Associations of HIV infection with insulin and glucose levels in antiretroviral-naive Rwandan women: a cross-sectional analysis.
ABSTRACT: The purpose of these analyses was to determine the associations of HIV infection and related immune dysfunction with a glucose homeostasis in the population of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected and uninfected Rwandan women. We hypothesise that insulin resistance and its consequences in the developing countries may be further elevated with HIV infection itself regardless of antiretroviral therapy.Cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal cohort.Community-based women's associations.In 2005, 710 HIV-infected (HIV positive) antiretroviral naïve and 226 HIV-uninfected (HIV negative) women were enrolled in the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study and Assessment (RWISA). Clinical and demographic parameters, CD4 count, fasting insulin and glucose levels, anthropometric measurements and Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) were obtained. Linear models were fit to log-transformed Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA) with results exponentiated back to a multiplicative effect on the original scale.The outcome, insulin resistance, was measured by the HOMA, calculated as fasting insulin (?U/mL)×fasting glucose (mmol/L)/22.5.In adjusted models, HIV-positive women were less insulin resistant than HIV-negative; an HIV-positive woman tended to have 0.728 times as much (95% CI 0.681 to 0.861) HOMA than a comparable HIV-negative woman. Among the HIV-positive women, those with CD4 <200 cells/µL tended to have 0.741 times as much HOMA (95% CI 0.601 to 0.912) as did comparable women with CD4 >350 cells/µL. The older age was independently associated with a lower HOMA insulin resistance. After adjusting for body mass index, fat and fat-free mass were not independently associated with HOMA.This study found that HIV infection and more advanced HIV infection (CD4 counts <200 cells/µL) were associated with greater insulin sensitivity in antiretroviral naïve African women. These findings provide baseline information for the interpretation of future studies on the effect of antiretroviral therapy on metabolic insulin sensitivity derangements in African population.
Project description:HIV infection has been associated with increased diabetes risk, but prior work has mostly focused on insulin resistance, as opposed to beta cell effects, or included patients on antiretroviral therapies (ART) directly linked to metabolic toxicity. In this analysis, we measured markers of glucose homeostasis and beta cell function, stress, and death in fasting sera from a cross section of HIV+ individuals off ART (n = 43), HIV+ individuals on ART (n = 23), and HIV- controls (n = 39). Markers included glucose, HOMA%S, HOMA%B, proinsulin:C-peptide ratio (PI:C ratio), and circulating preproinsulin (INS) DNA. We performed multiple linear regressions with adjustments for age, sex, race, BMI, and smoking status. Compared to HIV- controls, HIV+ participants off ART exhibited similar beta cell function and insulin sensitivity, without increases in markers of beta cell stress or death. Specifically, in HIV+ participants with CD4 counts <350 cells/?L, PI:C ratios were lower than in HIV- controls (p<0.01), suggesting a reduction in intrinsic beta cell stress among this group. By contrast, HIV+ participants on ART had higher fasting glucose (p<0.0001) and lower HOMA%B (p<0.001) compared to HIV- controls. Among the entire HIV+ population, higher HIV RNA correlated with lower fasting glucose (r = -0.57, p<0.001), higher HOMA%B (r = 0.40, p = 0.001), and lower PI:C ratios (r = -0.42, p<0.001), whereas higher CD4 counts correlated with higher PI:C ratios (r = 0.2, p = 0.00499). Our results suggest that HIV seropositivity in the absence of ART does not worsen beta cell function or glucose homeostasis, but immune reconstitution with ART may be associated with worsened beta cell function.
Project description:The rapid scale-up of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and use of single dose Nevirapine (SD NVP) for prevention of mother-to-child transmission (pMTCT) have raised fears about the emergence of resistance to the first line antiretroviral drug regimens. A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of primary drug resistance (PDR) in a cohort of young (<25 yrs) HAART-naïve HIV pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe. Whole blood was collected in EDTA for CD4 counts, viral load, serological estimation of duration of infection using the BED Calypte assay and genotyping for drug resistance. Four hundred and seventy-one women, mean age 21 years; SD: 2.1 were enrolled into the study between 2006 and 2007. Their median CD4 count was 371cells/µL; IQR: 255-511 cells/µL. Two hundred and thirty-six samples were genotyped for drug resistance. Based on the BED assay, 27% were recently infected (RI) whilst 73% had long-term infection (LTI). Median CD4 count was higher (p<0.05) in RI than in women with LTI. Only 2 women had drug resistance mutations; protease I85V and reverse transcriptase Y181C. Prevalence of PDR in Chitungwiza, 4 years after commencement of the national ART program remained below WHO threshold limit (5%). Frequency of recent infection BED testing is consistent with high HIV acquisition during pregnancy. With the scale-up of long-term ART programs, maintenance of proper prescribing practices, continuous monitoring of patients and reinforcement of adherence may prevent the acquisition and transmission of PDR.
Project description:Whereas human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subtype B-infected individuals generally progress to AIDS within 8-10 years, limited data exist for other clades, especially from Africa. We investigated rates of HIV disease progression of clade C-infected South African women.Prospective seroincidence cohorts in KwaZulu-Natal were assessed for acute HIV infection monthly (n = 245) or every 3 months (n = 594) for up to 4 years. Rapid disease progression was defined as CD4 decline to <350 cells/µL by 2 years postinfection. Serial clinical and laboratory assessments were compared using survival analysis and logistic regression models.Sixty-two women were identified at a median of 42 days postinfection (interquartile range, 34-59), contributing 282 person-years of follow-up. Mean CD4 count dropped by 39.6% at 3 months and 46.7% at 6 months postinfection in women with preinfection measurements. CD4 decline to <350 cells/µL occurred in 31%, 44%, and 55% of women at 1, 2, and 3 years postinfection, respectively, and to <500 cells/µL in 69%, 79%, and 81% at equivalent timepoints. Predictors of rapid progression were CD4 count at 3 months postinfection (hazard ratio [HR], 2.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.31-3.28; P = .002), setpoint viral load (HR, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.51-9.67; P = .005), and hepatitis B coinfection (HR, 4.54; 95% CI, 1.31-15.69; P = .017). Conversely, presence of any of HLAB*1302, B*27, B*57, B*5801, or B*8101 alleles predicted non-rapid progression (HR, 0.19; 95% CI, .05-.74; P = .016).Nearly half of subtype C-infected women progressed to a CD4 count <350 cells/µL within 2 years of infection. Implementing 2013 World Health Organization treatment guidelines (CD4 count <500 cells/µL) would require most individuals to start antiretroviral therapy within 1 year of HIV infection.
Project description:Background:New options for first-line treatment of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) infection are needed. We evaluated an integrase inhibitor (raltegravir)-containing regimen. Methods:Antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naive adults with symptomatic infection by HIV-2 only, CD4 count <500 cells/?L or CD4 decrease >50 cells/?L/year over the past 3 years, or a confirmed plasma HIV-2 RNA (pVL) load ?100 copies/mL were eligible for this noncomparative trial. The composite primary endpoint was survival at 48 weeks without any of the following: CD4 gain from baseline <100 cells/?L, confirmed pVL ?40 copies/mL from week 24, raltegravir permanent discontinuation, or incident B or C event. HIV-2 ultrasensitive pVL (uspVL) and total DNA were assessed using in-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Results:Baseline median CD4 count of 30 enrolled individuals (67% women) was 436 cells/µL (interquartile range [IQR], 314-507 cells/µL); pVL was ?40 copies/mL in 67% of them, uspVL was ?5 copies/mL in 92%, and total DNA was >6 copies by PCR in 32%. At week 48, the composite endpoint of success was reached in 40% [95% confidence interval, 22.7%-59.4%]. Failure was mainly (50%) due to CD4 gain <100 cells/µL; uspVL was <5 copies/mL in 87% and total DNA >6 copies by PCR in 12% of participants. Median CD4 gain was 87 cells/µL (IQR, 38-213 cells/µL; n = 28). No serious adverse reactions were reported. Conclusions:Raltegravir-containing ART is a safe option for first-line treatment of HIV-2 infection, yielding a comparable success rate to protease inhibitors. Clinical Trials Registration:NCT 01605890.
Project description:Background: Cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) screening for antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve adults with advanced HIV/AIDS can reduce the incidence of cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and all-cause mortality. We modeled the cost-effectiveness of laboratory-based "reflex" CrAg screening for ART-naïve CrAg-positive patients with CD4<100 cells/µL (those currently targeted in guidelines) and ART-experienced CrAg-positive patients with CD4<100 cells/µL (who make up an increasingly large proportion of individuals with advanced HIV/AIDS). Methods: A decision analytic model was developed to evaluate CrAg screening and treatment based on local CD4 count and CrAg prevalence data, and realistic assumptions regarding programmatic implementation of the CrAg screening intervention. We modeled the number of CrAg tests performed, the number of CrAg positives stratified by prior ART experience, the proportion of patients started on pre-emptive antifungal treatment, and the number of incident CM cases and CM-related deaths. Screening and treatment costs were evaluated, and cost per death or disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted estimated. Results: We estimated that of 650,000 samples undergoing CD4 testing annually in Botswana, 16,364 would have a CD4<100 cells/µL and receive a CrAg test, with 70% of patients ART-experienced at the time of screening. Under base model assumptions, CrAg screening and pre-emptive treatment restricted to ART-naïve patients with a CD4<100 cells/µL prevented 20% (39/196) of CM-related deaths in patients undergoing CD4 testing at a cost of US$2 per DALY averted. Expansion of preemptive treatment to include ART-experienced patients with a CD4<100 cells/µL resulted in 55 additional deaths averted (a total of 48% [94/196]) and was cost-saving compared to no screening. Findings were robust across a range of model assumptions. Conclusions: Reflex laboratory-based CrAg screening for patients with CD4<100 cells/µL is a cost-effective strategy in Botswana, even in the context of a relatively low proportion of advanced HIV/AIDS in the overall HIV-infected population, the majority of whom are ART-experienced.
Project description:Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is the strongest risk factor for developing tuberculosis and has fuelled its resurgence, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2010, there were an estimated 1.1 million incident cases of tuberculosis among the 34 million people living with HIV worldwide. Antiretroviral therapy has substantial potential to prevent HIV-associated tuberculosis. We conducted a systematic review of studies that analysed the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the incidence of tuberculosis in adults with HIV infection.PubMed, Embase, African Index Medicus, LILACS, and clinical trial registries were systematically searched. Randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, and retrospective cohort studies were included if they compared tuberculosis incidence by antiretroviral therapy status in HIV-infected adults for a median of over 6 mo in developing countries. For the meta-analyses there were four categories based on CD4 counts at antiretroviral therapy initiation: (1) less than 200 cells/µl, (2) 200 to 350 cells/µl, (3) greater than 350 cells/µl, and (4) any CD4 count. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Antiretroviral therapy is strongly associated with a reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis in all baseline CD4 count categories: (1) less than 200 cells/µl (hazard ratio [HR] 0.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07 to 0.36), (2) 200 to 350 cells/µl (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.60), (3) greater than 350 cells/µl (HR 0.43, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.63), and (4) any CD4 count (HR 0.35, 95% CI 0.28 to 0.44). There was no evidence of hazard ratio modification with respect to baseline CD4 count category (p?=?0.20).Antiretroviral therapy is strongly associated with a reduction in the incidence of tuberculosis across all CD4 count strata. Earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy may be a key component of global and national strategies to control the HIV-associated tuberculosis syndemic.International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews CRD42011001209 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
Project description:Although haematological abnormalities are common manifestations of HIV infection, few studies on haematological parameters in HIV-infected persons have been undertaken in sub-Saharan Africa. The authors assessed factors associated with haematological parameters in HIV-infected antiretroviral-naïve and HIV-uninfected Rwandan women.Cross-sectional analysis of a longitudinal cohort.Community-based women's associations.710 HIV-infected (HIV+) antiretroviral-naïve and 226 HIV-uninfected (HIV-) women from the Rwanda Women's Interassociation Study Assessment. Haematological parameters categorised as (abnormal vs normal) were compared by HIV status and among HIV+ women by CD4 count category using proportions. Multivariate logistic regression models using forward selection were fit.Prevalence of anaemia (haemoglobin (Hb) <12.0 g/dl) was higher in the HIV+ group (20.5% vs 6.3%; p<0.001), and increased with lower CD4 counts: ?350 (7.6%), 200-349 (16%) and <200 cells/mm(3) (32.2%). Marked anaemia (Hb <10.0 g/dl) was found in 4.2% of HIV+ and none of the HIV- women (p<0.001), and was highest in HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/mm(3) (8.4%). The HIV+ were more likely than HIV- women (4.2 vs 0.5%, respectively, p=0.002) to have moderate neutropenia with white blood cells <2.0×10(3) cells/mm(3) and 8.4% of HIV+ women with CD4 <200 cells/mm(3) had moderate neutropenia. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, BMI (OR 0.87/kg/m(2), 95% CI 0.82 to 0.93; p<0.001), CD4 200-350 vs HIV- (OR 3.59, 95% CI 1.89 to 6.83; p<0.001) and CD4 <200 cells/mm(3) vs HIV- (OR 8.09, 95% CI 4.37 to 14.97; <0.001) had large independent associations with anaemia. There were large independent associations of CD4 <200 cells/mm(3) vs HIV- (OR 7.18, 95% CI 0.78 to 65.82; p=0.081) and co-trimoxazole and/or dapsone use (OR 5.69, 95% CI 0.63 to 51.45; p=0.122) with moderate neutropenia.Anaemia was more common than neutropenia or thrombocytopenia in the HIV-infected Rwandan women. Future comparisons of haematological parameters in HIV-infected patients before and after antiretroviral therapy initiation are warranted.
Project description:Untreated HIV infection results in severe perturbations of the B-cell population and hyporesponsiveness to vaccination. We studied associations between circulating B-cell subsets and antibody response to pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in treated and untreated HIV patients.Ninety-five HIV-infected adults were grouped according to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and CD4+ cell count as follows: 20 ART-naïve (no prior ART), 62 ART-responders (received ART, and CD4 count >500 cells/µl), and 13 impaired responders (received ART for more than 3 years, and CD4 count <500 cells/µl). All subjects were immunized twice with double-dose 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with or without 1 mg CPG 7909 (toll-like receptor 9 agonist) at baseline and after three months. Pre-vaccination B-cell subpopulations were assessed by flow cytometry. Serum IgG concentrations for vaccine serotypes were quantified by ELISA at baseline and 3, 4, and 9 months post-vaccination. ART responders had more isotype-switched memory B cells and more marginal-zone (MZ)-like B cells compared with impaired responders. Furthermore, ART-naïve patients had higher concentration of transitional B cells and plasmablasts compared with B cells of other patient groups. The concentration of MZ-like, isotype switched memory cells and plasmablasts correlated positively with post-vaccination IgG concentration at 3, 4, and 9 months. Low concentrations of isotype-switched memory B cells was the strongest independent predictor of poor pneumococcal conjugate vaccine responsiveness, emphasizing that B-cell subset disturbances are associated with poor vaccine response among HIV-infected patients.
Project description:Restoration of Cytomegalovirus-specific-CD4 T cell (CMV-Sp-CD4) responses partly accounts for the reduction of CMV-disease with antiretroviral-therapy (ART), but CMV-Sp-CD4 may also drive immune activation and immunosenescence. This study characterized the dynamics of CMV-Sp-CD4 after ART initiation and explored associations with CD4 T cell recovery as well as frequency of naïve CD4 T cells at week 96.Fifty HIV-infected, ART-naïve Thai adults with CD4 T cell count ? 350 cells/µL and starting ART were evaluated over 96 weeks (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT01296373). CMV-Sp-CD4 was detected by co-expression of CD25/CD134 by flow cytometry after CMV-antigen stimulation.All subjects were CMV sero-positive, 4 had quantifiable CMV-DNA (range 2.3-3.9 log10 copies/mL) at baseline but none had clinically apparent CMV-disease. Baseline CMV-Sp-CD4 response was positive in 40 subjects. Those with CD4 T cell count < 100 cells/µL were less likely to have positive baseline CMV-Sp-CD4 response (P=0.003). Positive baseline CMV-Sp-CD4 response was associated with reduced odds of quantifiable CMV-DNA (P=0.022). Mean CD4 T cell increase at week 96 was 213 cells/µL. This was associated positively with baseline HIV-VL (P=0.001) and negatively with age (P=0.003). The frequency of CMV-Sp-CD4 increased at week 4 (P=0.008), then declined. Those with lower baseline CMV-Sp-CD4 (P=0.009) or CDC category C (P<0.001) had greater increases in CMV-Sp-CD4 at week 4. At week 96, CD4 T cell count was positively (P<0.001) and the frequency of CMV-Sp-CD4 was negatively (P=0.001) associated with the percentage of naïve CD4 T cells.Increases in CMV-Sp-CD4 with ART occurred early and were greater in those with more advanced immunodeficiency. The frequency of CMV-Sp-CD4 was associated with reduced naïve CD4 T cells, a marker associated with immunosenescence.
Project description:Early initiation of antiretroviral therapy has been shown to reduce mortality among perinatally HIV-infected infants, but availability of virologic testing remains limited in many settings.We collected cross-sectional data from mother-infant pairs in three primary care clinics in Lusaka, Zambia, to develop predictive models for HIV infection among infants younger than 12 weeks of age. We evaluated algorithm performance for all possible combinations of selected characteristics using an iterative approach. In primary analysis, we identified the model with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity.Between July 2009 and May 2011, 822 eligible HIV-infected mothers and their HIV-exposed infants were enrolled; of these, 44 (5.4%) infants had HIV diagnosed. We evaluated 382,155,260 different characteristic combinations for predicting infant HIV infection. The algorithm with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity required 5 of the following 7 characteristic thresholds: infant CD8 percentage >22; infant CD4 percentage ?44; infant weight-for-age Z score ?0; infant CD4 ?1600 cells/µL; infant CD8 >2200 cells/µL; maternal CD4 ?600 cells/µL; and mother not currently using antiretroviral therapy for HIV treatment. This combination had a sensitivity of 90.3%, specificity of 78.4%, positive predictive value of 22.4%, negative predictive value of 99.2% and area under the curve of 0.844.Predicting HIV infection in HIV-exposed infants in this age group is difficult using clinical and immunologic characteristics. Expansion of polymerase chain reaction capacity in resource-limited settings remains urgently needed.