Identification of differentially expressed proteins in sulfadiazine resistant and sensitive strains of Toxoplasma gondii using difference-gel electrophoresis (DIGE).
ABSTRACT: Treatment options for toxoplasmosis in humans are generally limited to the use of sulfonamide and/or pyrimethamine-based compounds. However, there is increasing evidence for clinical therapy failures in patients suggesting the existence of drug resistance in these classes of drug. In vitro resistance to sulfadiazine has been detected in three strains of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from clinical cases. In order to begin to understand the mechanisms of resistance, we undertook a difference-gel electrophoresis (DIGE) approach combined with mass spectrometry to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in sulfadiazine-resistance strains of the parasite. Naturally resistant strains TgA 103001 (Type I), TgH 32006 (Type II) and TgH 32045 (Type II variant) were compared to sensitive strains RH (Type I) and ME-49 (Type II) using DIGE and the modulated proteins analyzed using LC-MS/MS. In total, 68 differentially expressed protein spots were analyzed by mass spectrometer and 31 unique proteins, including four hypothetical proteins, were identified. Among the differentially expressed proteins, 44% were over-expressed in resistant strains and 56% were over-expressed in sensitive strains. The virulence-associated rhoptry protein, ROP2A, was found in greater abundance in both naturally resistant Type II strains TgH 32006 and TgH 32045 compared to the sensitive strain ME-49. Enolase 2 and IMC1 were found to be in greater abundance in sensitive strains RH and ME-49, and MIC2 was found to be more abundant in the sensitive strain ME-49. Proteins regulation of ROP2, MIC2, ENO2, IMC1 and GRA7 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. In addition, gene expression patterns of ROP2, MIC2, ENO2 and IMC1 were analyzed with qRT-PCR. This study provides the first proteomics insights into sulfadiazine resistance in T. gondii resistant strains isolated from clinical cases.
Project description:Several treatment failures have been reported for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis, chorioretinitis, and congenital toxoplasmosis. Recently we found three Toxoplasma gondii strains naturally resistant to sulfadiazine and we developed in vitro two sulfadiazine resistant strains, RH-R(SDZ) and ME-49-R(SDZ), by gradual pressure. In Plasmodium, common mechanisms of drug resistance involve, among others, mutations and/or amplification within genes encoding the therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr and/or the ABC transporter genes family. To identify genotypic and/or phenotypic markers of resistance in T. gondii, we sequenced and analyzed the expression levels of therapeutic targets dhps and dhfr, three ABC genes, two Pgp, TgABC.B1 and TgABC.B2, and one MRP, TgABC.C1, on sensitive strains compared to sulfadiazine resistant strains. Neither polymorphism nor overexpression was identified. Contrary to Plasmodium, in which mutations and/or overexpression within gene targets and ABC transporters are involved in antimalarial resistance, T. gondii sulfadiazine resistance is not related to these toxoplasmic genes studied.
Project description:The genus Aeromonas is ubiquitous in aquatic environments encompassing a broad range of fish and human pathogens. Aeromonas strains are known for their enhanced capacity to acquire and exchange antibiotic resistance genes and therefore, are frequently targeted as indicator bacteria for monitoring antimicrobial resistance in aquatic environments. This study evaluated temporal trends in Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance in two adjacent semi-intensive aquaculture facilities to ascertain the effects of antibiotic treatment on antimicrobial resistance. In the first facility, sulfadiazine-trimethoprim was added prophylactically to fingerling stocks and water column-associated Aeromonas were monitored periodically over an 11-month fish fattening cycle to assess temporal dynamics in taxonomy and antibiotic resistance. In the second facility, Aeromonas were isolated from fish skin ulcers sampled over a 3-year period and from pond water samples to assess associations between pathogenic strains to those in the water column. A total of 1200 Aeromonas isolates were initially screened for sulfadiazine resistance and further screened against five additional antimicrobials. In both facilities, strong correlations were observed between sulfadiazine resistance and trimethoprim and tetracycline resistances, whereas correlations between sulfadiazine resistance and ceftriaxone, gentamicin, and chloramphenicol resistances were low. Multidrug resistant strains as well as sul1, tetA, and intI1 gene-harboring strains were significantly higher in profiles sampled during the fish cycle than those isolated prior to stocking and these genes were extremely abundant in the pathogenic strains. Five phylogenetically distinct Aeromonas clusters were identified using partial rpoD gene sequence analysis. Interestingly, prior to fingerling stocking the diversity of water column strains was high, and representatives from all five clusters were identified, including an A. salmonicida cluster that harbored all characterized fish skin ulcer samples. Subsequent to stocking, diversity was much lower and most water column isolates in both facilities segregated into an A. veronii-associated cluster. This study demonstrated a strong correlation between aquaculture, Aeromonas diversity and antibiotic resistance. It provides strong evidence for linkage between prophylactic and systemic use of antibiotics in aquaculture and the propagation of antibiotic resistance.
Project description:Target of rapamycin (TOR) promotes reinitiation at upstream ORFs (uORFs) in genes that play important roles in stem cell regulation and organogenesis in plants. Here, we report that the small GTPase ROP2, if activated by the phytohormone auxin, promotes activation of TOR, and thus translation reinitiation of uORF-containing mRNAs. Plants with high levels of active ROP2, including those expressing constitutively active ROP2 (CA-ROP2), contain high levels of active TOR ROP2 physically interacts with and, when GTP-bound, activates TOR in vitro TOR activation in response to auxin is abolished in ROP-deficient rop2 rop6 ROP4 RNAi plants. GFP-TOR can associate with endosome-like structures in ROP2-overexpressing plants, indicating that endosomes mediate ROP2 effects on TOR activation. CA-ROP2 is efficient in loading uORF-containing mRNAs onto polysomes and stimulates translation in protoplasts, and both processes are sensitive to TOR inhibitor AZD-8055. TOR inactivation abolishes ROP2 regulation of translation reinitiation, but not its effects on cytoskeleton or intracellular trafficking. These findings imply a mode of translation control whereby, as an upstream effector of TOR, ROP2 coordinates TOR function in translation reinitiation pathways in response to auxin.
Project description:Sulfadiazine, pyrimethamine, and atovaquone are widely used for the treatment of severe toxoplasmosis. Their in vitro activities have been almost exclusively demonstrated on laboratory strains belonging to genotype I. We determined the in vitro activities of these drugs against 17 strains of Toxoplasma gondii belonging to various genotypes and examined the correlations among 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s), growth kinetics, strain genotypes, and mutations on drug target genes. Growth kinetics were determined in THP-1 cell cultures using real-time PCR. IC50s were determined in MRC-5 cell cultures using a T. gondii-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay performed on cultures. Mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS), and cytochrome b genes were determined by sequencing. Pyrimethamine IC50s ranged between 0.07 and 0.39 mg/liter, with no correlation with the strain genotype but a significant correlation with growth kinetics. Several mutations found on the DHFR gene were not linked to lower susceptibility. Atovaquone IC50s were in a narrow range of concentrations (mean, 0.06 +/- 0.02 mg/liter); no mutation was found on the cytochrome b gene. IC50s for sulfadiazine ranged between 3 and 18.9 mg/liter for 13 strains and were >50 mg/liter for three strains. High IC50s were not correlated to strain genotypes or growth kinetics. A new mutation of the DHPS gene was demonstrated in one of these strains. In conclusion, we found variability in the susceptibilities of T. gondii strains to pyrimethamine and atovaquone, with no evidence of drug resistance. A higher variability was found for sulfadiazine, with a possible resistance of three strains. No relationship was found between drug susceptibility and strain genotype.
Project description:Seventy nine strains of Yersinia enterocolitica resistant to one or more antimicrobials were analyzed for integrons. Only class 1 sul1 integrons containing aadA1a (28 strains), aadA1a-dfr1-sat1 (2 strains), and dfr1-aadA1a (1 strain) gene cassettes were found. The first two types were found in clinical isolates belonging to serotype O:3, biotypes 2 to 4, and eight combined ribotypes, and the third was found in the reference strain, CECT4054 (O:8). All screened resistance markers were found in strains with and without integrons (except for chloramphenicol resistance, encoded by catA1 gene, which was only present in strains with integrons), but in different resistance profiles (R profiles). A profile (ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfadiazine, and trimethoprim resistance, encoded by the tem1, aadA1a, sul1, and dfr1 genes, respectively) was found in strains, with and without integrons. Integrons and some of the resistance genes are located on plasmids with sizes ranging between 65 and 140 kb. This is the first report of class 1 integrons in Y. enterocolitica.
Project description:In the present study polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) based on new sulfadiazine-chitosan conjugates with sodium hyaluronate have been developed with potential use in treatment of burn wounds. The PECs were chemically characterized using Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy, Scanning Electon Microscopy and Near Infrared Chemical Imaging Technique. The swelling behavior and in vitro sulfadiazine release were also investigated. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated towards three bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella thyphymurium. The developed PECs demonstrated their antimicrobial efficiency against tested bacterial strains, the PECs containing sulfadiazine-modified chitosan being more active than PECs containing unmodified chitosan.
Project description:Recombinant antigenic proteins of Toxoplasma gondii are alternative source of antigens which are easily obtainable for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. In this study, highly antigenic secretory organellar proteins, dense granular GRA2 and GRA3, rhoptrial ROP2, and micronemal MIC2, were analyzed by bioinformatics approach to express as water-soluble forms of antigenic domains. The transmembrane region and disorder tendency of 4 secretory proteins were predicted to clone the genes into pGEX-4T-1 vector. Recombinant plasmids were transformed into BL21 (DE3) pLysS E. coli, and GST fusion proteins were expressed with IPTG. As a result, GST fusion proteins with GRA225-105, GRA339-138, ROP2324-561, and MIC21-284 domains had respectively higher value of IgG avidity. The rGST-GRA225-105 and rGST-GRA339-138 were soluble, while rGST-ROP2324-561 and rGST-MIC21-284 were not. GRA231-71, intrinsically unstructured domain (IUD) of GRA2, was used as a linker to enhance the solubility. The rGST-GRA231-71-ROP2324-561, a chimeric protein, appeared to be soluble. Moreover, rGST-GRA231-71-MIC21-284 was also soluble and had higher IgG avidity comparing to rGST-MIC21-284. These 4 highly expressed and water-soluble recombinant antigenic proteins may be promising candidates to improve the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in addition to the major surface antigen of SAG1.
Project description:Two gene-targeted immunoglobulin heavy chain transgenic mouse strains, TgH(KL25) and TgH(VI10), expressing neutralizing specificities for lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus and vesicular stomatitis virus, respectively, have been generated. Three days after lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection, TgH(KL25) mice showed a thymus-independent neutralizing IgM response followed by thymus-dependent (TD) IgG. In contrast, WT mice mounted only a TD IgG response around day 80. These observations indicated that not only structural properties of the virus but also immunological parameters such as the frequency of B cells were indicative for the induction of thymus-independent versus TD Ig responses. Naïve vesicular stomatitis virusspecific Ig heavy chain transgenic mice displayed greatly elevated natural antibody titers. However, despite these high naïve titers, de novo activation of naïve CD4+ T and B cells was not blocked. Therefore, B cells giving rise to natural antibodies do not participate in virus-induced antibody responses.
Project description:The resistance profiles, for 15 antimicrobial agents, of 333 Salmonella strains representing the most frequent nontyphoidal serotypes, isolated between 1989 and 1998 in a Spanish region, and 9 reference strains were analyzed. All strains were susceptible to amikacin, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem, and 31% were susceptible to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent types of resistance were to sulfadiazine, tetracycline, streptomycin, spectinomycin, ampicillin, and chloramphenicol (ranging from 46 to 22%); 13% were resistant to these six drugs. This multidrug resistance pattern was found alone or together with other resistance types within serotypes Typhimurium (45%), Panama (23%), and Virchow (4%). Each isolate was also screened for the presence of class 1 integrons and selected resistance genes therein; seven variable regions which carried one (aadA1a, aadA2, or pse-1) or two (dfrA14-aadA1a, dfrA1-aadA1a, oxa1-aadA1a, or sat1-aadA1a) resistance genes were found in integrons.
Project description:In situ photopolymerized semi-interpenetrating networks (sIPNs) composed of poly(ethylene glycol) and gelatin are promising multifunctional matrices for a regenerative medicine approach to dermal wound treatment. In addition to previously demonstrated efficacy in critical defects, sIPNs also function as drug delivery matrices for compounds loaded as either soluble or covalently linked components. Simultaneous release of silver sulfadiazine and bupivacaine from the sIPN would provide multiple-hit management of dermal wounds that minimizes infection, and manages pain along with sIPN absorption of exudates and facilitation of epidermal regrowth. We characterized the release of soluble silver sulfadiazine and bupivacaine and compared it with an established release model. Efficacy of released silver sulfadiazine was confirmed in vitro on Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin resistant S. aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bupivacaine loaded without silver sulfadiazine showed incomplete release, whereas simultaneous loading with silver sulfadiazine facilitated 100% bupivacaine release. Silver sulfadiazine released at 98% without bupivacaine and 96% with bupivacaine. Silver sulfadiazine released onto bacterial cultures inhibited all three strains dose dependently. sIPNs effectively release bupivacaine and silver sulfadiazine while maintaining the antimicrobial activity of silver sulfadiazine. Drug loaded sIPNs have potential to improve wound management by providing multi-drug delivery along with an effective wound treatment.