Preconditioning via angiotensin type 2 receptor activation improves therapeutic efficacy of bone marrow mononuclear cells for cardiac repair.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The therapeutic efficiency of bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNCs) autologous transplantation for myocardial infarction (MI) remains low. Here we developed a novel strategy to improve cardiac repair by preconditioning BMMNCs via angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) stimulation. METHODS AND RESULTS: Acute MI in rats led to a significant increase of AT2R expression in BMMNCs. Preconditioning of BMMNCs via AT2R stimulation directly with an AT2R agonist CGP42112A or indirectly with angiotensin II plus AT1R antagonist valsartan led to ERK activation and increased eNOS expression as well as subsequent nitric oxide generation, ultimately improved cardiomyocyte protection in vitro as measured by co-culture approach. Intramyocardial transplantation of BMMNCs preconditioned via AT2R stimulation improved survival of transplanted cells in ischemic region of heart tissue and reduced cardiomyocyte apoptosis and inflammation at 3 days after MI. At 4 weeks after transplantation, compared to DMEM and non-preconditioned BMMNCs group, AT2R stimulated BMMNCs group showed enhanced vessel density in peri-infarct region and attenuated infarct size, leading to global heart function improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Preconditioning of BMMNCs via AT2R stimulation exerts protective effect against MI. Stimulation of AT2R in BMMNCs may provide a new strategy to improving therapeutic efficiency of stem cells for post MI cardiac repair.
Project description:Myocardial infarction (MI) is a major condition causing heart failure (HF). After MI, the renin angiotensin system (RAS) and its signalling octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) interferes with cardiac injury/repair via the AT1 and AT2 receptors (AT1R, AT2R). Our study aimed at deciphering the mechanisms underlying the link between RAS and cellular components of the immune response relying on a rodent model of HF as well as HF patients. Flow cytometric analyses showed an increase in the expression of CD4(+) AT2R(+) cells in the rat heart and spleen post-infarction, but a reduction in the peripheral blood. The latter was also observed in HF patients. The frequency of rat CD4(+) AT2R(+) T cells in circulating blood, post-infarcted heart and spleen represented 3.8 ± 0.4%, 23.2 ± 2.7% and 22.6 ± 2.6% of the CD4(+) cells. CD4(+) AT2R(+) T cells within blood CD4(+) T cells were reduced from 2.6 ± 0.2% in healthy controls to 1.7 ± 0.4% in patients. Moreover, we characterized CD4(+) AT2R(+) T cells which expressed regulatory FoxP3, secreted interleukin-10 and other inflammatory-related cytokines. Furthermore, intramyocardial injection of MI-induced splenic CD4(+) AT2R(+) T cells into recipient rats with MI led to reduced infarct size and improved cardiac performance. We defined CD4(+) AT2R(+) cells as a T cell subset improving heart function post-MI corresponding with reduced infarction size in a rat MI-model. Our results indicate CD4(+) AT2R(+) cells as a promising population for regenerative therapy, via myocardial transplantation, pharmacological AT2R activation or a combination thereof.
Project description:AIMS:Electrical stimulation (EleS) can promote cardiac differentiation, but the underlying mechanism is not well known. This study investigated the effect of EleS on cardiomyocyte (CM) differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) and evaluated the therapeutic effects for the treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). RESULTS:Cardiac differentiation of hiPSCs was induced with EleS after embryoid body formation. Spontaneously beating hiPSCs were observed as early at 2 days when treated with EleS compared with control treatment. The cardiac differentiation efficiency of hiPSCs was significantly enhanced by EleS. In addition, the functional maturation of hiPSC-CMs under EleS was confirmed by calcium indicators, intracellular Ca2+ levels, and expression of structural genes. Mechanistically, EleS mediated cardiac differentiation of hiPSCs through activation of Ca2+/PKC/ERK pathways, as revealed by RNA sequencing, quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and Western blotting. After transplantation in immunodeficient MI mice, EleS-preconditioned hiPSC-derived cells significantly improved cardiac function and attenuated expansion of infarct size. The preconditioned hiPSC-derived CMs were functionally integrated with the host heart. INNOVATION:We show EleS as an efficacious time-saving approach for CM generation. The global RNA profiling shows that EleS can accelerate cardiac differentiation of hiPSCs through activation of multiple pathways. The cardiac-mimetic electrical signals will provide a novel approach to generate functional CMs and facilitate cardiac tissue engineering for successful heart regeneration. CONCLUSION:EleS can enhance efficiency of cardiac differentiation in hiPSCs and promote CM maturation. The EleS-preconditioned CMs emerge as a promising approach for clinical application in MI treatment. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 371-384.
Project description:Aims:The effectiveness of cell-based treatments for regenerative myocardial therapy is limited by low rates of cell engraftment. Y-27632 inhibits Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), which regulates the cytoskeletal changes associated with cell adhesion, and has been used to protect cultured cells during their passaging. Here, we investigated whether preconditioning of cardiomyocytes, derived from human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSC-CM), with Y-27632 improves their survival and engraftment in a murine model of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Methods and results:After MI induction, mice were subjected to intramyocardial injections of phosphate-buffered saline, hiPSC-CM cultured under standard conditions (hiPSC-CM-RI), or Y-27632-preconditioned hiPSC-CM (hiPSC-CM+RI). The resulting engraftment rate calculated 4?weeks after implantation was significantly higher and the abundance of apoptotic transplanted cells was significantly lower in hiPSC-CM+RI recipients than in hiPSC-CM-RI animals. In cultured hiPSC-CM, Y-27632-preconditioning reversibly reduced contractile activity and the expression of troponin genes, while increasing their attachment to an underlying mouse cardiomyocyte (HL1) monolayer. Y-27632 preconditioning also increased the expression of N-cadherin and integrin ß1, the two cell junction proteins. hiPSC-CM+RI were also larger in cell area with greater cytoskeletal alignment and a more rod-like shape than hiPSC-CM-RI, both after transplantation (in vivo) and in culture. The effects of Y-27632 preconditioning on contractile activity and morphology of hiPSC-CMs in culture, as well as on their engraftment rate and apoptotic death in MI mouse grafts, could be recapitulated by hiPSC-CM treatment with the L-type calcium-channel blocker verapamil. Conclusion:Preconditioning with the ROCK inhibitor Y-27632 increased the engraftment of transplanted hiPSC-CM in a murine MI model, while reversibly impairing hiPSC-CM contractility and promoting adhesion.
Project description:Isoflurane preconditioning neuroprotection in experimental stroke is male-specific. The role of androgens in the ischemic sensitivity of isoflurane preconditioned male brain and whether androgen effects are androgen receptor dependent were assessed. Male C57BL/6 mice were implanted with flutamide (androgen receptor antagonist), or castrated and implanted with testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, flutamide, letrozole (aromatase inhibitor), or vehicle 7-13 days before preconditioning. P450 estrogen aromatase wild-type and knockout mice were also evaluated. All mice were preconditioned for 4 h with 0% (sham preconditioning) or 1% isoflurane (isoflurane preconditioning) and recovered for 24 h. Mice then underwent 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion and were evaluated 22 h later for infarct volume. For neurobehavioral outcomes, sham and isoflurane preconditioned castrated male+/-dihydrotestosterone groups underwent 1 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion followed by 9 days of reperfusion. Isoflurane preconditioning neuroprotection relative to infarct volume outcomes were testosterone and dihydrotestosterone dose-specific and androgen receptor-dependent. Relative to long-term neurobehavioral outcomes, front paw sensorimotor function improved in isoflurane preconditioned mice regardless of androgen status while androgen replacement independently improved sensorimotor function. In contrast, isoflurane preconditioning improved cognitive function in castrates lacking endogenous androgens, but this improvement was absent in androgen replaced mice. Our findings suggest that androgen availability during isoflurane preconditioning may influence infarct volume and neurobehavioral outcomes in male mice following experimental stroke.
Project description:Cerebral preconditioning provides insights into endogenous mechanisms that protect the brain from ischemic injury. Hypoxia and the anesthetic isoflurane are powerful preconditioning agents. Recent data show that sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor stimulation improves outcome in rodent models of stroke. Endogenous sphingosine 1-phosphate levels are controlled by the expression and activity of sphingosine kinases (SPK). We hypothesize that SPK upregulation mediates preconditioning induced by isoflurane and hypoxia and reduces ischemic injury.Male wild-type C57BL/J, SPK1(-/-) and SPK2(-/-) mice were exposed to isoflurane or hypoxia preconditioning before transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct volume and neurological outcome were measured 24 hours later. SPK inhibitors (SKI-II and ABC294640) were used to test the involvement of SPK2. Expressions of SPK1, SPK2, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1? were determined. Primary cultures of mouse cortical neurons were exposed to isoflurane before glutamate- or hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death.Isoflurane preconditioning and hypoxia preconditioning significantly reduced infarct volume and improved neurological outcome in wild-type and SPK1(-/-) mice but not in SPK2(-/-) mice. Pretreatment with SKI-II or ABC294640 abolished the isoflurane preconditioning-induced tolerance. Western blot showed a rapid and sustained increase in SPK2 level, whereas SPK1 level was similar between preconditioned mice and controls. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1? was upregulated in wild-type isoflurane-preconditioned mice but not in SPK2(-/-). Isoflurane preconditioning protected primary neurons against cell death, which was abolished in ABC294640-treated cells.Applying genetic and pharmacological approaches, we demonstrate that neuronal SPK2 isoform plays an important role in cerebral preconditioning.
Project description:Transplantation of neural stem cells provides a promising therapy for stroke. Its efficacy, however, might be limited because of massive grafted-cell death after transplantation, and its insufficient capability for tissue repair. Interleukin 6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders. Paradoxically, interleukin 6 promotes a pro-survival signalling pathway through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. In this study, we investigated whether cellular reprogramming of neural stem cells with interleukin 6 facilitates the effectiveness of cell transplantation therapy in ischaemic stroke. Neural stem cells harvested from the subventricular zone of foetal mice were preconditioned with interleukin 6 in vitro and transplanted into mouse brains 6 h or 7 days after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Interleukin 6 preconditioning protected the grafted neural stem cells from ischaemic reperfusion injury through signal transducer and activator of transcription 3-mediated upregulation of manganese superoxide dismutase, a primary mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme. In addition, interleukin 6 preconditioning induced secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor from the neural stem cells through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, resulting in promotion of angiogenesis in the ischaemic brain. Furthermore, transplantation of interleukin 6-preconditioned neural stem cells significantly attenuated infarct size and improved neurological performance compared with non-preconditioned neural stem cells. This interleukin 6-induced amelioration of ischaemic insults was abolished by transfecting the neural stem cells with signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 small interfering RNA before transplantation. These results indicate that preconditioning with interleukin 6, which reprograms neural stem cells to tolerate oxidative stress after ischaemic reperfusion injury and to induce angiogenesis through activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, is a simple and beneficial approach for enhancing the effectiveness of cell transplantation therapy in ischaemic stroke.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>We sought to understand the cellular and tissue-level changes underlying the attenuation of adverse remodeling by cardiosphere transplantation in acute myocardial infarction (MI).<h4>Background</h4>Cardiospheres (CSps) are heart-derived multicellular clusters rich in stemness and capable of multilineage differentiation. Post-MI CSp transplantation improves left ventricular (LV) function and attenuates remodeling in both small and large animal studies. However, the mechanisms of benefit have not yet been fully elucidated.<h4>Methods</h4>Four groups were studied: 1) "Sham" (Wistar Kyoto rats with thoracotomy and ligature without infarction); 2) "MI" (proximal LAD ligation with peri-infarct injection of vehicle); 3) "MI+CSp" (MI with cardiospheres injected in the peri-infarct area); 4) "Small MI" (mid-LAD ligation only).<h4>Results</h4>In vivo 1 week after CSp transplantation, LV functional improvement was associated with an increase in cardiomyocyte proliferation. By 3 weeks, microvessel formation was enhanced, while cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and regional fibrosis were attenuated. Collagen deposition was reduced, collagen degradation was enhanced, and MMPs were upregulated. The beneficial effects of CSp transplantation were not observed in the Small MI group, indicating that the effects are not solely due to CSp-induced cardioprotection. In vitro, CSp-conditioned media reduced collagen production in coculture with fibroblasts and triggered neoangiogenesis in an ex vivo aortic ring assay.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Cardiospheres enhance cardiomyocyte proliferation and angiogenesis, and attenuate hypertrophy and fibrosis, in the ischemic myocardium. These synergistic effects underlie the attenuation of adverse remodeling by cardiospheres.
Project description:Transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) has been proposed as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury. However, existing evidence has also challenged this therapy on its limitations, such as the difficulty for stem cells to survive after transplantation due to the unfavorable microenvironment in the ischemic brain. Herein, we have investigated whether preconditioning of NSCs with adjudin, a small molecule compound, could enhance their survivability and further improve the therapeutic effect for NSC-based stroke therapy.We aimed to examine the effect of adjudin pretreatment on NSCs by measuring a panel of parameters after their transplantation into the infarct area of ipsilateral striatum 24 hours after I/R in mice.We found that pretreatment of NSCs with adjudin could enhance the viability of NSCs after their transplantation into the stroke-induced infarct area. Compared with the untreated NSC group, the adjudin-preconditioned group showed decreased infarct volume and neurobehavioral deficiency through ameliorating blood-brain barrier disruption and promoting the expression and secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor. We also employed H2O2-induced cell death model in vitro and found that adjudin preconditioning could promote NSC survival through inhibition of oxidative stress and activation of Akt signaling pathway.This study showed that adjudin could be used to precondition NSCs to enhance their survivability and improve recovery in the stroke model, unveiling the value of adjudin for stem cell-based stroke therapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Here, we generated human cardiac muscle patches (hCMPs) of clinically relevant dimensions (4 cm × 2 cm × 1.25 mm) by suspending cardiomyocytes, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells that had been differentiated from human induced-pluripotent stem cells in a fibrin scaffold and then culturing the construct on a dynamic (rocking) platform. METHODS:In vitro assessments of hCMPs suggest maturation in response to dynamic culture stimulation. In vivo assessments were conducted in a porcine model of myocardial infarction (MI). Animal groups included: MI hearts treated with 2 hCMPs (MI+hCMP, n=13), MI hearts treated with 2 cell-free open fibrin patches (n=14), or MI hearts with neither experimental patch (n=15); a fourth group of animals underwent sham surgery (Sham, n=8). Cardiac function and infarct size were evaluated by MRI, arrhythmia incidence by implanted loop recorders, and the engraftment rate by calculation of quantitative polymerase chain reaction measurements of expression of the human Y chromosome. Additional studies examined the myocardial protein expression profile changes and potential mechanisms of action that related to exosomes from the cell patch. RESULTS:The hCMPs began to beat synchronously within 1 day of fabrication, and after 7 days of dynamic culture stimulation, in vitro assessments indicated the mechanisms related to the improvements in electronic mechanical coupling, calcium-handling, and force generation, suggesting a maturation process during the dynamic culture. The engraftment rate was 10.9±1.8% at 4 weeks after the transplantation. The hCMP transplantation was associated with significant improvements in left ventricular function, infarct size, myocardial wall stress, myocardial hypertrophy, and reduced apoptosis in the periscar boarder zone myocardium. hCMP transplantation also reversed some MI-associated changes in sarcomeric regulatory protein phosphorylation. The exosomes released from the hCMP appeared to have cytoprotective properties that improved cardiomyocyte survival. CONCLUSIONS:We have fabricated a clinically relevant size of hCMP with trilineage cardiac cells derived from human induced-pluripotent stem cells. The hCMP matures in vitro during 7 days of dynamic culture. Transplantation of this type of hCMP results in significantly reduced infarct size and improvements in cardiac function that are associated with reduction in left ventricular wall stress. The hCMP treatment is not associated with significant changes in arrhythmogenicity.
Project description:We investigated the influence of syngeneic cardiomyocyte transplantation after myocardial infarction (MI) on the immune response and cardiac function. Methods and Results: We show for the first time that the immune response is altered as a result of syngeneic neonatal cardiomyocyte transplantation after MI leading to improved cardiac pump function as observed by magnetic resonance imaging in C57BL/6J mice. Interestingly, there was no improvement in the capillary density as well as infarct area as observed by CD31 and Sirius Red staining, respectively. Flow cytometric analysis revealed a significantly different response of monocyte-derived macrophages and regulatory T cells after cell transplantation. Interestingly, the inhibition of monocyte infiltration accompanied by cardiomyocyte transplantation diminished the positive effect of cell transplantation alone. The number of CD68+ macrophages in the remote area of the heart observed after four weeks was also different between the groups. Transcriptome analysis showed several changes in the gene expression involving circadian regulation, mitochondrial metabolism and immune responses after cardiomyocyte transplantation. Conclusion: Our work shows that cardiomyocyte transplantation alters the immune response after myocardial infarction with the recruited monocytes playing a role in the beneficial effect of cell transplantation. It also paves the way for further optimization of the efficacy of cardiomyocyte transplantation and their successful translation in the clinic.