Class B scavenger receptor types I and II and CD36 targeting improves sepsis survival and acute outcomes in mice.
ABSTRACT: Class B scavenger receptors (SR-Bs), such as SR-BI/II or CD36, bind lipoproteins but also mediate bacterial recognition and phagocytosis. In evaluating whether blocking receptors can prevent intracellular bacterial proliferation, phagocyte cytotoxicity, and proinflammatory signaling in bacterial infection/sepsis, we found that SR-BI/II- or CD36-deficient phagocytes are characterized by a reduced intracellular bacterial survival and a lower cytokine response and were protected from bacterial cytotoxicity in the presence of antibiotics. Mice deficient in either SR-BI/II or CD36 are protected from antibiotic-treated cecal ligation and puncture (CLP)-induced sepsis, with greatly increased peritoneal granulocytic phagocyte survival (8-fold), a drastic diminution in peritoneal bacteria counts, and a 50-70% reduction in systemic inflammation (serum levels of IL-6, TNF-?, and IL-10) and organ damage relative to CLP in wild-type mice. The survival rate of CD36-deficient mice after CLP was 58% compared with 17% in control mice. When compensated for mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid deficiency, SR-BI/II-deficient mice had nearly a 50% survival rate versus 5% in mineralo-/glucocorticoid-treated controls. Targeting SR-B receptors with L-37pA, a peptide that functions as an antagonist of SR-BI/II and CD36 receptors, also increased peritoneal granulocyte counts, as well as reduced peritoneal bacteria and bacterium-induced cytokine secretion. In the CLP mouse sepsis model, L-37pA improved survival from 6 to 27%, reduced multiple organ damage, and improved kidney function. These results demonstrate that the reduction of both SR-BI/II- and CD36-dependent bacterial invasion and inflammatory response in the presence of antibiotic treatment results in granulocyte survival and local bacterial containment, as well as reduces systemic inflammation and organ damage and improves animal survival during severe infections.
Project description:Lymphocytes have been shown to facilitate systemic inflammation and physiologic dysfunction in experimental models of severe sepsis. Our previous studies show that natural killer (NK) cells migrate into the peritoneal cavity during intraabdominal sepsis, but the trafficking of NKT and T lymphocytes has not been determined. The factors that regulate lymphocyte trafficking during sepsis are currently unknown.To ascertain the importance of CXC chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) as a regulator of lymphocyte trafficking during sepsis and determine the contribution of CXCR3-mediated lymphocyte trafficking to the pathogenesis of septic shock.Lymphocyte trafficking was evaluated in control and CXCR3-deficient mice using flow cytometry during sepsis caused by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Survival, core temperature, cytokine production, and bacterial clearance were measured as pathobiological endpoints.This study shows that concentrations of the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9 (monokine induced by interferon ?, MIG) and CXCL10 (interferon ?-induced protein 10, IP-10) increase in plasma and the peritoneal cavity after CLP, peak at 8 hours after infection, and are higher in the peritoneal cavity than in plasma. The numbers of CXCR3(+) NK cells progressively decreased in spleen after CLP with a concomitant increase within the peritoneal cavity, a pattern that was ablated in CXCR3-deficient mice. CXCR3-dependent recruitment of T cells was also evident at 16 hours after CLP. Treatment of mice with anti-CXCR3 significantly attenuated CLP-induced hypothermia, decreased systemic cytokine production, and improved survival.CXCR3 regulates NK- and T-cell trafficking during sepsis and blockade of CXCR3 attenuates the pathogenesis of septic shock.
Project description:Class B scavenger receptors (SR-B) are lipoprotein receptors that also mediate pathogen recognition, phagocytosis, and clearance as well as pathogen-induced signaling. In this study we report that three members of the SR-B family, namely, CLA-1, CLA-2, and CD36, mediate recognition of bacteria not only through interaction with cell wall LPS but also with cytosolic chaperonin 60. HeLa cells stably transfected with any of these SR-Bs demonstrated markedly (3- to 5-fold) increased binding and endocytosis of Escherichia coli, LPS, and chaperonin 60 (GroEL) as revealed by both FACS analysis and confocal microscopy imaging. Increased pathogen (E. coli, LPS, and GroEL) binding to SR-Bs was also associated with the dose-dependent stimulation of cytokine secretion in the order of CD36 > CLA-2 > CLA-1 in HEK293 cells. Pathogen-induced IL-6-secretion was reduced in macrophages from CD36- and SR-BI/II-null mice by 40-50 and 30-40%, respectively. Intravenous GroEL administration increased plasma IL-6 and CXCL1 levels in mice. The cytokine responses were 40-60% lower in CD36(-/-) relative to wild-type mice, whereas increased cytokine responses were found in SR-BI/II(-/-) mice. While investigating the discrepancy of in vitro versus in vivo data in SR-BI/II deficiency, SR-BI/II(-/-) mice were found to respond to GroEL administration without increases in either plasma corticosterone or aldosterone as normally seen in wild-type mice. SR-BI/II(-/-) mice with mineralocorticoid replacement demonstrated an ?40-50% reduction in CXCL1 and IL-6 responses. These results demonstrate that, by recognizing and mediating inflammatory signaling of both bacterial cell wall LPS and cytosolic GroEL, all three SR-B family members play important roles in innate immunity and host defense.
Project description:Neutrophils are critical for the rapid eradication of bacterial pathogens, but they also contribute to the development of multiple organ failure in sepsis. We hypothesized that increasing early recruitment of neutrophils to the focus of infection will increase bacterial clearance and improve survival. Sepsis was induced in mice, using cecal ligation and puncture (CLP); blood samples were collected at 6 and 24 h; and survival was followed for 28 d. In separate experiments, peritoneal bacteria and inflammatory cells were measured. Septic mice predicted to die based on IL-6 levels (Die-P) had higher concentrations of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in the peritoneum and plasma compared with those predicted to live (Live-P). At 6 h, Live-P and Die-P had equivalent numbers of peritoneal neutrophils and bacteria. In Die-P mice the number of peritoneal bacteria increased between 6 and 24 h post-CLP, whereas in Live-P it decreased. The i.p. injection of CXCL1 and CXCL2 in naive mice resulted in local neutrophil recruitment. When given immediately after CLP, CXC chemokines increased peritoneal neutrophil recruitment at 6 h after CLP. This early increase in neutrophils induced by exogenous chemokines resulted in significantly fewer peritoneal bacteria by 24 h [CFU (log) = 6.04 versus 4.99 for vehicle versus chemokine treatment; p < 0.05]. Chemokine treatment significantly improved survival at both 5 d (40 versus 72%) and 28 d (27 versus 52%; p < 0.02 vehicle versus chemokines). These data demonstrate that early, local treatment with CXC chemokines enhances neutrophil recruitment and clearance of bacteria as well as improves survival in the CLP model of sepsis.
Project description:CD36 and LIMPII analog 1, CLA-1, and its splicing variant, CLA-2 (SR-BI and SR-BII in rodents), are human high density lipoprotein receptors with an identical extracellular domain which binds a spectrum of ligands including bacterial cell wall components. In this study, CLA-1- and CLA-2-stably transfected HeLa and HEK293 cells demonstrated several-fold increases in the uptake of various bacteria over mock-transfected cells. All bacteria tested, including both Gram-negatives (Escherichia coli K12, K1 and Salmonella typhimurium) and Gram-positives (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes), demonstrated various degrees of lower uptake in control cells. This result is consistent with the presence of high-density lipoprotein-receptor-independent bacterial uptake that is enhanced by CLA-1/CLA-2 overexpression. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides, lipoteichoic acid, and synthetic amphipathic helical peptides (L-37pA and D-37pA) competed with E. coli K12 for CLA-1 and CLA-2 binding. Transmission electron microscopy and confocal microscopy revealed cytosolic accumulation of bacteria in CLA-1/CLA-2-overexpressing HeLa cells. The antibiotic protection assay confirmed that E. coli K12 was able to survive and replicate intracellularly in CLA-1- and CLA-2-overexpressing HeLa, but both L-37pA and D-37pA prevented E. coli K12 invasion. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from SR-BI/BII-knockout mice demonstrated a 30% decrease in bacterial uptake when compared with macrophages from normal mice. Knockout macrophages were also characterized by decreased bacterial cytosolic invasion, ubiquitination, and proteasome mobilization while retaining bacterial lysosomal accumulation. These results indicate that, by facilitating bacterial adhesion and cytosolic invasion, CLA-1 and CLA-2 may play an important role in infection and sepsis.
Project description:Scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), a CD36 superfamily member, is an oligomeric high density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor that mediates negatively cooperative HDL binding and selective lipid uptake. We identified in the N-terminal transmembrane (N-TM) domain of SR-BI a conserved glycine dimerization motif, G(15)X(2)G(18)X(3)AX(2)G(25), of which the submotif G(18)X(3)AX(2)G(25) significantly contributes to homodimerization and lipid uptake activity. SR-BI variants were generated by mutations (single or multiple Gly ? Leu substitutions) or by replacing the N-TM domain with those from other CD36 superfamily members containing (croquemort) or lacking (lysosomal integral membrane protein (LIMP) II) this glycine motif (chimeras). None of the SR-BI variants exhibited altered surface expression (based on antibody binding) or HDL binding. However, the G15L/G18L/G25L triple mutant exhibited reductions in cell surface homo-oligomerization (>10-fold) and the rate of selective lipid uptake (? 2-fold). Gly(18) and Gly(25) were necessary for normal lipid uptake activity of SR-BI and the SR-BI/croquemort chimera. The lipid uptake activity of the glycine motif-deficient SR-BI/LIMP II chimera was low but could be increased by introducing glycines at positions 18 and 25. The rate of lipid uptake mediated by SR-BI/LIMP II chimeras was proportional to the extent of receptor oligomerization. Thus, the glycine dimerization motif G(18)X(3)AX(2)G(25) in the N-TM domain of SR-BI contributes substantially to the homo-oligomerization and lipid transport activity of SR-BI but does not influence the negative cooperativity of HDL binding. Oligomerization-independent binding cooperativity suggests that classic allostery is not involved and that the negative cooperativity is probably the consequence of a "lattice effect" (interligand steric interference accompanying binding to adjacent receptors).
Project description:Carboxypeptidase B2 (CPB2) is a basic carboxypeptidase with fibrin and complement C3a and C5a as physiological substrates. We hypothesized that in polymicrobial sepsis, CPB2-deficient mice would have sustained C5a activity, leading to disease exacerbation.Polymicrobial sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP).Contrary to our hypothesis, Cpb2(-/-) mice had significantly improved survival, with reduced lung edema, less liver and kidney damage, and less disseminated intravascular coagulation. Hepatic pro-CPB2 was induced by CLP, leading to increased pro-CPB2 levels. Thrombomodulin present on mesothelium supported thrombin activation of pro-CPB2. Both wild-type and Cpb2(-/-) animals treated with a C5a receptor antagonist had improved survival, demonstrating that C5a was detrimental in this model. Treatment with a fibrinolysis inhibitor, tranexamic acid, caused a decrease in survival in both genotypes; however, the Cpb2(-/-) animals retained their survival advantage. Administration of a C3a receptor antagonist exacerbated the disease in both wild-type and Cpb2(-/-) mice and eliminated the survival advantage of Cpb2(-/-) mice. C5a receptor is expressed in both peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils; in contrast, C3a receptor expression is restricted to peritoneal macrophages, and C3a induced signaling in macrophages but not neutrophils.While C5a exacerbates the peritonitis, resulting in a deleterious generalized inflammatory state, C3a activation of peritoneal macrophages may limit the initial infection following CLP, thereby playing a diametrically opposing protective role in this polymicrobial sepsis model.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sepsis is associated with high mortality rates in intensive care units worldwide and represents a systemic inflammatory response to infection. P2X7 is an ionotropic purine receptor with known proinflammatory activity. Here, we investigated the role of the P2X7 receptor in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). METHODS:Wild-type (WT) and P2X7KO (P2X7 null) mice were subjected to CLP and their survival was monitored for 7 days. Blood, peritoneal wash and lungs were collected 24 h after CLP and used to measure bacterial load, immune cell infiltration, nitric oxide (NO), cytokine levels, and peritoneal cell death and to assess lung injury. RESULTS:P2X7KO mice showed significantly increased survival 7 days after CLP (30% compared to 60% in WT animals) accompanied by an overall attenuated inflammatory response, with decreased cell recruitment to the peritoneum, no or limited increases in the levels of NO and proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6, IL-12, IL-17, and IL-4), reduced peritoneal cell apoptosis, and less pronounced lung infiltration and morphological changes. CONCLUSIONS:Our data show the P2X7 receptor is required for the development of the inflammatory response associated with sepsis and support the notion that P2X7 receptor is a valid therapeutic target against inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in intensive care units. Previously, we identified Protein Kinase C-delta (PKC?) as an important regulator of the inflammatory response in sepsis. An important issue in development of anti-inflammatory therapeutics is the risk of immunosuppression and inability to effectively clear pathogens. In this study, we investigated whether PKC? inhibition prevented organ dysfunction and improved survival without compromising pathogen clearance. Sprague Dawley rats underwent sham surgery or cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) to induce sepsis. Post-surgery, PBS or a PKC? inhibitor (200µg/kg) was administered intra-tracheally (IT). At 24 hours post-CLP, there was evidence of lung and kidney dysfunction. PKC? inhibition decreased leukocyte influx in these organs, decreased endothelial permeability, improved gas exchange, and reduced blood urea nitrogen/creatinine ratios indicating organ protection. PKC? inhibition significantly decreased bacterial levels in the peritoneal cavity, spleen and blood but did not exhibit direct bactericidal properties. Peritoneal chemokine levels, neutrophil numbers, or macrophage phenotypes were not altered by PKC? inhibition. Peritoneal macrophages isolated from PKC? inhibitor-treated septic rats demonstrated increased bacterial phagocytosis. Importantly, PKC? inhibition increased survival. Thus, PKC? inhibition improved survival and improved survival was associated with increased phagocytic activity, enhanced pathogen clearance, and decreased organ injury.
Project description:LL-37 is the only known member of the cathelicidin family of antimicrobial peptides in humans. In addition to its broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities, LL-37 can modulate various inflammatory reactions. We previously revealed that LL-37 suppresses the LPS/ATP-induced pyroptosis of macrophages in vitro by both neutralizing the action of LPS and inhibiting the response of P2X7 (a nucleotide receptor) to ATP. Thus, in this study, we further evaluated the effect of LL-37 on pyroptosis in vivo using a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) sepsis model. As a result, the intravenous administration of LL-37 improved the survival of the CLP septic mice. Interestingly, LL-37 inhibited the CLP-induced caspase-1 activation and pyroptosis of peritoneal macrophages. Moreover, LL-37 modulated the levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?) in both peritoneal fluids and sera, and suppressed the activation of peritoneal macrophages (as evidenced by the increase in the intracellular levels of IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-?). Finally, LL-37 reduced the bacterial burdens in both peritoneal fluids and blood samples. Together, these observations suggest that LL-37 improves the survival of CLP septic mice by possibly suppressing the pyroptosis of macrophages, and inflammatory cytokine production by activated macrophages and bacterial growth. Thus, the present findings imply that LL-37 can be a promising candidate for sepsis because of its many functions, such as the inhibition of pyroptosis, modulation of inflammatory cytokine production and antimicrobial activity.
Project description:High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) are athero-protective, primarily because of their ability to promote cholesterol flux from peripheral tissues to the liver by reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). The delivery of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into cells is mediated by the HDL receptor, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI), a promising target for enhancing whole body cholesterol disposal and preventing cardiovascular disease. A detailed understanding of the structural determinants underlying proper SR-BI/HDL alignment that supports the selective uptake of HDL-CE into cells remains lacking. To this end, we exploited CD36, a class B scavenger receptor with a predicted topology similar to that of SR-BI that binds HDL but is unable to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-CE. We generated a series of SR-BI/CD36 chimeric receptors that span the extracellular (EC) domain of SR-BI to delineate regions that are essential for SR-BI's cholesterol transport functions. All 16 SR-BI/CD36 chimeras were transiently expressed in COS-7 cells, and their plasma membrane localization was confirmed. The majority of SR-BI/CD36 chimeric receptors displayed significant reductions in their ability to (i) bind HDL, (ii) deliver HDL-CE to cells, (iii) mediate efflux of free cholesterol (FC) to HDL, and (iv) redistribute plasma membrane domains of FC. We also demonstrated that changes in SR-BI function were independent of receptor oligomerization. Altogether, we have identified discrete subdomains, particularly in the N-terminal and C-terminal regions of the EC domain of SR-BI, that are critical for productive receptor-ligand interactions and the various cholesterol transport functions of SR-BI.