An SNP linkage scan identifies significant Crohn's disease loci on chromosomes 13q13.3 and, in Jewish families, on 1p35.2 and 3q29.
ABSTRACT: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex genetic disorder of two major phenotypes, Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), with increased risk in Ashkenazi Jews. Twelve genome-wide linkage screens have identified multiple loci, but these screens have been of modest size and have used low-density microsatellite markers. We, therefore, performed a high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genome-wide linkage study of 993 IBD multiply affected pedigrees (25% Jewish ancestry) that contained 1709 IBD-affected relative pairs, including 919 CD-CD pairs and 312 UC-UC pairs. We identified a significant novel CD locus on chromosome 13p13.3 (peak logarithm of the odds (LOD) score=3.98) in all pedigrees, significant linkage evidence on chromosomes 1p35.1 (peak LOD score=3.5) and 3q29 (peak LOD score=3.19) in Jewish CD pedigrees, and suggestive loci for Jewish IBD on chromosome 10q22 (peak LOD score=2.57) and Jewish UC on chromosome 2q24 (peak LOD score=2.69). Nominal or greater linkage evidence was present for most previously designated IBD loci (IBD1-9), notably, IBD1 for CD families at chromosome 16q12.1 (peak LOD score=4.86) and IBD6 in non-Jewish UC families at chromosome 19p12 (peak LOD score=2.67). This study demonstrates the ability of high information content adequately powered SNP genome-wide linkage studies to identify loci not observed in multiple microsatellite-based studies in smaller cohorts.
Project description:Epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis of the idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Recent genome scans and replication studies have identified replicated linkage between CD and a locus on chromosome 16 (the IBD1 locus), replicated linkage between IBD (especially UC) and a locus on chromosome 12q (the IBD2 locus), and replicated linkage between IBD (especially CD) and a locus on chromosome 6p (the IBD3 locus). Since the estimated locus-specific lambdas values for the regions of replicated linkage do not account for the overall lambdas in CD, and since the published genome scans in IBD show at least nominal evidence for linkage to regions on all but two chromosomes, we performed an independent genome scan using 751 microsatellite loci in 127 CD-affected relative pairs from 62 families. Single-point nonparametric linkage analysis using the GENEHUNTER-PLUS program shows evidence for linkage to the adjacent D14S261 and D14S283 loci on chromosome 14q11-12 (LOD = 3.00 and 1.70, respectively), and the maximal multipoint LOD score is observed at D14S261 (LOD = 3.60). In the multipoint analysis, nominal evidence for linkage (P<.05) is observed near D2S117 (LOD = 1.25), near D3S3045 (LOD = 1.31), between D7S40 and D7S648 (LOD = 0.91), and near D18S61 (LOD = 1.15). Our finding of significant linkage to D14S261 and the finding of suggestive linkage to the same locus in an independent study (multipoint LOD = 2.8) satisfies criteria for confirmed linkage, so we propose that the region of interest on chromosome 14q11-12 should be designated the IBD4 locus.
Project description:Genetic epidemiological studies have shown that genetic factors are important in the pathogenesis of the idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn disease (CD), and ulcerative colitis (UC). A genome screen in the United Kingdom found linkage of IBD to a 41-cM region of chromosome 12, surrounding D12S83. We aimed to replicate this linkage and to narrow the region of interest. Nonparametric linkage analyses at microsatellites surrounding D12S83 were performed in 122 North American Caucasian families containing 208 genotyped IBD-affected relative pairs. Transmission/disequilibrium tests (TDTs) were also performed. We confirmed that IBD is linked to chromosome 12 (peak GENEHUNTER-PLUS LOD* score 2.76 [P = .00016] between D12S1724 and D12S90). The evidence for linkage is contributed by both the group of CD-affected relative pairs (peak GENEHUNTER-PLUS LOD* score 1.79 [P = .0021] between D12S1724 and D12S90) and the group of UC-affected relative pairs (peak GENEHUNTER-PLUS LOD* score 1.82 [P = .0019] at D12S335). The TDT is positive at the D12S83 locus (global chi2 = 16.41, 6 df, P = .012). In conclusion, we have independently confirmed linkage of IBD to the chromosome 12 region that we investigated. A positive TDT at D12S83 suggests that we have greatly narrowed the chromosome 12 region that contains an IBD locus.
Project description:The chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs)-Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC)-are idiopathic, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. These conditions have a peak incidence in early adulthood and a combined prevalence of approximately 100-200/100,000. Although the etiology of IBD is multifactorial, a significant genetic contribution to disease susceptibility is implied by epidemiological data revealing a sibling risk of approximately 35-fold for CD and approximately 15-fold for UC. To elucidate the genetic basis for these disorders, we undertook a genomewide scan in 158 Canadian sib-pair families and identified three regions of suggestive linkage (3p, 5q31-33, and 6p) and one region of significant linkage to 19p13 (LOD score 4.6). Higher-density mapping in the 5q31-q33 region revealed a locus of genomewide significance (LOD score 3.9) that contributes to CD susceptibility in families with early-onset disease. Both of these genomic regions contain numerous genes that are important to the immune and inflammatory systems and that provide good targets for future candidate-gene studies.
Project description:Crohn disease (CD) exhibits a 2-4-fold increased frequency in Jews as compared with other ethnic/racial groups. Three coding variants of the NOD2/CARD15 have been reported as independent disease-predisposing mutations (DPMs), but these were found in only 30%-40% of patients with CD and could not account for all the linkage between CD and the IBD1 locus. The aim of the present study was to explore whether additional DPMs at the IBD1 locus exist in the high-risk Jewish group. Sixty-four Ashkenazi Jewish and 147 non-Jewish white families were studied. Six microsatellite markers spanning IBD1 were genotyped for linkage analysis in subgroups stratified on NOD2/CARD15 DPM status. SNPs in NOD2/CARD15 (R702W, G908R, 1007fs, and S268P) were then genotyped in family and independent case-control samples. On the basis of initial results, sequencing was done on NOD2/CARD15-translated regions in 12 Jewish individuals. Subsequently, a new NOD2/CARD15 variant was genotyped and analyzed. After excluding the influence of the three DPMs, significant linkage of IBD1 to CD in Jews remained with two peaks at D16S403 (mean allele sharing [MAS] = 0.70] and D16S411 (MAS = 0.59). Further, we observed an increased frequency of a haplotype carrying only the 268S variant in Jewish patients (OR = 3.13, P=.0023) but not in non-Jews, suggesting the existence of a Jewish-specific additional disease-predisposing factor on this haplotype. Sequencing of this haplotype revealed a new variant (IVS8+158; JW1). The 268S-JW1 combination exhibited a further increased risk (OR = 5.75, P=.0005) and the highest population-attributable risk (15.1%) for CD among reported DPMs in Jews. In Ashkenazi Jews, unrecognized population-specific predisposing factor(s) exist on the 268S-JW1 haplotype at the IBD1 locus. This factor may contribute to the higher risk for CD in Ashkenazi Jews as compared with non-Jews.
Project description:The idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), are chronic, frequently disabling diseases of the intestines. Segregation analyses, twin concordance, and ethnic differences in familial risks have established that CD and UC are complex, non-Mendelian, related genetic disorders. We performed a genome-wide screen using 377 autosomal markers, on 297 CD, UC, or mixed relative pairs from 174 families, 37% Ashkenazim. We observed evidence for linkage at 3q for all families (multipoint logarithm of the odds score (MLod) = 2.29, P = 5.7 x 10(-4)), with greatest significance for non-Ashkenazim Caucasians (MLod = 3.39, P = 3.92 x 10(-5)), and at chromosome 1p (MLod = 2.65, P = 2.4 x 10(-4)) for all families. In a limited subset of mixed families (containing one member with CD and another with UC), evidence for linkage was observed on chromosome 4q (MLod = 2.76, P = 1.9 x 10(-4)), especially among Ashkenazim. There was confirmatory evidence for a CD locus, overlapping IBD1, in the pericentromeric region of chromosome 16 (MLod = 1.69, P = 2.6 x 10(-3)), particularly among Ashkenazim (MLod = 1.51, P = 7.8 x 10(-3)); however, positive MLod scores were observed over a very broad region of chromosome 16. Furthermore, evidence for epistasis between IBD1 and chromosome 1p was observed. Thirteen additional loci demonstrated nominal (MLod > 1.0, P < 0.016) evidence for linkage. This screen provides strong evidence that there are several major susceptibility loci contributing to the genetic risk for CD and UC.
Project description:Genetic factors play a significant role in determining inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) susceptibility. Epidemiologic data support genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of IBD, which include familial aggregation, twin studies, racial and ethnic differences in disease prevalence. Linkage studies have identified several susceptibility genes contained in different genomic regions named IBD1 to IBD9. Nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD2) and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes are the most extensively studied genetic regions (IBD1 and IBD3 respectively) in IBD. Mutations of the NOD2 gene are associated with Crohn's disease (CD) and several HLA genes are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) and CD. Toll like receptors (TLRs) have an important role in the innate immune response against infections by mediating recognition of pathogen-associated microbial patterns. Studying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in molecules involved in bacterial recognition seems to be essential to define genetic backgrounds at risk of IBD. Recently, numerous new genes have been identified to be involved in the genetic susceptibility to IBD: NOD1/Caspase-activation recruitment domains 4 (CARD4), Chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20), IL-11, and IL-18 among others. The characterization of these novel genes potentially will lead to the identification of therapeutic agents and clinical assessment of phenotype and prognosis in patients with IBD.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a clinically and, likely, genetically heterogeneous group of disorders. A recent report suggests that genetic variations in the TNFSF15 gene contribute to the susceptibility of IBD in both Japanese and Caucasian populations. The aim was to confirm the association between TNFSF15 high- and low-risk haplotypes and IBD in a Caucasian population.Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that comprise the 2 common haplotypes were genotyped in 599 Caucasian patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 382 Caucasian patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 230 ethnically matched healthy controls, including both Jews and non-Jews.The previously reported 'risk' haplotype was not associated with CD or UC (88.2% in CD cases versus 88.3% in controls, P = 0.96; 88.1% in UC cases versus 88.3% in controls, P = 0.78). We did, however, observe an increased frequency of the "protective" haplotype in non-Jewish controls for both CD and UC (38.8% CD cases versus 50% controls, P = 0.01; 37.3% UC cases versus 50% controls, P = 0.01) with no such effect observed in the Jewish samples. There was an interactive effect between ethnicity and the protective haplotype in CD (P = 0.04).We observed a protective haplotype, consisting of the minor alleles for all 5 markers, to have a higher frequency in the non-Jewish controls than in CD and UC. Of further interest, the haplotype frequency was in the opposite direction in our Jewish case-control panels (both CD and UC), leading us to conclude 1) that TNFSF15 is indeed an IBD susceptibility gene, and 2) the disease susceptibility is ethnic-specific.
Project description:MTHFR C677T is a common gene polymorphism that has been shown to be associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. Studies on the role of MTHFR in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have yielded conflicting results, perhaps due in part to genetic heterogeneity. The prevalence of the MTHFR C677T variant allele varies according to Jewish subpopulations: Ashkenazi vs non-Ashkenazi. The aim of this study was to examine the association between MTHFR C677T genotype and IBD in the different Jewish populations.DNA samples were assessed for the presence of the MTHFR C677T variant allele in 445 Jewish Israeli IBD patients: 338 with Crohn's disease [CD] (214 Ashkenazi and 124 non-Ashkenazi Jews) and 107 with ulcerative colitis [UC] (73 Ashkenazi and 34 non-Ashkenazi Jews), and in 347 healthy controls: 173 Ashkenazi and 174 Non-Ashkenazi Jews. Possible genotype-phenotype associations were investigated.We showed a significantly higher frequency of MTHFR 677T variant genotypes in non-Ashkenazi CD patients: Odds ratio of 1.86 for heterozygotes (CT) and 2.89 for homozygotes (TT) compared to non-Ashkenazi healthy controls. No significant association was found for UC in non-Ashkenazi patients or for CD or UC in Ashkenazi patients.Our findings suggest that the MTHFR 677T variant may contribute to the risk of CD in non-Ashkenazi but not Ashkenazi Jews. This may result from genetic heterogeneity and highlights the complexity of the genetic etiology of IBD.
Project description:The IL-23 receptor (IL-23R) has been found to be associated with small bowel Crohn's disease (CD) in a whole genome association study. Specifically, the rare allele of the R381Q single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) conferred protection against CD. It is unknown whether IL-23R is associated with IBD in children. The aim was to examine the association of IL-23R with susceptibility to IBD in pediatric patients.DNA was collected from 609 subjects (151 CD and 52 ulcerative colitis [UC] trios). Trios were genotyped for the R381Q SNP of the IL-23R gene and SNP8, SNP12, SNP13, of the CARD15 gene using Taqman. The transmission disequilibrium test (TDT) was used for association to disease using GENEHUNTER 2.0.The rare allele of R381Q SNP was present in 2.7% of CD and 2.9% UC probands. The CARD15 frequency was 31.5% (CD) and 18% (UC). The IL-23R allele was negatively associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): the R381Q SNP was undertransmitted in children with IBD (8 transmitted [T] versus 27 untransmitted [UT]; P = 0.001). This association was significant for all CD patients (6 T versus 19 UT; P = 0.009), especially for non-Jewish CD patients (2 T versus 17 UT; P = 0.0006). TDT showed a borderline association for UC (2 T versus 8 UT; P = 0.06). As expected, CARD15 was associated with CD in children by the TDT (58 T versus 22 UT P = 0.00006), but not with UC.The protective IL-23R R381Q variant was particularly associated with CD in non-Jewish children. Thus, the initial whole genome association study based on ileal CD in adults has been extended to the pediatric population and beyond small bowel CD.
Project description:Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by a chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation, typically starting in early adulthood. IBD is subdivided into two subtypes, on the basis of clinical and histologic features: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Previous genomewide searches identified regions harboring susceptibility loci on chromosomes 1, 3, 4, 7, 12, and 16. To expand our understanding of the genetic risk profile, we performed a 9-cM genomewide search for susceptibility loci in 268 families containing 353 affected sibling pairs. Previous linkages on chromosomes 12 and 16 were replicated, and the chromosome 4 linkage was extended in this sample. New suggestive evidence for autosomal linkages was observed on chromosomes 1, 6, 10, and 22, with LOD scores of 2.08, 2.07, 2.30, and 1.52, respectively. A maximum LOD score of 1.76 was observed on the X chromosome, for UC, which is consistent with the clinical association of IBD with Ullrich-Turner syndrome. The linkage finding on chromosome 6p is of interest, given the possible contribution of human leukocyte antigen and tumor necrosis-factor genes in IBD. This genomewide linkage scan, done with a large family cohort, has confirmed three previous IBD linkages and has provided evidence for five additional regions that may harbor IBD predisposition genes.