyzed by cell proliferation using MTT assay and chondrogenic differentiation by measuring glycosaminoglycan (GAG) using Alcian Blue at 605 nm wavelength. The optimum silk fibroin concentration, pore size, LAA concentration, and PRP concentration were used to grow and differentiate characterized ADSC for 7, 14, and 21 days. The cell morphology on the scaffold was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The result showed that the ADSC could adhere on plastic, express specific cell surface markers (CD73, CD90, and CD105), and could be differentiated into three types of mature cells. The silk fibroin scaffold made from 12% w/v concentration formed a 500 µm pore diameter (SEM analysis), and was shown by MTT assay to be biocompatible and to facilitate cell growth. The optimum concentrations of the bioactive factors LAA and PRP were 50 µg/mL and 10%, respectively. GAG analysis with Alcian Blue staining suggested that PRP induction medium and LAA induction medium on 12% w/v scaffold could effectively promote not only cell adhesion and cell proliferation but also chondrogenic differentiation of ADSC within 21 days of culture. Therefore, this study provides a new approach to articular tissue engineering with a combination of ADSC as cell source, LAA and PRP as bioactive factors, and silk fibroin as a biocompatible and biodegradable scaffold.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Osteoarthritis (OA) can be defined as degradation of articular cartilage of the joint, and is the most common degenerative disease. To regenerate the damaged cartilage, different experimental approaches including stem cell therapy have been tried. One of the major limitations of stem cell therapy is the poor post-transplantation survival of the stem cells. Anoikis, where insufficient matrix support and adhesion to extracellular matrix causes apoptotic cell death, is one of the main causes of the low post-transplantation survival rate of stem cells. Therefore, enhancing the initial interaction of the transplanted stem cells with chondrocytes could improve the therapeutic efficacy of stem cell therapy for OA. Previously, protein kinase C activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced increase of mesenchymal stem cell adhesion via activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) has been reported. In the present study, we examine the effect PMA on the adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) adhesion and spreading to culture substrates, and further on the initial interaction between ADSC and chondrocytes. RESULTS:PMA treatment increased the initial adhesion of ADSC to culture substrate and cellular spreading with increased expression of adhesion molecules, such as FAK, vinculin, talin, and paxillin, at both RNA and protein level. Priming of ADSC with PMA increased the number of ADSCs attached to confluent layer of cultured chondrocytes compared to that of untreated ADSCs at early time point (4 h after seeding). CONCLUSION:Taken together, the results of this study suggest that priming ADSCs with PMA can increase the initial interaction with chondrocytes, and this proof of concept can be used to develop a non-invasive therapeutic approach for treating OA. It may also accelerate the regeneration process so that it can relieve the accompanied pain faster in OA patients. Further in vivo studies examining the therapeutic effect of PMA pretreatment of ADSCs for articular cartilage damage are required.
Project description:Hyaline cartilage differentiation is always the challenge with application of stem cells for joint repair. Transforming growth factors (TGFs) and bone morphogenetic proteins can initiate cartilage differentiation but often lead to hypertrophy and calcification, related to abnormal Rac1 activity. In this study, we developed a strategy of programmed application of TGF?3 and Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 to commit the hyaline cartilage differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for joint cartilage repair. ADSCs were isolated and cultured in a micromass and pellet culture model to evaluate chondrogenic and hypertrophic differentiation. The function of Rac1 was investigated with constitutively active Rac1 mutant and dominant negative Rac1 mutant. The efficacy of ADSCs with programmed application of TGF?3 and Rac1 inhibitor for cartilage repair was studied in a rat model of osteochondral defects. The results showed that TGF?3 promoted ADSCs chondro-lineage differentiation and that NSC23766 prevented ADSC-derived chondrocytes from hypertrophy in vitro. The combination of ADSCs, TGF?3, and NSC23766 promoted quality osteochondral defect repair in rats with much less chondrocytes hypertrophy and significantly higher International Cartilage Repair Society macroscopic and microscopic scores. The findings have illustrated that programmed application of TGF?3 and Rac1 inhibitor NSC23766 can commit ADSCs to chondro-lineage differentiation and improve the efficacy of ADSCs for cartilage defect repair. These findings suggest a promising stem cell-based strategy for articular cartilage repair.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based cell therapy is a promising avenue for osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of intra-articular injections of culture-expanded allogenic adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) for the treatment of anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) induced rat OA model. The paracrine effects of major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-unmatched ADSCs on chondrocytes were investigated in vitro. Rats were divided into an OA group that underwent ACLT surgery and a sham-operated group that did not undergo ACLT surgery. Four weeks after surgery mild OA was induced in the OA group. Subsequently, the OA rats were randomly divided into ADSC and control groups. A single dose of 1 × 106 ADSCs suspended in 60 ?L phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was intra-articularly injected into the rats of the ADSC group. The control group received only 60 ?L PBS. OA progression was evaluated macroscopically and histologically at 8 and 12 weeks after surgery. ADSC treatment did not cause any adverse local or systemic reactions. The degeneration of articular cartilage was significantly weaker in the ADSC group compared to that in the control group at both 8 and 12 weeks. Chondrocytes were co-cultured with MHC-unmatched ADSCs in trans-wells to assess the paracrine effects of ADSCs on chondrocytes. Co-culture with ADSCs counteracted the IL-1?-induced mRNA upregulation of the extracellular matrix-degrading enzymes MMP-3 and MMP-13 and the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-6 in chondrocytes. Importantly, ADSCs increased the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in chondrocytes. The results of this study indicated that the intra-articular injection of culture-expanded allogenic ADSCs attenuated cartilage degeneration in an experimental rat OA model without inducing any adverse reactions. MHC-unmatched ADSCs protected chondrocytes from inflammatory factor-induced damage. The paracrine effects of ADSCs on OA chondrocytes are at least part of the mechanism by which ADSCs exert their therapeutic activity.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Synthetic implants are being used to restore injured or damaged tissues following cancer resection and congenital diseases. However, the survival of large tissue implant replacements depends on their ability to support angiogenesis that if limited, causes extrusion and infection of the implant. This study assessed the beneficial effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) on synthetic biomaterials in combination with argon plasma surface modification to enhance vascularisation of tissue-engineered constructs. METHODS:Non-biodegradable polyurethane scaffolds were manufactured and modified with plasma surface modification using argon gas (PM). Donor rats were then used to extract ADSCs and PRP to modify the scaffolds further. Scaffolds with and without PM were modified with and without ADSCs and PRP and subcutaneously implanted in the dorsum of rats for 3 months. After 12 weeks, the scaffolds were excised and the degree of tissue integration using H&E staining and Masson's trichrome staining, angiogenesis by CD31 and immune response by CD45 and CD68 immunohistochemistry staining was examined. RESULTS:H&E and Masson's trichrome staining showed PM+PRP+ADSC and PM+ADSC scaffolds had the greatest tissue integration, but there was no significant difference between the two scaffolds (p < 0.05). The greatest vessel formation after 3 months was shown with PM+PRP+ADSC and PM+ADSC scaffolds using CD31 staining compared to all other scaffolds (p < 0.05). The CD45 and CD68 staining was similar between all scaffolds after 3 months showing the ADSCs or PRP had no effect on the immune response of the scaffolds. CONCLUSIONS:Argon plasma surface modification enhanced the effect of adipose-derived stem cells effect on angiogenesis and tissue integration of polyurethane scaffolds. The combination of ADSCs and argon plasma modification may improve the survival of large tissue implants for regenerative applications.
Project description:Heterogeneity of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) influences the cell therapy outcome and the application in tissue engineering. Also, the application of subpopulations of MSCs in cartilage regeneration remains poorly characterized. CD146+ MSCs are identified as the natural ancestors of MSCs and the expression of CD146 are indicative of greater pluripotency and self-renewal potential. Here, we sorted a CD146+ subpopulation from adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) for cartilage regeneration. Methods: CD146+ ADSCs were sorted using magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS). Cell surface markers, viability, apoptosis and proliferation were evaluated in vitro. The molecular signatures were analyzed by mRNA and protein expression profiling. By intra-articular injections of cells in a rat osteochondral defect model, we assessed the role of the specific subpopulation in cartilage microenvironment. Finally, CD146+ ADSCs were combined with articular cartilage extracellular matrix (ACECM) scaffold for long term (3, 6 months) cartilage repair. Results: The enriched CD146+ ADSCs showed a high expression of stem cell and pericyte markers, good viability, and immune characteristics to avoid allogeneic rejection. Gene and protein expression profiles revealed that the CD146+ ADSCs had different cellular functions especially in regulation inflammation. In a rat model, CD146+ ADSCs showed a better inflammation-modulating property in the early stage of intra-articular injections. Importantly, CD146+ ADSCs exhibited good biocompatibility with the ACECM scaffold and the CD146+ cell-scaffold composites produced less subcutaneous inflammation. The combination of CD146+ ADSCs with ACECM scaffold can promote better cartilage regeneration in the long term. Conclusion: Our data elucidated the function of the CD146+ ADSC subpopulation, established their role in promoting cartilage repair, and highlighted the significance of cell subpopulations as a novel therapeutic for cartilage regeneration.
Project description:Human adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are being explored for the repair of craniofacial defects due to their multi-differentiation potential and ease of isolation and expansion. Crucial to using ADSCs for craniofacial repair is the availability of materials with appropriate biomechanical properties that can support their differentiation into bone and cartilage. We tested the hypothesis that different modifications of chemical groups on the surface of a nanocomposite polymer could increase human ADSC adhesion and selectively enhance their osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation. We show that the COOH modification significantly promoted initial cell adhesion and proliferation over 14days compared to NH2 surfaces. Expression of focal adhesion kinase and vinculin was enhanced after plasma surface polymerisation at 24h. The COOH modification significantly enhanced chondrogenic differentiation as indicated by up-regulation of aggrecan and collagen II transcripts. In contrast, NH2 group functionalised scaffolds promoted osteogenic differentiation with significantly enhanced expression of collagen I, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin both at the gene and protein level. Finally, chorioallantoic membrane grafting demonstrated that both NH2 and COOH functionalised scaffolds seeded with ADSCs were biocompatible and supported vessel ingrowth apparently to a greater degree than unmodified scaffolds. In summary, our study shows the ability to direct ADSC chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation by deposition of different chemical groups through plasma surface polymerisation. Hence this approach could be used to selectively enhance bone or cartilage formation before implantation in vivo to repair skeletal defects.Human adipose derived stem cells (hADSCs) are an exciting stem cell source for regenerative medicine due to their plentiful supply and ease of isolation. However, the optimal environmental cues to direct stem cells towards certain lineages change have to has not been identified. We have shown that by modifying the surface of the scaffold with specific chemical groups using plasma surface polymerisation techniques we can control ADSCs differentiation. This study shows that ADSCs can be differentiated towards osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages on amine (NH2) and carboxyl (COOH) modified scaffolds respectively. Plasma polymerisation can be easily applied to other biomaterial surfaces to direct stem cell differentiation for the regeneration of bone and cartilage.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Young patients receiving chemotherapy occasionally face infertility and premature ovarian failure (POF). Numerous investigations reported that adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) transplantation could ameliorate the structure and function of injured tissues. The aim of this study was to explore the therapeutic efficacy of ADSC transplantation for chemotherapy-induced ovarian damage. METHODS: Female mice were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide (CTX). After 15 consecutive days of injection, ADSCs were transplanted either directly into bilateral ovaries or via intravenous injection, and the ovaries were excised after either 1 week or 1 month of treatment. The follicles were counted and categorized, and ovarian histologic sections were stained for TUNEL. Ovarian function was evaluated by monitoring ovulation. ADSC tracking, microarray analyses, and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were used to assess the inner mechanism of injury and repair. RESULTS: The ovarian function of mice exposed to CTX injection improved after ADSC transplantation. The population of follicles at different stages and ovulation significantly increased after the treatment. Immunofluorescence revealed reduced TUNEL staining. The tracking of ADSCs revealed that these cells did not directly differentiate into the follicle component. Microarray analyses indicated that changes in different groups of genes might affect follicle formation or ovulation. CONCLUSIONS: ADSC transplantation improved ovarian function. Our results suggest a potential mechanism for ADSC therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The therapeutic effects of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADSC) transplantation have been demonstrated in several models of central nervous system (CNS) injury and are thought to involve the modulation of the inflammatory response. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanism is poorly understood. Activation of the Jagged1/Notch signaling pathway is thought to involve inflammatory and gliotic events in the CNS. Here, we elucidated the effect of ADSC transplantation on the inflammatory reaction after spinal cord injury (SCI) and the potential mechanism mediated by Jagged1/Notch signaling pathway suppression. METHODS:To evaluate the therapeutic effects of ADSC treatment and the potential inhibitory effects of ADSCs on Notch signaling, mice were subjected to contusion SCI, and GFP-labeled ADSCs were injected into the lesion site immediately after the injury. Locomotor function, spinal cord tissue morphology, and the levels of Notch-related proteins and proinflammatory transcripts were compared between groups. To validate the hypothesis that the therapeutic effects of ADSCs are partly due to Notch1 signaling inhibition, a Jagged1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was injected into the spinal cord to knock down Jagged1/Notch signaling. Neuronal staining and analyses of microglia/macrophage activation and signaling pathways were performed. RESULTS:We demonstrated that ADSCs survived in the injured spinal cord for at least 28?days without differentiating into glial or neuronal elements. ADSC treatment resulted in significant downregulation of proinflammatory mediator expression and reduced ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 (IBA1) and ED-1 staining in the injured spinal cord, eventually improving functional recovery. The augmentation of the Jagged1/Notch signaling pathway after SCI was suppressed by ADSC transplantation. The inhibition of the Jagged1/Notch signaling pathway by Jagged1 siRNA resulted in decreases in SCI-induced proinflammatory cytokines and the activation of microglia and an increase in the survival of neurons. Furthermore, Jagged1 knockdown suppressed the phosphorylation of JAK/STAT3 in astrocytes following SCI. CONCLUSION:The results of this study demonstrated that the therapeutic effects of ADSCs in SCI mice were partly due to Jagged1/Notch signaling pathway inhibition and a subsequent reduction in JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation in astrocytes.