Temporal patterns of abundance of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and mitochondrial DNA analysis of Ae. albopictus in the Central African Republic.
ABSTRACT: The invasive Asian tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) was first reported in central Africa in 2000, in Cameroon, with the indigenous mosquito species Ae. aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Today, this invasive species is present in almost all countries of the region, including the Central African Republic (CAR), where it was first recorded in 2009. As invasive species of mosquitoes can affect the distribution of native species, resulting in new patterns of vectors and concomitant risk for disease, we undertook a comparative study early and late in the wet season in the capital and the main cities of CAR to document infestation and the ecological preferences of the two species. In addition, we determined the probable geographical origin of invasive populations of Ae. albopictus with two mitochondrial DNA genes, COI and ND5. Analysis revealed that Ae. aegypti was more abundant earlier in the wet season and Ae. albopictus in the late wet season. Used tyres were the most heavily colonized productive larval habitats for both species in both seasons. The invasive species Ae. albopictus predominated over the resident species at all sites in which the two species were sympatric. Mitochondrial DNA analysis revealed broad low genetic diversity, confirming recent introduction of Ae. albopictus in CAR. Phylogeographical analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that the Ae. albopictus haplotype in the CAR population segregated into two lineages, suggesting multiple sources of Ae. albopictus. These data may have important implications for vector control strategies in central Africa.
Project description:The rapid expansion of Zika virus (ZIKV), following the recent outbreaks of Chikungunya virus, overwhelmed the public health infrastructure in many countries and alarmed many in the scientific community. Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) have previously been incriminated as the vectors of these pathogens in addition to dengue virus. In our study, we challenged low generation Ae. aegypti (Chiapas, Mexico) and Ae. albopictus (North Carolina, Mississippi), with three strains of ZIKV, Puerto Rico (GenBank: KU501215), Honduras (GenBank: KX694534), and Miami (GenBank: MF988743). Following an oral challenge with 107.5 PFU/ml of the Puerto Rico strain, we observed high infection and dissemination rates in both species (95%). We report estimated transmission rates for both species (74 and 33%, for Ae. aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), respectively), and the presence of a probable salivary gland barrier in Ae. albopictus to Zika virus. Finally, we calculated vectorial capacity for both species and found that Ae. albopictus had a slightly lower vectorial capacity when compared with Ae. aegypti.Second Language Abstract: La rápida expansión del virus Zika, poco después de las epidemias de chikungunya, rebaso la infraestructura de salud pública en muchos países y sorprendió a muchos en la comunidad científica. Notablemente, Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus transmiten estos patógenos además del virus del dengue. En este estudio se expusieron con tres cepas americanas de virus Zika a grupos de Aedes aegypti y Aedes albopictus de generación reciente. Encontramos altos porcentajes de infección y diseminación en ambas especies (95%). Se reporta, la transmisión viral en ambas especies (74 y 33%, para Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, respectivamente) y una probable barrera a nivel de glándulas salivarías. Finalmente, calculamos la capacidad vectorial para ambas especies.
Project description:Vector abundance plays a key role in transmission of mosquito-borne disease. In Hawaii, Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), the Asian tiger mosquito, has been implicated in locally-transmitted dengue outbreaks, while Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae), the southern house mosquito, is the primary vector of avian malaria, a wildlife disease that has contributed to declines and extinctions of native Hawaiian birds. Despite the importance of these introduced species to human and wildlife health, little is known about the local-scale drivers that shape mosquito abundance across lowland Hawaii, where forest, agricultural, and residential land uses are prevalent. We examined landscape, larval habitat, and climate drivers of Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus abundance in eight lowland wet forest fragments on the Big Island of Hawaii. We found that the abundance of both species increased with the proportion of surrounding developed land and the availability of larval habitat, which were themselves correlated. Our findings suggest that conversion of natural habitats to residential and agricultural land increases mosquito larval habitats, increasing the abundance of Ae. albopictus and Cx. quinquefasciatus and increasing disease risk to humans and wildlife in Hawaii. Our results further indicate that while source reduction of artificial larval habitats-particularly moderately-sized human-made habitats including abandoned cars and tires-could reduce mosquito abundance, eliminating larval habitat will be challenging because both species utilize both natural and human-made larval habitats in lowland Hawaii.
Project description:The mosquitoes Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (L.)(Diptera:Culicidae) and Ae. (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae) transmit dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses and represent a growing public health threat in parts of the United States where they are established. To complement existing mosquito presence records based on discontinuous, non-systematic surveillance efforts, we developed county-scale environmental suitability maps for both species using maximum entropy modeling to fit climatic variables to county presence records from 1960-2016 in the contiguous United States. The predictive models for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus had an overall accuracy of 0.84 and 0.85, respectively. Cumulative growing degree days (GDDs) during the winter months, an indicator of overall warmth, was the most important predictive variable for both species and was positively associated with environmental suitability. The number (percentage) of counties classified as environmentally suitable, based on models with 90 or 99% sensitivity, ranged from 1,443 (46%) to 2,209 (71%) for Ae. aegypti and from 1,726 (55%) to 2,329 (75%) for Ae. albopictus. Increasing model sensitivity results in more counties classified as suitable, at least for summer survival, from which there are no mosquito records. We anticipate that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus will be found more commonly in counties classified as suitable based on the lower 90% sensitivity threshold compared with the higher 99% threshold. Counties predicted suitable with 90% sensitivity should therefore be a top priority for expanded mosquito surveillance efforts while still keeping in mind that Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus may be introduced, via accidental transport of eggs or immatures, and potentially proliferate during the warmest part of the year anywhere within the geographic areas delineated by the 99% sensitivity model.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1884) (Diptera: Culicidae), a mosquito native to Asia, has recently invaded all five continents. In Central Africa it was first reported in the early 2000s, and has since been implicated in the emergence of arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya in this region. Recent genetic studies of invasive species have shown that multiple introductions are a key factor for successful expansion in new areas. As a result, phenotypic characters such as vector competence and insecticide susceptibility may vary within invasive pest species, potentially affecting vector efficiency and pest management. Here we assessed the genetic variability and population genetics of Ae. albopictus isolates in Cameroon (Central Africa), thereby deducing their likely geographic origin. METHODS AND RESULTS:Mosquitoes were sampled in 2007 in 12 localities in southern Cameroon and analyzed for polymorphism at six microsatellite loci and in two mitochondrial DNA regions (ND5 and COI). All the microsatellite markers were successfully amplified and were polymorphic, showing moderate genetic structureamong geographic populations (F(ST)? = 0.068, P < 0.0001). Analysis of mtDNA sequences revealed four haplotypes each for the COI and ND5 genes, with a dominant haplotype shared by all Cameroonian samples. The weak genetic variation estimated from the mtDNA genes is consistent with the recent arrival of Ae. albopictus in Cameroon. Phylogeographic analysis based on COI polymorphism indicated that Ae. albopictus populations from Cameroon are related to tropical rather than temperate or subtropical outgroups. CONCLUSION:The moderate genetic diversity observed among Cameroonian Ae. albopictus isolates is in keeping with recent introduction and spread in this country. The genetic structure of natural populations points to multiple introductions from tropical regions.
Project description:Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) is an invasive mosquito, native to Asia, that has expanded its range worldwide. It is considered to be a public health threat as it is a competent vector of viruses of medical importance, including dengue, chikungunya, and Zika. Despite its medical importance there is almost no information on biologically important traits of Ae. albopictus in Argentina. We studied life cycle traits, demographic parameters and analyzed the competence of this mosquito as a virus vector. In addition, we determined the prevalence of Wolbachia strains in Ae. albopictus as a first approach to investigate the potential role of this bacteria in modulating vector competence for arboviruses. We observed low hatch rates of eggs, which led to a negative growth rate. We found that Ae. albopictus individuals were infected with Wolbachia in the F1 but while standard superinfection with wAlbA and wAlbB types was found in 66.7% of the females, 16.7% of the females and 62.5% of the males were single-infected with the wAlbB strain. Finally, despite high levels of infection and dissemination, particularly for chikungunya virus, Ae. albopictus from subtropical Argentina were found to be relatively inefficient vectors for transmission of both chikungunya and dengue viruses.
Project description:Vector-borne diseases have appeared or re-emerged in many Southern Europe countries making the transmission of infectious diseases by mosquitoes (vectors) one of the greatest worldwide health threats. Larvicides have been used extensively for the control of <i>Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus</i> (Skuse, 1895) (Diptera: Culicidae) and <i>Culex pipiens</i> Linnaeus, 1758 (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes in urban and semi-urban environments, causing the increasing resistance of mosquitoes to commercial insecticides. In this study, 27 curcuminoids and monocarbonyl curcumin derivatives were synthesised and evaluated as potential larvicidal agents against <i>Cx. pipiens</i> and <i>Ae. albopictus</i>. Most of the compounds were more effective against larvae of both mosquito species. Four of the tested compounds, curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, curcumin-BF<sub>2</sub> complex and a monocarbonyl tetramethoxy curcumin derivative exhibited high activity against both species. In <i>Cx. pipiens</i> the recorded LC<sub>50</sub> values were 6.0, 9.4, 5.0 and 32.5 ppm, respectively, whereas in <i>Ae. albopictus</i> they exhibited LC<sub>50</sub> values of 9.2, 36.0, 5.5 and 23.6 ppm, respectively. No conclusive structure activity relationship was evident from the results and the variety of descriptors values generated in silico provided some insight to this end.
Project description:Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae) is a vector of several arboviruses impacting human health, including dengue, chikungunya, and potentially Zika. Vector control strategies that deploy modified males into the field are in use or under development and require a solid understanding of male biology; unfortunately, there has been limited effort to understand male Ae. albopictus reproductive biology, including sperm production and capacity. We tested whether body size and age affect spermatogenesis in Ae. albopictus. In general, older and larger males produced more sperm than their younger or smaller counterparts. Large males continued spermatogenesis well after 10-d post-eclosion (dpe), augmenting their reserves by 39%. By contrast, small males stopped producing sperm at 10 dpe. These results contribute to a deeper understanding of Ae. albopictus reproductive physiology. We discuss the usefulness of these findings in the context of Ae. albopictus life history and their utility in optimizing male mosquito release strategies.
Project description:With global expansion of the two main vectors of dengue, Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus, Diptera: Culicidae) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse, Diptera: Culicidae), there is a need to further develop cost-effective and user-friendly surveillance tools to monitor the population dynamics of these species. The abundance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. Albopictus, and associated bycatch captured by Male Aedes Sound Traps (MASTs) and BG-Sentinel (BGS) traps that were unbaited or baited with BG-Lures were compared in Cairns, Australia and Madang, Papua New Guinea. Mean male Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus catch rates in MASTs did not significantly differ when deployed with BG-Lures. Similarly, males of both these species were not sampled at statistically different rates in BGS traps with or without BG-Lures. However, MASTs with BG-Lures caught significantly less male Ae. aegypti than BGS traps baited with BG-Lures in Cairns, and MASTs without BG-Lures caught significantly more male Ae. albopictus than BGS traps without BG-Lures in Madang. Additionally, BG-Lures significantly increased female Ae. aegypti catch rates in BGS traps in Cairns. Lastly, bycatch capture rates in BGS traps were not significantly influenced by the addition of the BG-Lures. While this study provides useful information regarding the surveillance of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in these locations, further development and investigation is required to successfully integrate an olfactory lure into the MAST system.
Project description:Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), the Asian tiger mosquito indigenous to Asia, now an invasive species worldwide, is an important vector for several arboviruses. Genetic analysis using the mitochondrial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 5 (ND5) gene was carried out in populations from Cameroon (n = 50), Hawaii (n = 38), Italy (n = 20), the continental United States, Brazil, and its native range. Data for Brazil, the continental United States, and the native range was obtained from Birungi and Munstermann (2002). Direct sequencing was used to identity unique haplotypes. The limited phylogeographic partitioning of haplotypes with low levels of sequence divergence in both Cameroon and Hawaii was consistent with the population structure of Ae. albopictus in the United States and Brazil. Four new haplotypes were identified from the samples from Cameroon and Hawaii, adding to previously described haplotypes. Hawaii shared a haplotype with Cameroon that was unique to these two regions. Hawaii also had higher overall haplotype diversity than seen in previous continental United States, Brazil, or native range populations. Hawaiian, Cameroon, and Italian populations did not share haplotypes with Brazil, which validates the earlier mitochondrial DNA studies indicating a separate introduction of this species into Brazil.
Project description:Repellents are a main tool to prevent the outbreak of mosquito-borne diseases that represents a threat for millions of people worldwide. Plant-based products are very promising, low-toxic and eco-friendly alternative to synthetic repellents. Here, we performed an olfactory screening of the essential oils (EOs) of Artemisia verlotiorum Lamotte (Asteraceae), Lavandula dentata L. (Lamiaceae), and Ruta chalepensis L. (Rutaceae) for their possible use as ingredients in topical repellents. The EOs smell profiles were then matched with their repellence against the mosquito Aedes albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera Culicidae). To obtain a more complete bioactivity description, we also tested the EOs oviposition deterrence and the larvicidal activity. The best smell profile was associated with A. verlotiorum EO, while R. chalepensis EO showed the lowest overall pleasantness. All the EOs had a significant activity as skin repellent against Ae. albopictus, deterred the oviposition in the field, and exerted a clear larvicidal activity. Beside the best smell profile, A. verlotiorum EO showed also the longest lasting repellent effect, assuring the complete protection of the treated skin against Ae. albopictus for a time 60% longer than the synthetic repellent DEET.