Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy - A Life-Long Risk?!
ABSTRACT: Background: Arterial hypertension is one of the most important causes of cardiovascular diseases, and the latter are responsible for almost half of the deaths in the industrialised nations. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy constitute one of the most frequent causes of feto-maternal morbidity and mortality; on the other hand the occurrence of a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy represents a risk for the later development of hypertension and the cardiovascular risks resulting therefrom. The aim of this article is to demonstrate the association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with consecutive cardiovascular diseases. Materials and Methods: Specific selective literature research. Results: After the occurrence of a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy the relative risks for hypertension are 3.7 (2.70-5.05), for ischaemic heart disease 2.2 (1.86-2.52), for cerebral insult 1.8 (1.45-2.27) and for mortality resulting from cardiovascular causes 1.5 (1.05-2.14) and are thus significant. According to a recent study 56?% of internal specialists and 23?% of gynecologists do not know about the association of preeclampsia with ischemic heart disease, 48?% and 38?% respectively are not aware of the link with stroke and 79?% and 77?% respectively are not aware of the association with a reduced life expectancy after preeclampsia. The presence of hypertension is not known by many of the patients, merely 28-38?% receive an appropriate therapy. Conclusion: Adequate follow-up after hypertensive disorders of pregnancy and the early recognition of and therapy for hypertension represent the cornerstones in the prevention of late cardiovascular sequelae. General practitioners, specialist for internal medicine and gynaecologists have a special responsibility with regard to the reduction of later complications.
Project description:Background Women with hypertensive pregnancy disorders have adverse levels of cardiovascular risk factors. It is unclear how this adverse risk factor profile evolves during adult life. We compared life course trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors in women with preeclampsia or gestational hypertension in their first pregnancy to normotensive women. Methods and Results We linked information on cardiovascular risk factors from the population-based HUNT (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) surveys with pregnancy information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Trajectories of cardiovascular risk factors were constructed for 22 308 women with a normotensive first pregnancy; 1092 with preeclampsia, and 478 with gestational hypertension in first pregnancy. Already before first pregnancy, women with preeclampsia in their first pregnancy had higher measures of adiposity, blood pressure, heart rate, and serum lipids and glucose compared with women with a normotensive first pregnancy. After first pregnancy, there was a parallel development in cardiovascular risk factor levels, but women with a normotensive first pregnancy had a time lag of >10 years compared with the preeclampsia group. There were no clear differences in risk factor trajectories between women with gestational hypertension and women with preeclampsia. Conclusions Women with hypertensive pregnancy disorders in their first pregnancy had an adverse cardiovascular risk factor profile before pregnancy compared with normotensive women, and the differences persisted beyond 50 years of age. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy signal long-term increases in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, and may be used to identify women who would benefit from early prevention strategies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Positive associations have been found between Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and cardiovascular diseases within non-African populations, no data exist from sub-Saharan Africa. We aimed to assess this association in Cameroonian mothers. METHODS:We used a case-control study. Cases were women diagnosed with any arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease between 2012 and 2017 at two major hospitals of Yaoundé. Controls were mothers of children who sought pediatric care at the Gyneco-obstetric hospital of Yaoundé, with no diagnosis of cardiovascular disease. We abstracted data from patient files to assess cardiovascular disease and used phone-based questionnaires to assess a prior history of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy. We used logistic regression and propensity scores for data analysis. RESULTS:Out of 1228 individuals selected, 173 cases and 339 controls participated in the study. We found no increased risk of cardiovascular diseases for women with a history of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (OR = 0.83, 95% CI, 0.51 to 1.34). Women with gestational hypertension had 2.33 (95% CI, 0.99 to 5.50) times the risk of women with no history of Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy, an inverse association was observed between preeclampsia and cardiovascular diseases (OR = 0.28, 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.72). CONCLUSIONS:Cameroonian women with a history of gestational hypertension may have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, population-based studies with more accurate data on the exposure are needed.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Hypertension and obesity are common cardiometabolic risk factors in reproductive age women. The association of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy with later-life cardiovascular disease is well-established, however, it is unknown how obesity and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy converge to accelerate development of hypertension in the postpartum period. The aim of this study was to characterize rates of sustained hypertension at one year postpartum using the new American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Guidelines among overweight and obese women with a normotensive pregnancy or hypertensive disorder of pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN:315 early pregnant women were enrolled prospectively and followed up to 12?months after delivery (mean 7.0?±?1.8?months). At a postpartum research visit, we measured blood pressure and collected blood samples to measure cystatin C and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. RESULTS:A total of 254 women had a normotensive pregnancy, 39 had gestational hypertension (12.4%) and 22 had preeclampsia (7.0%). 91 women had hypertension at the postpartum study visit (28.9%). After adjustment for maternal age, BMI, lactation and time postpartum, preeclampsia was associated with an aOR 2.35 (95%CI 1.63-3.41) of development of sustained hypertension and an aOR 3.23 (95%CI 1.56-6.68) of hypertension with abnormal biomarkers compared to women with normotensive pregnancies. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrate a high prevalence of hypertension and abnormal biomarkers associated with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy among overweight and obese women. Our findings support the need for structured follow up and risk reduction in overweight and obese women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy as early as the first year postpartum.
Project description:Women with a history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are at an increased risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in later life. Lactation has been associated with a reduced risk of maternal hypertension, both in the postpartum period and later life. However, little is known about whether lactation is also cardioprotective in women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy such as preeclampsia or gestational hypertension.This study aimed to characterize the relationship between lactation and postpartum blood pressure among women with preeclampsia and gestational hypertension.Data were obtained from women who participated in the Prenatal Exposures and Preeclampsia Prevention study (n = 379; 66% African American; 85% overweight or obese). Women enrolled during pregnancy and attended a postpartum visit (on average, 9.1 months after delivery) during which data on lactation duration and blood pressure were collected. The significance of the associations between postpartum blood pressure and lactation among women who remained normotensive during pregnancy, developed gestational hypertension, or developed preeclampsia were assessed with an analysis of variance. Linear regression models were used to adjust for maternal age, race, education, prepregnancy weight, and time since delivery.Gestational hypertension affected 42 subjects (11%) and preeclampsia affected 33 (9%). Lactation was reported by 217 (57%) with 78 (21%) reporting ? 6 months of lactation. Women who lactated were somewhat older, more educated, and had higher socioeconomic status. Among women who had gestational hypertension, lactation was associated with lower systolic blood pressure (P = .02) and diastolic blood pressure (P = .02). This association persisted after adjustment for age, race, education, prepregnancy weight, and time since delivery. However, for women who had preeclampsia and women who remained normotensive during pregnancy, lactation was not associated with postpartum blood pressure in either bivariate or multivariate analyses.This study found that lactation is associated with lower postpartum blood pressure among overweight women who develop gestational hypertension but not among women who develop preeclampsia. Future studies are needed to explore the association of lactation and blood pressure in later life for women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy.
Project description:Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy complicate up to 10% of pregnancies worldwide, constituting one of the most significant causes of maternal morbidity and mortality. Hypertensive disorders, specifically gestational hypertension, chronic hypertension, and preeclampsia, throughout pregnancy are contributors to the top causes of maternal mortality in the United States. Diagnosis of hypertensive disorders throughout pregnancy is challenging, with many disorders often remaining unrecognized or poorly managed during and after pregnancy. Moreover, the research has identified a strong link between the prevalence of maternal hypertensive disorders and racial and ethnic disparities. Factors that influence the prevalence of maternal hypertensive disorders among racially and ethnically diverse women include maternal age, level of education, United States-born status, nonmetropolitan residence, prepregnancy obesity, excess weight gain during pregnancy, and gestational diabetes. Examination of the factors that increase the risk for maternal hypertensive disorders along with the current interventions utilized to manage hypertensive disorders will assist in the identification of gaps in prevention and treatment strategies and implications for future practice. Specific focus will be placed on disparities among racially and ethnically diverse women that increase the risk for maternal hypertensive disorders. This review will serve to promote the development of interventions and strategies that better address and prevent hypertensive disorders throughout a pregnant woman's continuum of care.
Project description:First pregnancy characteristics and blood pressure (BP) measures may be associated with second pregnancy hypertensive disorder risk. We examined the association between first pregnancy risk factors and second pregnancy hypertensive disorders.Electronic medical records of nulliparas (n = 26,787) delivering at least twice in Utah (2002-2010) were used. Polychotomous logistic regression models estimated the association of first pregnancy risk factors with second pregnancy hypertensive disorders (gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, or chronic hypertension) stratified by first pregnancy hypertensive status and adjusted for second characteristics.Among normotensive women in their first pregnancy, preterm birth (<34 weeks) and elevated BP at delivery admission in the first pregnancy increased odds of all incident hypertensive disorders in the second. Even borderline admission BP (either systolic or diastolic BP: 130-139 or 85-89 mm Hg, respectively) was associated with a doubling of hypertensive disorder risk in a subsequent pregnancy. First pregnancy BP was also associated with recurrence risks for hypertensive disorders, but the relation was stronger for women with gestational hypertension in their first pregnancy with more than 2-fold elevated risk across all BP categories (odds ratios range: 2.32-12.6). However, the majority of women (75%) with a hypertensive disorder in the first pregnancy do not repeat this outcome in the second pregnancy.Delivery admission BP of a first pregnancy was strongly related to hypertensive disorder incidence and recurrence in the subsequent pregnancy. Although crude, these measures may prove useful as a predictor of long-term maternal health and future pregnancy risk.
Project description:Background: Women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease in later life. We sought to determine the association between lactation and markers of maternal cardiovascular health among postpartum women with and without hypertensive disorders of pregnancy via measures of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein [hsCRP]) and renal function (cystatin C). Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study enrolled primarily overweight and obese women during early pregnancy. At a postpartum study visit occurring 6-24 months after delivery, we collected data on lactation duration and measured hsCRP and cystatin C. We assessed associations between lactation duration and levels of hsCRP and cystatin C among normotensive women and women with preeclampsia or gestational hypertension using analysis of variance and chi-squared tests. Linear regression models adjusted for age, race, education, prepregnancy body mass index, current smoking, and time since delivery. Results: Of 425 women, 37 (9%) had preeclampsia and 48 (11%) had gestational hypertension during enrollment pregnancy. The postpartum visit occurred at a mean of 8.6?±?4.4 months after delivery. Women with a history of preeclampsia had significantly higher levels of cystatin C (mean 0.86 versus 0.78?mg/L; p?=?0.03) compared with normotensive women, but nonsignificant elevation in hsCRP (mean 8.39 versus 6.04?mg/L; p?=?0.08). Women with gestational hypertension had no differences in mean hsCRP or cystatin C compared with normotensive women. Among the 237 women with any lactation, 78 (18%) lactated for at least 6 months. Lactation duration both in the overall sample and among women with gestational hypertension or preeclampsia was not associated with levels of hsCRP or cystatin C. Conclusions: Preeclampsia history was associated with elevated postpartum levels of cystatin C; however, duration of lactation was not associated with postpartum hsCRP or cystatin C, regardless of history of gestational hypertension or preeclampsia. Further research is needed on mechanisms through which lactation may affect maternal risk of cardiovascular disease.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preeclampsia, a new-onset hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, is associated with lifetime cardiovascular disease risk, but less is known about risk after other pregnancy-related hypertension. METHODS AND RESULTS:The Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 included all expected births from 1 year (N=12 055 women). Blood pressure measurements and other prospective data were determined from prenatal care records and questionnaires for 10 314 women. Subsequent diagnoses were ascertained from Finnish registries (average follow-up, 39.4 years). Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) estimate risks in hypertensive women compared with normotensive women. Hypertension during pregnancy was associated with increased risk of subsequent cardiovascular disease and arterial hypertension. Women with chronic hypertension and superimposed preeclampsia/eclampsia had high risk for future diseases. Gestational hypertension was associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (HR, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.24-1.68]), myocardial infarcts (HR, 1.75 [95% CI, 1.40-2.19]), myocardial infarct death (HR, 3.00 [95% CI, 1.98-4.55]), heart failure (HR, 1.78 [95% CI, 1.43-2.21]), ischemic stroke (HR, 1.59 [95% CI, 1.24-2.04]), kidney disease (HR, 1.91 [95% CI, 1.18-3.09]), and diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.52 [95% CI, 1.21-1.89]). Isolated systolic hypertension was associated with increased risk of myocardial infarct death (HR, 2.15 [95% CI, 1.35-3.41]), heart failure (HR, 1.43 [95% CI, 1.13-1.82]), and diabetes mellitus (HR, 1.42 [95% CI, 1.13-1.78]), whereas isolated diastolic hypertension was associated with increased risk of ischemic heart disease (HR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.05-1.50]). Results were similar in nonsmoking women aged <35 years with normal weight and no diabetes mellitus during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS:Elevated blood pressure during pregnancy, regardless of type and even without known risk factors, signals high risk of later cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease, and diabetes mellitus. Clinical monitoring, risk factor evaluation, and early intervention could benefit women with hypertension in pregnancy.
Project description:Preeclampsia, a cardiovascular disorder of late pregnancy, is characterized as a low-renin hypertensive state relative to normotensive pregnancy. Because other nonpregnant low-renin hypertensive disorders often exhibit and are occasionally dependent on elevated arginine vasopressin (AVP) secretion, we hypothesized a possible use for plasma AVP measurements in the prediction of preeclampsia. Copeptin is an inert prosegment of AVP that is secreted in a 1:1 molar ratio and exhibits a substantially longer biological half-life compared with AVP, rendering it a clinically useful biomarker of AVP secretion. Copeptin was measured throughout pregnancy in maternal plasma from preeclamptic and control women. Maternal plasma copeptin was significantly higher throughout preeclamptic pregnancies versus control pregnancies. While controlling for clinically significant confounders (age, body mass index, chronic essential hypertension, twin gestation, diabetes mellitus, and history of preeclampsia) using multivariate regression, the association of higher copeptin concentration and the development of preeclampsia remained significant. Receiver operating characteristic analyses reveal that as early as the sixth week of gestation, elevated maternal plasma copeptin concentration is a highly significant predictor of preeclampsia throughout pregnancy. Finally, chronic infusion of AVP during pregnancy (24 ng per hour) is sufficient to phenocopy preeclampsia in C57BL/6J mice, causing pregnancy-specific hypertension, renal glomerular endotheliosis, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. These data implicate AVP release as a novel predictive biomarker for preeclampsia very early in pregnancy, identify chronic AVP infusion as a novel and clinically relevant model of preeclampsia in mice, and are consistent with a potential causative role for AVP in preeclampsia in humans.
Project description:RESEARCH QUESTION:In women with singleton pregnancies conceived after assisted reproductive technologies, does the in vitro fertilization with oocyte donation (IVF-OD) affect the perinatal and maternal outcomes compared to autologous in vitro fertilization (IVF-AO)? DESIGN:Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing perinatal and maternal outcomes in singleton pregnancies resulting from IVF-OD versus IVF-AO. An electronic literature search in Pubmed, MEDLINE, and Cochrane database was performed. The main outcome measures were hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, preeclampsia, severe preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preterm birth, early preterm birth, low birth weight, and very low birth weight. RESULTS:Twenty-three studies were included. IVF-OD is associated with a higher risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (OR 2.63, 2.17-3.18), preeclampsia (OR 2.64; 2.29-3.04), severe preeclampsia (OR 3.22; 2.30-4.49), pregnancy-induced hypertension (OR 2.16; 1.79-2.62), preterm birth (OR 1.57; 1.33-1.86), early preterm birth (OR 1.80; 1.51-2.15), low birth weight (OR 1.25, 1.20-1.30), very low birth weight (OR 1.37, 1.22-1.54), gestational diabetes (OR 1.27; 1.03-1.56), and cesarean section (OR 2.28; 2.14-2.42). There was no significant difference in the risk of preterm birth or low birth weight when adjusted for preeclampsia. CONCLUSIONS:IVF-OD patients should be considered an independent risk factor for some adverse perinatal outcomes, mainly hypertensive disorders in pregnancy, preeclampsia, and severe preeclampsia. Immunological and hormonal aspects may be involved in these results, and further research focusing in the etiopathogenesis of these pathologies are needed.