Proteomic analysis and qRT-PCR verification of temperature response to Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis.
ABSTRACT: Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis (ASP) is a representative filamentous, non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that has great potential to enhance the food supply and possesses several valuable physiological features. ASP tolerates high and low temperatures along with highly alkaline and salty environments, and can strongly resist oxidation and irradiation. Based on genomic sequencing of ASP, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different temperature conditions (15°C, 35°Cand 45°C) using 2-DE and peptide mass fingerprinting techniques. A total of 122 proteins having a significant differential expression response to temperature were retrieved. Of the positively expressed proteins, the homologies of 116 ASP proteins were found in Arthrospira (81 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 35 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328). The other 6 proteins have high homology with other microorganisms. We classified the 122 differentially expressed positive proteins into 14 functions using the COG database, and characterized their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. The results demonstrated that these differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in post-translational modification (protein turnover, chaperones), energy metabolism (photosynthesis, respiratory electron transport), translation (ribosomal structure and biogenesis) and carbohydrate transport and metabolism. Others proteins were related to amino acid transport and metabolism, cell envelope biogenesis, coenzyme metabolism and signal transduction mechanisms. Results implied that these proteins can perform predictable roles in rendering ASP resistance against low and high temperatures. Subsequently, we determined the transcription level of 38 genes in vivo in response to temperature and identified them by qRT-PCR. We found that the 26 differentially expressed proteins, representing 68.4% of the total target genes, maintained consistency between transcription and translation levels. The remaining 12 genes showed inconsistent protein expression with transcription level and accounted for 31.6% of the total target genes.
Project description:Arthrospira (Spirulina) platensis as a representative species of cyanobacteria has been recognized and used worldwide as a source of protein in the food, which possesses some unusual and valuable physiological characteristics, such as alkali and salt tolerance. Based on complete genome sequencing of Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis-YZ, we compared the protein expression profiles of this organism under different salt-stress conditions (i.e. 0.02 M, 0.5 M and 1.0 M NaCl, respectively), using 2-D electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting, and retrieved 141 proteins showing significantly differential expression in response to salt-stress. Of the 141 proteins, 114 Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis-YZ proteins were found with significant homology to those found in Arthrospira (76 proteins in Arthrospira platensis str. Paraca and 38 in Arthrospira maxima CS-328). The remaining 27 proteins belong to other bacteria. Subsequently, we determined the transcriptional level of 29 genes in vivo in response to NaCl treatments and verified them by qRT-PCR. We found that 12 genes keep consistency at both transcription and protein levels, and transcription of all of them but one were up-regulated. We classified the 141 differentially expressed proteins into 18 types of function categories using COG database, and linked them to their respective KEGG metabolism pathways. These proteins are involved in 31 metabolism pathways, such as photosynthesis, glucose metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism, lysine synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, glutathione metabolism. Additionally, the SRPs, heat shock protein and ABC transporter proteins were identified, which probably render Arthrospira (Spirulina) plantensis's resistance against high salt stress.
Project description:The filamentous cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis has a long history of use as a food supply and it has been used by the European Space Agency in the MELiSSA project, an artificial microecosystem which supports life during long-term manned space missions. This study assesses progress in the field of cyanobacterial shotgun proteomics and light/dark diurnal cycles by focusing on Arthrospira platensis. Several fractionation workflows including gel-free and gel-based protein/peptide fractionation procedures were used and combined with LC-MS/MS analysis, enabling the overall identification of 1306 proteins, which represents 21% coverage of the theoretical proteome. A total of 30 proteins were found to be significantly differentially regulated under light/dark growth transition. Interestingly, most of the proteins showing differential abundance were related to photosynthesis, the Calvin cycle and translation processes. A novel aspect and major achievement of this work is the successful improvement of the cyanobacterial proteome coverage using a 3D LC-MS/MS approach, based on an immobilized metal affinity chromatography, a suitable tool that enabled us to eliminate the most abundant protein, the allophycocyanin. We also demonstrated that cell growth follows a light/dark cycle in A. platensis. This preliminary proteomic study has highlighted new characteristics of the Arthrospira platensis proteome in terms of diurnal regulation.
Project description:Arthrospira is an economically important cyanobacterium that contains many useful products, including proteins, vitamins, lipids, and pigments, and it is distributed in several alkaline soda lakes. Arthrospira platensis NIES-46 produces large amounts of hydrogen. In this study, we sequenced the NIES-46 draft genome and performed comparative analyses among Arthrospira species to elucidate the genomic background of this strain. The genome consists of 5.7 Mbp with a GC% of 44.5% and encodes 5,008 proteins. Our phylogenetic analysis using multiple orthologous proteins shows that Arthrospira is divided into two clades and that NIES-46 is closely related to A. platensis NIES-39. The genome structure and protein functions are highly conserved between A. platensis NIES-39 and NIES-46, suggesting that these two strains have recently diverged. Genes involved in hydrogen production are well-conserved among Arthrospira species, indicating conserved abilities to produce hydrogen.
Project description:Arthrospira platensis is a multi-cellular and filamentous non-N2-fixing cyanobacterium that is capable of performing oxygenic photosynthesis. In this study, we determined the nearly complete genome sequence of A. platensis YZ. A. platensis YZ genome is a single, circular chromosome of 6.62?Mb in size. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses revealed that A. platensis YZ was more closely related to A. platensis NIES-39 than Arthrospira sp. PCC 8005 and A. platensis C1. Broad gene gains were identified between A. platensis YZ and three other Arthrospira speices, some of which have been previously demonstrated that can be laterally transferred among different species, such as restriction-modification systems-coding genes. Moreover, unprecedented extensive chromosomal rearrangements among different strains were observed. The chromosomal rearrangements, particularly the chromosomal inversions, were analysed and estimated to be closely related to palindromes that involved long inverted repeat sequences and the extensively distributed type IIR restriction enzyme in the Arthrospira genome. In addition, species from genus Arthrospira unanimously contained the highest rate of repetitive sequence compared with the other species of order Oscillatoriales, suggested that sequence duplication significantly contributed to Arthrospira genome phylogeny. These results provided in-depth views into the genomic phylogeny and structural variation of A. platensis, as well as provide a valuable resource for functional genomics studies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Growth-temperature stress causes biochemical changes in the cells and reduction of biomass yield. Quantitative proteome of Arthrospira platensis C1 in response to low- and high temperature stresses was previously analysed to elucidate the stress response mechanism. The data highlighted the linkage of signaling proteins and proteins involved in nitrogen and ammonia assimilation, photosynthesis and oxidative stress. RESULTS:After phosphoproteome analysis was carried out in this study, the tentative temperature response cascade of A. platensis C1 was drawn based on data integration of quantitative proteome and phosphoproteome analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. The integration revealed 31 proteins regulated at the protein-expression and post-translational levels; thus, this group of proteins was designated bi-level regulated proteins. PPI networks were then constructed based on A. platensis C1 gene inference from publicly available interaction data. The key two-component system (TCS) proteins, SPLC1_S082010 and SPLC1_S230960, were identified as bi-level regulated proteins and were linked to SPLC1_S270380 or glutamate synthase, an important enzyme in nitrogen assimilation that synthesizes glutamate from 2-oxoglutarate, which is known as the signal compound that regulates the carbon/nitrogen (C/N) balance of cells. Moreover, the role of the p-site in the PPIs of some phosphoproteins of interest was determined using site-directed mutagenesis and a yeast two-hybrid system. Evidence showing the critical role of the p-site in the PPI was observed for the multi-sensor histidine kinase SPLC1_S041070 (Hik28) and glutamate synthase. PPI subnetwork also showed that the Hik28 involved with the enzymes in fatty acid desaturation and nitrogen metabolism. The effect of Hik28-deletion was validated by fatty acid analysis and measurement of photosynthetic activity under nitrogen depletion. CONCLUSIONS:Taken together, the data clearly represents (i) the multi-level regulation of proteins involved in the stress response mechanism and (ii) the key point of the temperature stress response at the interconnection of C- and N- metabolism.
Project description:Based on single molecule spectroscopy analysis and our preliminary theoretical studies, the linear and fluorescence spectra of the PSI trimer from Arthrospira platensis with different realizations of the static disorder were modeled at cryogenic temperature. Considering the previously calculated spectral density of chlorophyll, an exciton model for the PSI monomer and trimer including the red antenna states was developed taking into account the supposed similarity of PSI antenna structures from Thermosynechococcus e., Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, and Arthrospira platensis. The red Chls in the PSI monomer were assumed to be in the nearest proximity of the reaction center. The PSI trimer model allowed the simulation of experimentally measured zero phonon line distribution of the red states considering a weak electron-phonon coupling for the antenna exciton states. However, the broad absorption and fluorescence spectra of an individual emitter at 760 nm were calculated by adjusting the Huang-Rhys factors of the chlorophyll lower phonon modes assuming strong electron-phonon coupling.
Project description:Arthrospira platensis C1, a filamentous cyanobacterium, is one of the most commercially successful microalgae. However, high temperature stress is a critical problem that alters metabolic functions and causes irreversible damage during the growth of microorganisms, resulting in a loss of biomass productivity and high-value compounds. The investigation of genome-wide expression changes can provide towards a better understanding on the cellular stress responses.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Spirulina (Arthrospira) platensis is a well-known filamentous cyanobacterium used in the production of many industrial products, including high value compounds, healthy food supplements, animal feeds, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics, for example. It has been increasingly studied around the world for scientific purposes, especially for its genome, biology, physiology, and also for the analysis of its small-scale metabolic network. However, the overall description of the metabolic and biotechnological capabilities of S. platensis requires the development of a whole cellular metabolism model. Recently, the S. platensis C1 (Arthrospira sp. PCC9438) genome sequence has become available, allowing systems-level studies of this commercial cyanobacterium. RESULTS: In this work, we present the genome-scale metabolic network analysis of S. platensis C1, iAK692, its topological properties, and its metabolic capabilities and functions. The network was reconstructed from the S. platensis C1 annotated genomic sequence using Pathway Tools software to generate a preliminary network. Then, manual curation was performed based on a collective knowledge base and a combination of genomic, biochemical, and physiological information. The genome-scale metabolic model consists of 692 genes, 837 metabolites, and 875 reactions. We validated iAK692 by conducting fermentation experiments and simulating the model under autotrophic, heterotrophic, and mixotrophic growth conditions using COBRA toolbox. The model predictions under these growth conditions were consistent with the experimental results. The iAK692 model was further used to predict the unique active reactions and essential genes for each growth condition. Additionally, the metabolic states of iAK692 during autotrophic and mixotrophic growths were described by phenotypic phase plane (PhPP) analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes the first genome-scale model of S. platensis C1, iAK692, which is a predictive metabolic platform for a global understanding of physiological behaviors and metabolic engineering. This platform could accelerate the integrative analysis of various "-omics" data, leading to strain improvement towards a diverse range of desired industrial products from Spirulina.
Project description:A new bilin lyase gene cpcU was cloned from Arthrospira platensis FACHB314 to study the assembly of the phycocyanin ?-Subunit. Two recombinant plasmids, one contained the phycocyanobilin (PCB) producing genes (hoxI and pcyA), while the other contained the gene of the ?-Subunit of phycobiliprotein (cpcB) and the lyase gene (cpcU, cpcS, or cpcU/S) were constructed and separately transferred into Escherichia coli in order to test the activities of relevant lyases for catalyzing PCB addition to CpcB during synthesizing fluorescent ?-PC of A. platensis FACHB314. The fluorescence intensity examination showed that Cys-82 maybe the active site for the ?-Subunit binding to PCBs and the attachment could be carried out by CpcU, CpcS, or co-expressed cpcU/S in A. platensis FACHB314.
Project description:Arthrospira platensis biomass was used in order to obtain functional lipophilic compounds through green extraction technologies such as supercritical carbon dioxide fluid extraction (SFE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE). The temperature (T) factor was evaluated for MAE, while for SFE, pressure (P), temperature (T), and co-solvent (ethanol) (CS) were evaluated. The maximum extraction yield of the obtained oleoresin was (4.07% ± 0.14%) and (4.27% ± 0.10%) for SFE and MAE, respectively. Extracts were characterized by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The maximum contents of functional lipophilic compounds in the SFE and MAE extracts were: for carotenoids 283 ± 0.10 ?g/g and 629 ± 0.13 ?g/g, respectively; for tocopherols 5.01 ± 0.05 ?g/g and 2.46 ± 0.09 ?g/g, respectively; and for fatty acids 34.76 ± 0.08 mg/g and 15.88 ± 0.06 mg/g, respectively. In conclusion, the SFE process at P 450 bar, T 60 °C and CS 53.33% of CO? produced the highest yield of tocopherols, carotenoids and fatty acids. The MAE process at 400 W and 50 °C gives the best extracts in terms of tocopherols and carotenoids. For yield and fatty acids, the MAE process at 400 W and 70 °C produced the highest values. Both SFE and MAE showed to be suitable green extraction technologies for obtaining functional lipophilic compounds from Arthrospira platensis.