KDM2A promotes lung tumorigenesis by epigenetically enhancing ERK1/2 signaling.
ABSTRACT: Epigenetic dysregulation has emerged as a major contributor to tumorigenesis. Histone methylation is a well-established mechanism of epigenetic regulation that is dynamically modulated by histone methyltransferases and demethylases. The pathogenic role of histone methylation modifiers in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), which is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, remains largely unknown. Here, we found that the histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) demethylase KDM2A (also called FBXL11 and JHDM1A) is frequently overexpressed in NSCLC tumors and cell lines. KDM2A and its catalytic activity were required for in vitro proliferation and invasion of KDM2A-overexpressing NSCLC cells. KDM2A overexpression in NSCLC cells with low KDM2A levels increased cell proliferation and invasiveness. KDM2A knockdown abrogated tumor growth and invasive abilities of NSCLC cells in mouse xenograft models. We identified dual-specificity phosphatase 3 (DUSP3) as a key KDM2A target gene and found that DUSP3 dephosphorylates ERK1/2 in NSCLC cells. KDM2A activated ERK1/2 through epigenetic repression of DUSP3 expression via demethylation of dimethylated H3K36 at the DUSP3 locus. High KDM2A levels correlated with poor prognosis in NSCLC patients. These findings uncover an unexpected role for a histone methylation modifier in activating ERK1/2 in lung tumorigenesis and metastasis, suggesting that KDM2A may be a promising therapeutic target in NSCLC.
Project description:The lysine demethylase KDM2A (also known as JHDM1A or FBXL11) demethylates histone H3 at lysine K36 which lead to epigenetic regulation of cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. However, many biological processes are mediated by KDM2A independently by its histone demethylation activity. In the present study, we aimed to characterize the functional significance of KDM2A in multiple myeloma (MM) disease progression. Specifically, we defined that one of the key enzymes of glycolysis PFKFB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase) is ubiquitylated by KDM2A which suppresses MM cell proliferation. Previous study showed that KDM2A and PFKFB3 promoted angiogenesis in various tumor cells. We further reveal that KDM2A targets PFKFB3 for ubiquitination and degradation to inhibit angiogenesis. Several angiogenic cytokines are also downregulated in MM. Clinically, MM patients with low KDM2A and high PFKFB3 levels have shown worse prognosis. These results reveal a novel function of KDM2A through ubiquitin ligase activity by targeting PFKFB3 to induce proliferation, glycolysis and angiogenesis in MM cells. The data provides a new potential mechanism and strategy for MM treatment.
Project description:The Ink4a-Arf-Ink4b locus has a crucial role in both cellular senescence and tumorigenesis. JmjC domain-containing histone demethylase 1b (Jhdm1b, also known as Kdm2b and Fbxl10), the mammalian paralog of the histone demethylase Jhdm1a (also known as Kdm2a and Fbxl11), has been implicated in cell-cycle regulation and tumorigenesis. In this report, we show that Jhdm1b is a histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36) demethylase. Knockdown of Jhdm1b in primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts inhibits cell proliferation and induces cellular senescence in a pRb- and p53 pathway-dependent manner. Notably, the effect of Jhdm1b on cell proliferation and cellular senescence is mediated through derepression of p15(Ink4b), as loss of p15(Ink4b) function rescues cell-proliferation defects in Jhdm1b-knockdown cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation on ectopically expressed Jhdm1b demonstrates that Jhdm1b targets the p15(Ink4b) locus and regulates its expression in an enzymatic activity-dependent manner. Alteration of Jhdm1b level affects Ras-induced neoplastic transformation. Collectively, our results indicate that Jhdm1b is an H3K36 demethylase that regulates cell proliferation and senescence through p15(Ink4b).
Project description:The rate-limiting step in ribosome biogenesis is the transcription of ribosomal RNA, which is controlled by environmental conditions. The JmjC enzyme KDM2A/JHDM1A/FbxL11 demethylates mono- and dimethylated Lys 36 of histone H3, but its function is unclear. Here, we show that KDM2A represses the transcription of ribosomal RNA. KDM2A was localized in nucleoli and bound to the ribosomal RNA gene promoter. Overexpression of KDM2A repressed the transcription of ribosomal RNA in a demethylase activity-dependent manner. When ribosomal RNA transcription was reduced under starvation, a cell-permeable succinate that inhibited the demethylase activity of KDM2A prevented the reduction of ribosomal RNA transcription. Starvation reduced the levels of mono- and dimethylated Lys 36 of histone H3 marks on the rDNA promoter, and treatment with the cell-permeable succinate suppressed the reduction of the marks during starvation. The knockdown of KDM2A increased mono- and dimethylated Lys 36 of histone H3 marks, and suppressed the reduction of ribosomal RNA transcription under starvation. These results show a novel mechanism by which KDM2A activity is stimulated by starvation to reduce ribosomal RNA transcription.
Project description:Histone lysine methylation and demethylation regulate histone methylation dynamics, which impacts chromatin structure and function. To read and erase the methylated histone residues, lysine demethylases must specifically recognize the histone sequences and methylated sites and discriminate the degree of these methylations. In this issue of Genes & Development, Cheng and colleagues (pp. 1758-1771) determine a crystal structure of histone lysine demethylase KDM2A that specifically targets lower degrees of H3K36 methylation. The results reveal the structural basis for H3K36 substrate specificity and suggest mechanisms of Lys36 demethylation. This KDM2A-H3K36 complex structure, coupled with functional studies, provides needed insight into the process and regulation of histone demethylation.
Project description:The dynamic reversible methylation of lysine residues on histone proteins is central to chromatin biology. Key components are demethylase enzymes, which remove methyl moieties from lysine residues. KDM2A, a member of the Jumonji C domain-containing histone lysine demethylase family, specifically targets lower methylation states of H3K36. Here, structural studies reveal that H3K36 specificity for KDM2A is mediated by the U-shaped threading of the H3K36 peptide through a catalytic groove within KDM2A. The side chain of methylated K36 inserts into the catalytic pocket occupied by Ni(2+) and cofactor, where it is positioned and oriented for demethylation. Key residues contributing to K36me specificity on histone H3 are G33 and G34 (positioned within a narrow channel), P38 (a turn residue), and Y41 (inserts into its own pocket). Given that KDM2A was found to also bind the H3K36me3 peptide, we postulate that steric constraints could prevent ?-ketoglutarate from undergoing an "off-line"-to-"in-line" transition necessary for the demethylation reaction. Furthermore, structure-guided substitutions of residues in the KDM2A catalytic pocket abrogate KDM2A-mediated functions important for suppression of cancer cell phenotypes. Together, our results deduce insights into the molecular basis underlying KDM2A regulation of the biologically important methylated H3K36 mark.
Project description:A common integration site, cloned from MoMuLV-induced rat T cell lymphomas, was mapped immediately upstream of Not dead yet-1 (Ndy1)/KDM2B, a gene expressed primarily in testis, spleen, and thymus, that is also known as FBXL10 or JHDM1B. Ndy1 encodes a nuclear, chromatin-associated protein that harbors Jumonji C (JmjC), CXXC, PHD, proline-rich, F-box, and leucine-rich repeat domains. Ndy1 and its homolog Ndy2/KDM2A (FBXL11 or JHDM1A), which is also a target of provirus integration in retrovirus-induced lymphomas, encode proteins that were recently shown to possess Jumonji C-dependent histone H3 K36 dimethyl-demethylase or histone H3 K4 trimethyl-demethylase activities. Here, we show that mouse embryo fibroblasts engineered to express Ndy1 or Ndy2 undergo immortalization in the absence of replicative senescence via a JmjC domain-dependent process that targets the Rb and p53 pathways. Knockdown of endogenous Ndy1 or expression of JmjC domain mutants of Ndy1 promote senescence, suggesting that Ndy1 is a physiological inhibitor of senescence in dividing cells and that inhibition of senescence depends on histone H3 demethylation.
Project description:Eukaryotic gene expression profiles are largely defined by transcription factors that recognize specific DNA sequences in gene regulatory regions and impact RNA polymerase recruitment and transcription. In addition to specific core promoter regulatory elements, up to 70% of genes in higher eukaryotes are also characterized by an overrepresentation of cytosine/guanine base pairs (CpGs) surrounding promoters and gene regulatory units. These features, called CpG islands, were identified over twenty years ago but there remains little mechanistic evidence to suggest how these enigmatic elements contribute to promoter function, with the exception that they are refractory to epigenetic silencing by DNA methylation. Here we uncover a role for CpG islands in buffering gene regulatory elements from repressive histone H3 lysine 36 methylation by directly recruiting the H3K36 specific lysine demethylase enzyme KDM2A. KDM2A is recruited to CpG islands by a zinc finger CxxC (ZF-CxxC) domain that specifically recognizes CpG DNA and is blocked by DNA methylation. This capacity to sense the epigenetic methylation state of DNA constrains KDM2A to non-methylated CpG islands. Importantly, these observations suggest CpG islands may function to delineate gene regulatory elements from bulk chromatin by recruiting factors that create unique chromatin architecture. This study provides information about binding of lysine demethylase enzyme KDM2A in mouse embryonic stem cells.
Project description:In higher eukaryotes, up to 70% of genes have high levels of nonmethylated cytosine/guanine base pairs (CpGs) surrounding promoters and gene regulatory units. These features, called CpG islands, were identified over 20 years ago, but there remains little mechanistic evidence to suggest how these enigmatic elements contribute to promoter function, except that they are refractory to epigenetic silencing by DNA methylation. Here we show that CpG islands directly recruit the H3K36-specific lysine demethylase enzyme KDM2A. Nucleation of KDM2A at these elements results in removal of H3K36 methylation, creating CpG island chromatin that is uniquely depleted of this modification. KDM2A utilizes a zinc finger CxxC (ZF-CxxC) domain that preferentially recognizes nonmethylated CpG DNA, and binding is blocked when the CpG DNA is methylated, thus constraining KDM2A to nonmethylated CpG islands. These data expose a straightforward mechanism through which KDM2A delineates a unique architecture that differentiates CpG island chromatin from bulk chromatin.
Project description:Modifications on histones or on DNA recruit proteins that regulate chromatin function. Here, we use nucleosomes methylated on DNA and on histone H3 in an affinity assay, in conjunction with a SILAC-based proteomic analysis, to identify "crosstalk" between these two distinct classes of modification. Our analysis reveals proteins whose binding to nucleosomes is regulated by methylation of CpGs, H3K4, H3K9, and H3K27 or a combination thereof. We identify the origin recognition complex (ORC), including LRWD1 as a subunit, to be a methylation-sensitive nucleosome interactor that is recruited cooperatively by DNA and histone methylation. Other interactors, such as the lysine demethylase Fbxl11/KDM2A, recognize nucleosomes methylated on histones, but their recruitment is disrupted by DNA methylation. These data establish SILAC nucleosome affinity purifications (SNAP) as a tool for studying the dynamics between different chromatin modifications and provide a modification binding "profile" for proteins regulated by DNA and histone methylation.
Project description:Transcription factors that bind small DNA motifs embedded in promoters play a central role in controlling gene expression. However, in addition to these elements, up to 70% of genes in higher eukaryotes also have high levels of non-methylated cytosine/guanine base pairs (CpGs) surrounding promoters and gene regulatory units. These features, called CpG islands, were identified over twenty years ago but there remains little mechanistic evidence to suggest how these enigmatic elements contribute to promoter function, with the exception that they are refractory to epigenetic silencing by DNA methylation. Here we show that CpG islands directly recruit the H3K36 specific lysine demethylase enzyme KDM2A. Genome wide analyses by ChIP-seq demonstrated a striking global association of KDM2A with CpG islands. Nucleation of KDM2A at these elements resulted in removal of H3K36 methylation creating CpG island chromatin that is uniquely depleted of this modification. KDM2A utilizes a zinc finger CxxC (ZF-CxxC) domain that specifically recognizes non-methylated CpG DNA and binding is blocked when the CpG DNA is methylated, thus constraining KDM2A to nonmethylated CpG islands. These data expose a remarkably straightforward mechanism through which KDM2A delineates a unique architecture that differentiates CpG island chromatin from bulk chromatin. Two cell lines were used in this study: a control line (LMP) with wildtype levels of KDM2A, and a KDM2A knockdown line (RNAi) in which KDM2A levels were depleted by approximately 60% using an shRNA-based approach. For each cell line, RNA was extracted from cells collected on two different dates (rep1 and rep2).