The type-specific neutralizing antibody response elicited by a dengue vaccine candidate is focused on two amino acids of the envelope protein.
ABSTRACT: Dengue viruses are mosquito-borne flaviviruses that circulate in nature as four distinct serotypes (DENV1-4). These emerging pathogens are responsible for more than 100 million human infections annually. Severe clinical manifestations of disease are predominantly associated with a secondary infection by a heterotypic DENV serotype. The increased risk of severe disease in DENV-sensitized populations significantly complicates vaccine development, as a vaccine must simultaneously confer protection against all four DENV serotypes. Eliciting a protective tetravalent neutralizing antibody response is a major goal of ongoing vaccine development efforts. However, a recent large clinical trial of a candidate live-attenuated DENV vaccine revealed low protective efficacy despite eliciting a neutralizing antibody response, highlighting the need for a better understanding of the humoral immune response against dengue infection. In this study, we sought to identify epitopes recognized by serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies elicited by monovalent DENV1 vaccination. We constructed a panel of over 50 DENV1 structural gene variants containing substitutions at surface-accessible residues of the envelope (E) protein to match the corresponding DENV2 sequence. Amino acids that contribute to recognition by serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies were identified as DENV mutants with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by DENV1 immune sera, but not cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies elicited by DENV2 vaccination. We identified two mutations (E126K and E157K) that contribute significantly to type-specific recognition by polyclonal DENV1 immune sera. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis of sera from 24 participants of a phase I clinical study revealed a markedly reduced capacity to neutralize a E126K/E157K DENV1 variant. Sera from 77% of subjects recognized the E126K/E157K DENV1 variant and DENV2 equivalently (<3-fold difference). These data indicate the type-specific component of the DENV1 neutralizing antibody response to vaccination is strikingly focused on just two amino acids of the E protein. This study provides an important step towards deconvoluting the functional complexity of DENV serology following vaccination.
Project description:Sanofi Pasteur has developed a chimeric yellow fever-dengue, live-attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) that is currently approved for use in several countries. In clinical trials, CYD-TDV was efficacious at reducing laboratory-confirmed cases of dengue disease. Efficacy varied by dengue virus (DENV) serotype and prevaccination dengue immune status. We compared the properties of antibodies in naive and DENV-exposed individuals who received CYD-TDV. We depleted specific populations of DENV-reactive antibodies from immune serum samples to estimate the contribution of serotype-cross-reactive and type-specific antibodies to neutralization. Subjects with no preexisting immunity to DENV developed neutralizing antibodies to all 4 serotypes of DENV. Further analysis demonstrated that DENV4 was mainly neutralized by type-specific antibodies whereas DENV1, DENV2, and DENV3 were mainly neutralized by serotype cross-reactive antibodies. When subjects with preexisting immunity to DENV were vaccinated, they developed higher levels of neutralizing antibodies than naive subjects who were vaccinated. In preimmune subjects, CYD-TDV boosted cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies while maintaining type-specific neutralizing antibodies acquired before vaccination. Our results demonstrate that the quality of neutralizing antibodies induced by CYD-TDV varies depending on DENV serotype and previous immune status. We discuss the implications of these results for understanding vaccine efficacy.
Project description:The tetravalent live attenuated dengue vaccine candidate TV003 induces neutralizing antibodies against all four dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-DENV4) and protects against experimental challenge with DENV2 in humans. Here, we track vaccine viremia and B and T cell responses to this vaccination/challenge model to understand how vaccine viremia links adaptive immunity and development of protective antibody responses. TV003 viremia triggers an acute plasmablast response that, in combination with DENV-specific CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells, correlates with serum neutralizing antibodies. TV003 vaccinees develop DENV2-reactive memory B cells, including serotype-specific and multivalent specificities in line with the composition of serum antibodies. There is no post-challenge plasmablast response in vaccinees, although stronger and earlier post-TV003 plasmablast responses associate with sterile humoral protection from DENV2 challenge. TV003 vaccine triggers plasmablasts and memory B cells, which, with support from CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells, functionally link early vaccine viremia and the serum antibody responses.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) is widespread and responsible for severe epidemics. While primary DENV2 infections stimulate serotype-specific protective responses, a leading vaccine failed to induce a similar protective response. Using human monoclonal antibodies (hMAbs) isolated from dengue cases and structure-guided design of a chimeric DENV, here we describe the major site on the DENV2 envelope (E) protein targeted by neutralizing antibodies. DENV2-specific neutralizing hMAb 2D22 binds to a quaternary structure epitope. We engineered and recovered a recombinant DENV4 that displayed the 2D22 epitope. DENV2 neutralizing antibodies in people exposed to infection or a live vaccine tracked with the 2D22 epitope on the DENV4/2 chimera. The chimera remained sensitive to DENV4 antibodies, indicating that the major neutralizing epitopes on DENV2 and -4 are at different sites. The ability to transplant a complex epitope between DENV serotypes demonstrates a hitherto underappreciated structural flexibility in flaviviruses, which could be harnessed to develop new vaccines and diagnostics. IMPORTANCE:Dengue virus causes fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue serotype 2 (DENV2) is widespread and frequently responsible for severe epidemics. Natural DENV2 infections stimulate serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies, but a leading DENV vaccine did not induce a similar protective response. While groups have identified epitopes of single monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), the molecular basis of DENV2 neutralization by polyclonal human immune sera is unknown. Using a recombinant DENV displaying serotype 2 epitopes, here we map the main target of DENV2 polyclonal neutralizing antibodies induced by natural infection and a live DENV2 vaccine candidate. Proper display of the epitope required the assembly of viral envelope proteins into higher-order structures present on intact virions. Despite the complexity of the epitope, it was possible to transplant the epitope between DENV serotypes. Our findings have immediate implications for evaluating dengue vaccines in the pipeline as well as designing next-generation vaccines.
Project description:A major challenge in dengue vaccine development is the need to induce immunity against four dengue (DENV) serotypes. Dengvaxia®, the only licensed dengue vaccine, consists of four variant dengue antigens, one for each serotype. Three doses of immunization with the tetravalent vaccine induced only suboptimal protection against DENV1 and DENV2. Furthermore, vaccination paradoxically and adversely primes dengue naïve subjects to more severe dengue. Here, we have tested whether sequential immunization induces stronger and broader immunity against four DENV serotypes than tetravalent-formulated immunization. Mice were immunized with four DNA plasmids, each encoding the pre-membrane and envelope from one DENV serotype, either sequentially or simultaneously. The sequential immunization induced significantly higher levels of interferon (IFN)?- or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?-expressing CD4+ and CD8+ T cells to both serotype-specific and conserved epitopes than tetravalent immunization. Moreover, sequential immunization induced higher levels of neutralizing antibodies to all four DENV serotypes than tetravalent vaccination. Consistently, sequential immunization resulted in more diversified immunoglobulin repertoire, including increased complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) length and more robust germinal center reactions. These results show that sequential immunization offers a simple approach to potentially overcome the current challenges encountered with tetravalent-formulated dengue vaccines.
Project description:The viral E proteins of dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are the major viral proteins involved in receptor binding and fusion, and for the induction of protective antibodies against viral infections. DIII of the E proteins is an independent domain and stretches out on the virion surface that can elicit type-specific neutralizing antibodies. For recombinant DIII vaccine development, prime-boost immunizations can provide an advantage of eliciting more type-specific neutralizing antibodies by recalling DIII antigens after DIII booster to improve protection. Methods: The DIII of the E genes of DENV and ZIKV were fused with bacterial fliC gene for the expression of flagellin-DIII (FliC-DIII) fusion proteins. Prime-boost immunization strategies by the second-dose booster of four DENV serotype or ZIKV FliC-DIII fusion proteins were used to investigate the induction of neutralizing antibodies and protection against viral infections. Cross-reactive non-neutralizing antibodies in each group of antisera were also examined using in vitro antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) assay. A series of glycan-masking E antigens were finally constructed for prime-boost immunizations to abolish the elicitation of cross-reactive non-neutralizing antibodies for ADE activity. Results: We showed that inclusion of a bivalent live-attenuated vaccine with a FliC-DIII booster is superior in eliciting neutralization titers and protection in vivo against all four-serotype DENVs. We also demonstrated that recombinant adenovirus vectors encoding four-serotype DENV prMEs with a FliC-DIII prime-boost scheme is capable of eliciting good antibody responses. In contract, recombinant adenovirus vector of ZIKV prME gene priming, followed by ZIKV FliC-DIII booster did not improve vaccine efficacy. The glycan-masking mutation on the ZIKV E protein ij loop (E-248NHT), but not on DENV2 E protein ij loop (E-242NHT), resulted in abolishing the elicitation of cross-reactive antibodies for DENV and ZIKV infection enhancements. Conclusions: Our findings can provide useful information for designing novel immunogens and vaccination strategies in an attempt to develop a safe and efficacious DENV or ZIKV vaccine.
Project description:Background. ?Recent trials of recombinant, live-attenuated chimeric yellow fever-dengue tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV) demonstrated efficacy against symptomatic, virologically confirmed dengue disease with higher point estimates of efficacy toward dengue virus (DENV)3 and DENV4 and moderate levels toward DENV1 and DENV2. It is interesting to note that serotype-specific efficacy did not correlate with absolute neutralizing antibody (nAb) geometric mean titer (GMT) values measured in a Vero-based plaque reduction neutralization test assay. The absence of Fc? receptors on Vero cells may explain this observation. Methods. ?We performed parallel seroneutralization assays in Vero cells and CV-1 cells that express Fc?RIIa (CV-1-Fc) to determine the neutralizing and enhancing capacity of serotype-specific DENV Abs present in CYD-TDV clinical trial sera. Results. ?Enhancement of DENV infection was observed in CV-1-Fc cells in naturally exposed nonvaccine sera, mostly for DENV3 and DENV4, at high dilutions. The CYD-TDV-vaccinated sera showed similar enhancement patterns. The CV-1-Fc nAb GMT values were 2- to 9-fold lower than Vero for all serotypes in both naturally infected individuals and CYD-TDV-vaccinated subjects with and without previous dengue immunity. The relative (CV-1-Fc/Vero) GMT decrease for anti-DENV1 and anti-DENV2 responses was not greater than for the other serotypes. Conclusions. ?In vitro neutralization assays utilizing Fc?RIIa-expressing cells provide evidence that serotype-specific Ab enhancement may not be a primary factor in the serotype-specific efficacy differences exhibited in the CYD-TDV trials.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV), a mosquito-borne virus, is responsible for millions of cases of infections worldwide. There are four DENV serotypes (DENV1 to -4). After a primary DENV infection, the antibodies elicited confer lifetime protection against that DENV serotype. However, in a secondary infection with another serotype, the preexisting antibodies may cause antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection of macrophage cells, leading to the development of the more severe form of disease, dengue hemorrhagic fever. Thus, a safe vaccine should stimulate protection against all dengue serotypes simultaneously. To facilitate the development of a vaccine, good knowledge of different DENV serotype structures is crucial. Structures of DENV1 and DENV2 had been solved previously. Here we present a near-atomic resolution cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of mature DENV4. Comparison of the DENV4 structure with similar-resolution cryo-EM structures of DENV1 and DENV2 showed differences in surface charge distribution, which may explain their differences in binding to cellular receptors, such as heparin. Also, observed variations in amino acid residues involved in interactions between envelope and membrane proteins on the virus surface correlate with their ability to undergo structural changes at higher temperatures.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) infection causes dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome. It is estimated that a third of the world's population is at risk for infection, with an estimated 390 million infections annually. Dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) causes severe epidemics, and the leading tetravalent dengue vaccine has lower efficacy against DENV2 compared to the other 3 serotypes. In natural DENV2 infections, strongly neutralizing type-specific antibodies provide protection against subsequent DENV2 infection. While the epitopes of some human DENV2 type-specific antibodies have been mapped, it is not known if these are representative of the polyclonal antibody response. Using structure-guided immunogen design and reverse genetics, we generated a panel of recombinant viruses containing amino acid alterations and epitope transplants between different serotypes. Using this panel of recombinant viruses in binding, competition, and neutralization assays, we have finely mapped the epitopes of three human DENV2 type-specific monoclonal antibodies, finding shared and distinct epitope regions. Additionally, we used these recombinant viruses and polyclonal sera to dissect the epitope-specific responses following primary DENV2 natural infection and monovalent vaccination. Our results demonstrate that antibodies raised following DENV2 infection or vaccination circulate as separate populations that neutralize by occupying domain III and domain I quaternary epitopes. The fraction of neutralizing antibodies directed to different epitopes differs between individuals. The identification of these epitopes could potentially be harnessed to evaluate epitope-specific antibody responses as correlates of protective immunity, potentially improving vaccine design.
Project description:Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination with the JEV inactivated vaccine (INV) and live attenuated vaccine (LAV) could induce cross-immune responses and cross-protection against DENV1-4 in mice. Despite the theoretical risk of immune enhancement, no increased mortality was observed in our mouse model. Additionally, low but consistently detectable cross-neutralizing antibodies against DENV2 and DENV3 were also observed in the sera of JEV vaccine-immunized human donors. The results suggested that both JEV-LAV and JEV-INV could elicit strong cross-immunity and protection against DENVs, indicating that inoculation with JEV vaccines may influence the distribution of DENVs in co-circulated areas and that the cross-protection induced by JEV vaccines against DENVs might provide important information in terms of DENV prevention.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Currently, a licensed vaccine for Dengue Virus (DENV) is not yet available. Virus-like particles (VLP) have shown considerable promise for use as vaccines and have many advantages compared to many other types of viral vaccines. VLPs have been found to have high immunogenic potencies, providing protection against various pathogens. RESULTS: In the current study, four DENV-VLP serotypes were successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris, based on co-expression of the prM and E proteins. The effects of a tetravalent VLP vaccine were also examined. Immunization with purified, recombinant, tetravalent DENV1-4 VLPs induced specific antibodies against all DENV1-4 antigens in mice. The antibody titers were higher after immunization with the tetravalent VLP vaccine compared to titers after immunization with any of the dengue serotype VLPs alone. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) results indicated that sera from VLP immunized mice recognized the native viral antigens. TNF-? and IL-10 were significantly higher in mice immunized with tetravalent DENV-VLP compared to those mice received PBS. The tetravalent VLP appeared to stimulate neutralizing antibodies against each viral serotype, as shown by PRNT50 analysis (1:32 against DENV1 and 2, and 1:16 against DENV3 and 4). The highest titers with the tetravalent VLP vaccine were still a little lower than the monovalent VLP against the corresponding serotype. The protection rates of tetravalent DENV-VLP immune sera against challenges with DENV1 to 4 serotypes in suckling mice were 77, 92, 100, and 100%, respectively, indicating greater protective efficacy compared with monovalent immune sera. CONCLUSIONS: Our results provide an important basis for the development of the dengue VLP as a promising non-infectious candidate vaccine for dengue infection.