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Preservation of protein dynamics in dihydrofolate reductase evolution.

ABSTRACT: The hydride transfer reaction catalyzed by dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a model for examining how protein dynamics contribute to enzymatic function. The relationship between functional motions and enzyme evolution has attracted significant attention. Recent studies on N23PP Escherichia coli DHFR (ecDHFR) mutant, designed to resemble parts of the human enzyme, indicated a reduced single turnover rate. NMR relaxation dispersion experiments with that enzyme showed rigidification of millisecond Met-20 loop motions (Bhabha, G., Lee, J., Ekiert, D. C., Gam, J., Wilson, I. A., Dyson, H. J., Benkovic, S. J., and Wright, P. E. (2011) Science 332, 234-238). A more recent study of this mutant, however, indicated that fast motions along the reaction coordinate are actually more dispersed than for wild-type ecDHFR (WT). Furthermore, a double mutant (N23PP/G51PEKN) that better mimics the human enzyme seems to restore both the single turnover rates and narrow distribution of fast dynamics (Liu, C. T., Hanoian, P., French, T. H., Hammes-Schiffer, S., and Benkovic, S. J. (2013) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110, 10159-11064). Here, we measured intrinsic kinetic isotope effects for both N23PP and N23PP/G51PEKN double mutant DHFRs over a temperature range. The findings indicate that although the C-H?C transfer and dynamics along the reaction coordinate are impaired in the altered N23PP mutant, both seem to be restored in the N23PP/G51PEKN double mutant. This indicates that the evolution of G51PEKN, although remote from the Met-20 loop, alleviated the loop rigidification that would have been caused by N23PP, enabling WT-like H-tunneling. The correlation between the calculated dynamics, the nature of C-H?C transfer, and a phylogenetic analysis of DHFR sequences are consistent with evolutionary preservation of the protein dynamics to enable H-tunneling from well reorganized active sites.


PROVIDER: S-EPMC3861645 | BioStudies | 2013-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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