Quantification of rare circulating tumor cells in non-small cell lung cancer by ligand-targeted PCR.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Quantification of circulating tumor cells (CTC) is valuable for evaluation of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The sensitivity of current methods constrains their use to detect rare CTCs in early stage. Here we evaluate a novel method, ligand-targeted polymerase chain reaction (LT-PCR), that can detect rare CTCs in NSCLC patients. METHODS: CTCs were enriched by immunomagnetic depletion of leukocytes and then labeled by a conjugate of a tumor-specific ligand and an oligonucleotide. After washing off free conjugates, the bound conjugates were stripped from CTCs and then analyzed by qPCR. To evaluate the clinical utility, blood samples were obtained from 72 NSCLC patients (33 initially diagnosed and 39 on chemotherapy), 20 benign patients, and 24 healthy donors. RESULTS: Experiments with healthy blood spiked with tumor cells indicated the LT-PCR allows specific detection of CTC. The clinical study showed that the initially diagnosed patients have an average of 20.8 CTC units with metastatic diseases, 11.8 CTC units with localized diseases, and 6.0 CTC units with benign diseases. With the threshold of 8.5 CTC units, the assay can detect 80% of stage I/II, 67% of stage III, and 93% of stage IV cancer. With the benign patients and healthy donors as control group, the method can detect cancer with a sensitivity of 81.8% and a specificity of 93.2%. CONCLUSION: The LT-PCR would allow quantification of CTC in NSCLC patients at a more sensitive level, providing a potential tool for stratifying malignant lung diseases, especially at early stage.
Project description:<b>Background</b>: As the heterogeneity of CTCs is becoming increasingly better understood, it is clear that identifying particular subtypes of CTCs would be more relevant. <b>Methods</b>: We detected folate receptor (FR)-positive circulating tumor cells (FR<sup>+</sup>-CTCs) by a novel ligand-targeted polymerase chain reaction (LT-PCR) detection technique. <b>Results</b>: In the none-dynamic study, FR<sup>+</sup>-CTC levels of patients with lung cancer were significantly higher than controls (patients with benign lung diseases and healthy controls). With a threshold of 8.7 CTC units, FR<sup>+</sup>-CTC showed a sensitivity of 77.7% and specificity of 89.5% in the diagnosis of lung cancer. When compared with established clinical biomarkers including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA21-1), and neuron-specific enolase (NSE), FR<sup>+</sup>-CTC showed the highest diagnostic efficiency. Notably, the combination of FR<sup>+</sup>-CTC, CEA, NSE, and CYFRA21-1 could significantly improve the diagnostic efficacy in differentiating patients with lung cancer from benign lung disease. In our dynamic surveillance study, the CTC levels of 62 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients decreased significantly after tumor resection. <b>Conclusion</b>: We established a LT-PCR-based FR<sup>+</sup>-CTC detection platform for patients with lung cancer that exhibits high sensitivity and specificity. This platform would be clinical useful in lung cancer diagnosis and treatment response assessment.
Project description:Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are an independent prognostic marker in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). CTC numbers are closely related to early diagnosis, clinical stage, therapy surveillance, and prognosis of NSCLC. We used a more efficient nano-enrichment method to detect CTCs in NSCLC patients and explored the clinical value of CTCs. The results showed that CTC numbers in stage IV cases were significantly higher than those in stage I, II or III cases. The number of CTCs in poorly-differentiated cases was significantly higher than that in well-differentiated cases. During six chemotherapy cycles, the average CTC number decreased from 5.8/7.5 ml in cycle #1 to 2.4/7.5 ml in cycle #4 and remained at almost the same level from 4 to 6 cycles. CTC numbers in patients with EGFR mutations was significantly higher than those in patients with no mutations. The average progression free survival (PFS) in the favorable group (CTC ? 5/7.5 ml) was 11.3 months, which was longer than that in the unfavorable group (CTC > 5/7.5 ml, 7.2 months). In conclusion, the assessment of NSCLC cannot be performed using a single CTC analysis. The clinical value is more significant in the continuous analysis of CTC data, as well as the cross-validation of other indexes and imaging results.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The early diagnosis of non-small cell lung cancer is of great significance to the prognosis of patients. However, traditional histopathology and imaging screening have certain limitations. Therefore, new diagnostical methods are urgently needed for the current clinical diagnosis. In this study we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of CanPatrol™ technology for the detection of circulating tumor cells in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS:CTCs in the peripheral blood of 98 patients with NSCLC and 38 patients with benign pulmonary diseases were collected by the latest typing of CanPatrol™ detection technology. A 3-year follow-up was performed to observe their recurrence and metastasis. Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare multiple groups of data, Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare data between the two groups, and ROC curve analysis was used to obtain the critical value. The COX risk regression and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis were performed in the 63 NSCLC patients who were effectively followed up. RESULTS:The epithelial, epithelial-mesenchymal, and total CTCs were significantly higher in NSCLC patients than that in patients with benign lung disease (P?<? 0.001). The mesenchymal CTCs of NSCLC patients was slightly higher than that of benign lung diseases (P?=?0.013). The AUC of the ROC curve of the total CTCs was 0.837 (95% CI: 0.76-0.914), and the cut-off value corresponding to the most approximate index was 0.5 CTCs/5?ml, at which point the sensitivity was 81.6% and the specificity was 86.8%. COX regression analysis revealed that the clinical stage was correlated with patient survival (P?=?0.006), while gender, age, and smoking were not (P?>?0.05). After excluding the confounders of staging, surgery, and chemotherapy, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that patients in stage IIIA with CTCs ?0.5 had significantly lower DFS than those with CTCs <?0.5 (P?=?0.022). CONCLUSIONS:CTC positive can well predict the recurrence of NSCLC patients. CanPatrol™ technology has good sensitivity and specificity in detecting CTCs in peripheral blood of NSCLC patients and has a certain value for clinical prognosis evaluation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Circulating tumor cells (CTC) shows great prospect to realize precision medicine in cancer patients. METHODS:We developed the NanoVelcro Chip integrating three functional mechanisms. NanoVelcro CTC capture efficiency was tested in stage III or IV lung adenocarcinoma. Further, ALK-rearrangement status was examined through fluorescent in situ hybridization in CTCs enriched by NanoVelcro. RESULTS:NanoVelcro system showed higher CTC-capture efficiency than CellSearch in stage III or IV lung adenocarcinoma. CTC counts obtained by both methods were positively correlated (r?=?0.45, p?<?0.05). Further, Correlation between CTC counts and pTNM stage determined by NanoVelcro was more significant than that determined by CellSearch (p?<?0.001 VS p?=?0.029). All ALK-positive patients had 3 or more ALK-rearranged CTC per ml of blood. Less than 3 ALK-rearranged CTC was detected in ALK-negative patients. NanoVelcro can detect the ALK-rearranged status with consistent sensitivity and specificity compared to biopsy test. Furthermore, the ALK-rearranged CTC ratio correlated to the pTNM stage in ALK-positive patients. Following up showed that CTCs counting by NanoVelcro was more stable and reliable in evaluating the efficacy of Clozotinib both in the short and long run compared with CellSearch. Changing of NanoVlecro CTC counts could accurately reflect disease progression. CONCLUSION:NanoVelcro provides a sensitive method for CTC counts and characterization in advanced NSCLC. ALK-rearrangement can be detected in CTCs collected from advanced NSCLC patients by NanoVelcro, facilitating diagnostic test and prognosis analysis, most importantly offering one noninvasive method for real-time monitoring of treatment reaction.
Project description:Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) provide a new approach for auxiliary diagnosis, therapeutic effect evaluation, and prognosis prediction for cancer patients. The epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM)-based separation method (CellSearch) showed good clinical use in multiple types of cancer. Nevertheless, some non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor cells have a lower expression of EpCAM and are less frequently detected by CellSearch. Here, we present a highly sensitive immunomagnetic separation method to capture CTCs based on two cell surface markers for NSCLC, EpCAM and Folate receptor alpha (FR?). Our method has been demonstrated to be more efficient in capturing NSCLC cells (P?<?0.01) by enriching three types of CTCs: EpCAM+/FR?-/low, EpCAM-/low/FR?+, and EPCAM+/FR?+. In 41 NSCLC patients, a significantly higher CTC capture rate (48.78% vs. 73.17%) was obtained, and by using a cutoff value of 0 CTC per 2?ml of blood, the sensitivities were 53.66% and 75.61% and the specificities were 100% and 90% for anti-EpCAM-MNs or a combination of anti-EpCAM-MNs and anti-FR?-MNs, respectively. Compared with the tumor-specific LT-PCR based on FR?, our method can isolate intact FR?+ CTCs, and it is advantageous for additional CTC-related downstream analysis. Our results provide a new method to increase the CTC capture efficiency of NSCLC.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Lung cancer has the highest fatality rate of all cancer types. To improve patients' survival and life quality, it is therefore very important to screen for and detect it at an early stage. METHODS:A negative enrichment-fluorescence in situ hybridization (NE-FISH) approach was used to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in lung cancer patients, and levels of lung cancer-associated serum markers were also measured in the peripheral blood of these same patients. The correlation between CTCs, serum cancer markers (carcinoembryonic antigen [CEA], CA 125, CYFRA 21-1, and SCC), and clinicopathological characteristics was then investigated. Moreover, the potential clinical use of the combination of CTCs and tumor markers for the diagnosis of lung cancer, especially at early stages, was also explored. RESULTS:CTC frequencies in lung cancer patients were significantly higher than in healthy control volunteers or patients with benign lung disease, and the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve for the control group was 0.846 (95% CI 0.796-0.887, P < 0.001). The rate of CTC positivity in lung cancer patients was 68.29% when the CTC cutoff value was 2, and the sensitivity of this means of lung cancer detection rose to 82.93% by combining CTC-based detection with measurements of serum tumor markers. Similarly, the diagnostic sensitivity of this approach in early-stage lung cancer patients (I-II) was improved from 63.93% to 78.69%. Detection of CTCs can thus assist with the identification of benign and malignant pulmonary nodules. CONCLUSIONS:It is potentially helpful and effective to employ a combination of CTCs and serum tumor markers for the clinical diagnosis of lung cancer.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Monitoring circulating tumor cells (CTC) has been shown to be prognostic in most solid malignancies. There is no CTC assay in clinical use for lung cancer therapy monitoring due to inconclusive clinical utility data. Limited data has been published outside of the standard CTC enumerations, regarding clinical significance of phenotypic heterogeneity of CTCs in late stage NSCLC and its ability to correlate with treatment outcomes. METHODS:In 81 patients with stage IV NSCLC, multiple timepoints for CTC analysis were collected after initiation of treatment across 139 lines of therapy using single cell high definition diagnostic pathology imaging of all nucleated cells from 362 peripheral blood samples as a liquid biopsy. RESULTS:We analyzed the subset of 25 patients with complete time series data, totaling 117 blood samples, to determine the significance of HD-CTC kinetics during the initiation of treatment. These kinetics follow three distinct patterns: an increase in HD-CTCs with therapy (mean + 118.40 HD-CTCs/mL), unchanged HD-CTCs numbers (stable; mean 0.54 HD-CTCs/mL), and a decrease in HD-CTCs numbers (mean - 81.40 HD-CTCs/mL). Patients with an increasing CTC count during the first 3 months post initiation of new treatment had a better PFS and OS compared to the other groups. There was weak correlation between the absolute number of HD-CTCs at a single time point of therapy and patient outcomes (OS p value = 0.0754). In the whole cohort of 81 patients, HD-CTCs were detected in 51 (63%) patients at initiation of therapy with a median of 2.20 (range 0-509.20) and a mean of 26.21 HD-CTCs/mL (± 15.64). CONCLUSIONS:CTCs are identifiable in most patients with stage IV NSCLC. While absolute HD-CTC counts do not correlate with prognosis, the changes in CTC counts were predictive of survival in patients with metastatic lung cancer receiving chemotherapy. The level and dynamics of CTCs indicate very different biological and pharmacological phenomena at different stages of disease and timepoints of treatment, highlighting the complex role of CTCs in cancer research and clinical management.
Project description:Current clinicopathologic staging systems and serum biomarkers poorly discriminate tumor biology in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), with high recurrence rates following curative-intent surgical resection and liver transplantation (LT). Identification of accurate biomarkers for improved prognostication and treatment selection is a critical unmet need. We sought to develop a novel "liquid-biopsy" assay capable of detecting HCC circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and characterizing phenotypic subpopulations with prognostic significance. Using HCC cell lines, a tissue microarray, and human blood samples, an antibody cocktail targeting the cell-surface markers asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGPR), glypican-3, and epithelial cell adhesion molecule was optimized for HCC CTC capture using the NanoVelcro CTC Assay. The ability of HCC CTCs and vimentin (VIM)-positive CTCs (a subpopulation expressing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal phenotype) to accurately discriminate tumor stage, recurrence, progression, and overall survival (OS) was evaluated in a prospective study of 80 patients. Multimarker capture detected greater numbers of CTCs than any individual antibody alone for both cell line and patient samples (P < 0.001). HCC CTCs were identified in 59/61 (97%) patients, and HCC (median, 6 CTCs) and non-HCC patients (median, 1 CTC; area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC] = 0.92; P < 0.001; sensitivity = 84.2%; specificity = 88.5%) were accurately discriminated. VIM-positive CTCs accurately discriminated early-stage, LT eligible patients (median, 0 CTCs) from locally advanced/metastatic, LT ineligible patients (median, 6 CTCs; AUROC = 0.89; P = 0.001; sensitivity = 87.1%; specificity = 90.0%), and predicted OS for all patients (hazard ratio [HR], 2.21; P = 0.001), and faster recurrence after curative-intent surgical or locoregional therapy in potentially curable early-stage HCC (HR, 3.14; P = 0.002). In conclusion, we developed a novel multimarker CTC enrichment assay that detects HCC CTCs with high efficiency and accuracy. A phenotypic subpopulation of VIM-positive CTCs appears to signify the presence of aggressive underlying disease and occult metastases and may have important implications for treatment selection. Liver Transplantation 24 946-960 2018 AASLD.
Project description:Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have a crucial role in the clinical outcome of cancer patients. Detection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using an antibody against epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) in captured CTCs has low sensitivity; the loss of epithelial markers leads to underestimation of CTCs with mesenchymal phenotype. We propose a new approach for detection of viable CTCs, including those with epithelial-mesenchymal transition status (EMT-CTCs), using the new telomerase-specific replication-selective adenovirus (OBP-1101), TelomeScan F35. Peripheral venous blood samples and clinicopathological data were collected from 123 NSCLC patients. The sensitivity of CTC detection was 69.1%, and for patients with stage I, II, III and IV, it was 59.6%, 40.0%, 85.7%, and 75.0%, respectively. Among the EMT-CTC samples, 46% were vimentin positive and 39.0% of non-EMT-CTC samples were EpCAM positive. Patients testing positive for EMT-CTCs at baseline had poor response to chemotherapy (P = 0.025) and decreased progression-free survival (EMT-CTC positive vs. negative: 193 ± 47 days vs. 388 ± 47. days, P = 0.040) in comparison to those testing negative. TelomeScan F35 is a highly sensitive CTC detection system and will be a useful screening tool for early diagnosis of NSCLC patients. Mesenchymal-phenotype CTCs are crucial indicators of chemotherapeutic efficacy in NSCLC patients.
Project description:The invasive growth of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) propagates cancer metastasis. The aims of this study were to evaluate the association of invasive CTCs, detected by a novel cell invasion assay, with disease stage, CA-125 level and patient survival.Peripheral blood samples from 71 patients undergoing evaluation for ovarian malignancy were assessed for the presence of invasive CTCs using a cell invasion assay that enriches and identifies tumor cells with a cell adhesion matrix (CAM). Invasive CTCs were identified as cells exhibiting CAM invasion (CAM+) and expressing standard epithelial markers (Epi+).43 (60.6%) patients had detectable CTCs: 0/5 benign patients, 1/10 (10%) early stage, 39/52 (73.1%) late stage and 3/4 (75%) unstaged patients (p-value <0.001). CTC counts ranged from 0-149 CTCs/ml with stage III/IV patients exhibiting significantly higher mean counts (41.3 CTCs/ml) than stage I/II patients (6.0 CTCs/ml) and benign patients (0 CTCs/ml, p-value=0.001). A positive correlation between CTC count and CA-125 level was observed (Spearman correlation coefficient r=0.309, p-value=0.035). Kaplan-Meier curves revealed a significant decrease in disease-free survival in patients with detectable CTCs (median survival 15.0 months vs. 35.0 months, log-rank p-value=0.042). Tumor grade and tumor histology did not influence CTC detection.Invasive CTCs can be detected in a majority of epithelial ovarian cancer patients and may predict shorter disease-free survival. Furthermore, higher CTC counts may reflect later stage disease and higher CA-125 levels.