Recovery after work: the role of work beliefs in the unwinding process.
ABSTRACT: According to the Effort-Recovery model, mental or physical detachment from work is an important mechanism of work related recovery, as delayed recovery has been associated with range of negative health symptoms. In this paper, we examine whether recovery from work (in the form of mentally disengagement from work) is affected by the concept of 'work ethic', which refers to beliefs workers hold about their work and leisure and the effects of experiencing interruptions at work. Two indices of post-work recovery were utilized: problem solving pondering and psychological detachment. The study was conducted with 310 participants employed from diverse occupational sectors. Main effects of positive and negative appraisal of work interruption and beliefs were analysed using mediated and moderated regression analysis on problem-solving pondering and detachment. Weakened belief in wasted time as a partial mediator, reduced problem-solving pondering post work when interruptions were appraised as positive, and a high evaluation of leisure partially mediated problem-solving pondering when interruptions were appraised as positive. The results also showed that a high evaluation of centrality of work and leisure moderated the effect of negative appraisal of work interruption on elevated problem-solving pondering. Positive appraisal of work interruption was related to problem-solving pondering, and the strength of this association was further moderated by a strong belief in delay of gratification. In addition, employees' positive appraisal of work interruption was related to work detachment, and the strength of this association was further moderated by strong beliefs in hard work and self-reliance. These findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and practical implications for employees who are strongly influenced by such work beliefs.
Project description:In the literature on occupational stress and recovery from work, several facets of thinking about work during off-job time have been conceptualized. However, research on the focal concepts is currently rather diffuse. In this study we take a closer look at the five most well-established concepts: (1) psychological detachment, (2) affective rumination, (3) problem-solving pondering, (4) positive work reflection, and (5) negative work reflection. More specifically, we scrutinized (1) whether the five facets of work-related rumination are empirically distinct, (2) whether they yield differential associations with different facets of employee well-being (burnout, work engagement, thriving, satisfaction with life, and flourishing), and (3) to what extent the five facets can be distinguished from and relate to conceptually similar constructs, such as irritation, worry, and neuroticism. We applied structural equation modeling techniques to cross-sectional survey data from 474 employees. Our results provide evidence for (1) five correlated, yet empirically distinct facets of work-related rumination. (2) Each facet yields a unique pattern of association with the eight aspects of employee well-being. For instance, detachment is strongly linked to satisfaction with life and flourishing. Affective rumination is linked particularly to burnout. Problem-solving pondering and positive work reflection yield the strongest links to work engagement. (3) The five facets of work-related rumination are distinct from related concepts, although there is a high overlap between (lower levels of) psychological detachment and cognitive irritation. Our study contributes to clarifying the structure of work-related rumination and extends the nomological network around different types of thinking about work during off-job time and employee well-being.
Project description:Entrepreneurship research generally focuses more on the entrepreneurial outcomes of entrepreneurs and less on their entrepreneurial process. To a certain extent, well-being reflects how tired entrepreneurs are during entrepreneurship. Based on conservation of resources theory, this study proposes a double-edged sword model of the effect of entrepreneurial identity on subjective well-being, using the two-dimensional structure of work rumination as a mediator. This study also concentrates on the moderating role of entrepreneurial mindfulness. Multiple hierarchical regression methods are used to analyze and test 882 valid samples. Results suggest that the effect of entrepreneurial identity produces distinctly different outcomes. On the one hand, entrepreneurial identity induces entrepreneurs' work-related affective rumination to reduce their subjective well-being through the path of resource depletion. On the other hand, entrepreneurial identity stimulates entrepreneurs' contemplation on work-related problem-solving pondering to enhance their subjective well-being through the path of resource acquisition. In the path of resource depletion, work-related affective rumination produces a “suppressing effect” between an entrepreneur's identity and entrepreneurial subjective well-being. In addition, entrepreneurial mindfulness weakens the resource depletion path. Entrepreneurial mindfulness negatively moderates the relationship between entrepreneurial identity and work-related affective rumination. Entrepreneurial mindfulness also does not strengthen the resource acquisition path. Mindfulness does not positively moderate the relationship between entrepreneurial identity and work-related problem-solving pondering. The findings further extend the research on the influence of entrepreneurial identity on subjective well-being. They also reveal the mechanisms and boundary conditions of the effect of entrepreneurial identity on subjective well-being.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To understand the complex effects of interruption in healthcare.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>As interruptions have been well studied in other domains, the authors undertook a systematic review of experimental studies in psychology and human-computer interaction to identify the task types and variables influencing interruption effects.<h4>Results</h4>63 studies were identified from 812 articles retrieved by systematic searches. On the basis of interruption profiles for generic tasks, it was found that clinical tasks can be distinguished into three broad types: procedural, problem-solving, and decision-making. Twelve experimental variables that influence interruption effects were identified. Of these, six are the most important, based on the number of studies and because of their centrality to interruption effects, including working memory load, interruption position, similarity, modality, handling strategies, and practice effect. The variables are explained by three main theoretical frameworks: the activation-based goal memory model, prospective memory, and multiple resource theory.<h4>Discussion</h4>This review provides a useful starting point for a more comprehensive examination of interruptions potentially leading to an improved understanding about the impact of this phenomenon on patient safety and task efficiency. The authors provide some recommendations to counter interruption effects.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The effects of interruption are the outcome of a complex set of variables and should not be considered as uniformly predictable or bad. The task types, variables, and theories should help us better to identify which clinical tasks and contexts are most susceptible and assist in the design of information systems and processes that are resilient to interruption.
Project description:Background: The aim of the current study was to examine the internal structure and assess the psychometric properties of the Work-Related Rumination Scale (WRRS) - Spanish version in a Puerto Rican sample of workers. This instrument is a 15-item questionnaire, which has three factors, affective rumination, problem-solving pondering, and detachment. This measure is used in the occupational health psychology context; however, there is little evidence of its psychometric properties. Materials and Methods: A total sample of 4,100 from five different study samples was used in this cross-sectional study design in which the WRRS was used. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and exploratory structural equation modeling (ESEM) to examine the internal structure of the Work-Related Rumination Scale. Measurement invariance across sex and age was examined. Results: The three-factor model was supported; however, four items were eliminated due to their cross-loadings and factorial complexity. This 11-item Spanish version of the WRRS was invariant across sex and age. Reliability of the three-factors of WRRS were within the range of 0.74 to 0.87 using Cronbach's alpha and McDonald's omega. Correlations between the three factors were as expected as well as with other established measures. Conclusion: The results suggest that the WRRS-Spanish version appears to be a reliable and valid instrument to measure work-related rumination using its three factors. Comparison across sex and age appear to be useful in occupational health psychology research setting since results suggest that the WRRS is invariant regarding those variables.
Project description:Procrastination is a form of self-regulation failure characterized by the irrational delay of tasks despite potentially negative consequences. Previous research on procrastination was mainly conducted in academic settings, oftentimes combined with a focus on individual differences. As a consequence, scholarly knowledge about how situational factors affect procrastination in work settings is still scarce. Drawing on job stress literature, we assumed that work characteristics go along with cognitive appraisals of the work situation as a challenge and/or hindrance, that these cognitive appraisals affect employees' self-regulation effort to overcome inner resistances, and that self-regulation effort should in turn be related to workplace procrastination. In our study, we focused on three specific work characteristics that we expected to trigger both challenge and hindrance appraisal simultaneously: time pressure, problem solving, and planning and decision-making. We hypothesized serial indirect effects of these work characteristics on workplace procrastination via cognitive appraisal and self-regulation processes that unfold within individuals over short periods of time. Consequently, we conducted a diary study with three measurement occasions per workday over a period of 12 days. Overall, 762 day-level datasets from 110 employees were included in Bayesian multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM; controlled for sleep quality and occupational self-efficacy). Our results revealed negative serial indirect effects of all three work characteristics on workplace procrastination via increased challenge appraisal and subsequently reduced self-regulation effort. Further, our results showed a positive serial indirect effect of time pressure (but not of problem solving or planning and decision making) on workplace procrastination via increased hindrance appraisal and subsequently increased self-regulation effort. Overall, our study showed that work characteristics are linked to workplace procrastination via within-person processes of cognitive appraisal and self-regulation. Because not all work characteristics triggered hindrance appraisal, we argue that it may make sense to further differentiate challenge stressors in the future. Moreover, cognitive appraisals affected self-regulation effort only on the within-person level. On the between-person level self-regulation effort was strongly negatively related with occupational self-efficacy. Thus, we conclude that depending the perspective on procrastination (e.g., differential psychology perspective vs. situational perspective) different variables will be considered relevant to explain the emergence of procrastination.
Project description:BACKGROUND:In clinical practice, temporary interruption of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) therapy is common for various reasons including side effects, non-compliance, or necessity for surgery. To characterize temporary interruptions of baricitinib and placebo-matched tablets in phase 3 studies of patients with moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and describe their impact on efficacy and safety. METHODS:During 4 baricitinib phase 3 studies, investigators documented timing, reason, and duration of investigator-initiated temporary interruptions of study drug. In 2 studies, patients recorded RA symptoms in daily diaries for 12?weeks. Post hoc analyses investigated changes in symptom scores during interruptions and resumption of treatment. Interruptions were evaluated for reoccurrence of adverse events or laboratory abnormalities after retreatment. RESULTS:Across the placebo-controlled studies, interruptions occurred in larger proportions of baricitinib- (2 mg, 18%; 4 mg, 18%) vs placebo-treated (9%) patients in only one study (bDMARD-inadequate responder patients, RA-BEACON). In the active comparator-controlled studies, the lowest rates of interruption were in the baricitinib monotherapy arm (9%) of RA-BEGIN (vs methotrexate monotherapy or combination therapy), and proportions were similar for baricitinib (10%) and adalimumab (9%) in RA-BEAM. Adverse events were the most common reason for interruption, but their reoccurrence after drug restart was infrequent. Most interruptions lasted ??2?weeks. Daily diaries indicated modest symptom increases during interruption with return to pre-interruption levels or better after resumption. Interruptions had no impact on long-term efficacy outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:Consistent with its pharmacologic properties, brief interruptions of baricitinib during phase 3 studies were associated with minor increases in RA symptoms that resolved following retreatment. This analysis provides useful information for clinicians, as temporary interruption of antirheumatic therapy is common in the care of patients with RA. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov; NCT01710358, NCT01711359, NCT01721057, NCT01721044.
Project description:Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a comparatively rare autosomal recessive neurological disorder primarily caused by the homozygous expansion of a GAA trinucleotide repeat in intron 1 of the <i>FXN</i> gene. The repeat expansion causes gene silencing that results in deficiency of the frataxin protein leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and cell death. The GAA repeat tract in some cases may be impure with sequence variations called interruptions. It has previously been observed that large interruptions of the GAA repeat tract, determined by abnormal <i>Mbo</i>II digestion, are very rare. Here we have used triplet repeat primed PCR (TP PCR) assays to identify small interruptions at the 5' and 3' ends of the GAA repeat tract through alterations in the electropherogram trace signal. We found that contrary to large interruptions, small interruptions are more common, with 3' interruptions being most frequent. Based on detection of interruptions by TP PCR assay, the patient cohort (<i>n</i> = 101) was stratified into four groups: 5' interruption, 3' interruption, both 5' and 3' interruptions or lacking interruption. Those patients with 3' interruptions were associated with shorter GAA1 repeat tracts and later ages at disease onset. The age at disease onset was modelled by a group-specific exponential decay model. Based on this modelling, a 3' interruption is predicted to delay disease onset by approximately 9 years relative to those lacking 5' and 3' interruptions. This highlights the key role of interruptions at the 3' end of the GAA repeat tract in modulating the disease phenotype and its impact on prognosis for the patient.
Project description:Interruptions in the repeating (Gly-X1-X2)(n) amino acid sequence pattern are found in the triple-helix domains of all non-fibrillar collagens, and perturbations to the triple-helix at such sites are likely to play a role in collagen higher-order structure and function. This study defines the sequence features and structural consequences of the most common interruption, where one residue is missing from the tripeptide pattern, Gly-X1-X2-Gly-AA(1)-Gly-X1-X2, designated G1G interruptions. Residues found within G1G interruptions are predominantly hydrophobic (70%), followed by a significant amount of charged residues (16%), and the Gly-X1-X2 triplets flanking the interruption are atypical. Studies on peptide models indicate the degree of destabilization is much greater when Pro is in the interruption, GP, than when hydrophobic residues (GF, GY) are present, and a rigid Gly-Pro-Hyp tripeptide adjacent to the interruption leads to greater destabilization than a flexible Gly-Ala-Ala sequence. Modeling based on NMR data indicates the Phe residue within a GF interruption is located on the outside of the triple helix. The G1G interruptions resemble a previously studied collagen interruption GPOGAAVMGPO, designated G4G-type, in that both are destabilizing, but allow continuation of rod-like triple helices and maintenance of the single residue stagger throughout the imperfection, with a loss of axial register of the superhelix on both sides. Both kinds of interruptions result in a highly localized perturbation in hydrogen bonding and dihedral angles, but the hydrophobic residue of a G4G interruption packs near the central axis of the superhelix, while the hydrophobic residue of a G1G interruption is located on the triple-helix surface. The different structural consequences of G1G and G4G interruptions in the repeating tripeptide sequence pattern suggest a physical basis for their differential susceptibility to matrix metalloproteinases in type X collagen.
Project description:The standard collagen triple helix requires Gly as every third residue in the amino acid sequence, yet all nonfibrillar collagens contain sites where this repeating pattern is interrupted. To explore the effects of such natural interruptions on the triple helix, a 4- or 15-residue sequence from human basement membrane type IV collagen was introduced between (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)(n) domains within a recombinant bacterial collagen. The interruptions had little effect on melting temperature, consistent with the high thermal stability reported for nonfibrillar collagens. Although the 4-residue interruption cannot be accommodated within a standard triple helix, trypsin and thermolysin resistance indicated a tightly packed structure. Central residues of the 15-residue interruption were protease-susceptible, whereas residues near the (Gly-Xaa-Yaa)(n) boundary were resistant, supporting a transition from an alternate conformation to a well packed triple helix. Both interruptions led to a delay in triple-helix folding, with the 15-residue interruption causing slower folding than the 4-residue interruption. These results suggest that propagation through interruptions represents a slow folding step. To clarify the relation between natural interruptions and pathological mutations, a Gly to Ser missense mutation was placed three triplets away from the 4-residue interruption. As a result of this mutation, the 4-residue interruption and nearby triple helix became susceptible to protease digestion, and an additional folding delay was observed. Because Gly missense mutations that cause disease are often located near natural interruptions, structural and folding perturbations arising from such proximity could be a factor in collagen genetic diseases.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Dealing with multiple workflow interruptions is a major challenge in emergency department (ED) work. This study aimed to establish a taxonomy of workflow interruptions that takes into account the content and purpose of interruptive communication. It further aimed to identify associations of workflow interruptions with ED professionals' work stress. DESIGN:Combined data from expert observation sessions and concomitant self-evaluations of ED providers. SETTING:ED of an academic community hospital in Germany. PARTICIPANTS:Multidisciplinary sample of ED physicians and nurses. 77 matched observation sessions of interruptions and self-evaluations of work stress were obtained on 20 randomly selected days. OUTCOME MEASURES:ED professionals' stress evaluations were based on standardised measures. ED workload data on patient load, patient acuity and staffing were included as control variables in regression analyses. RESULTS:Overall mean rate was 7.51 interruptions/hour. Interruptions were most frequently caused by ED colleagues of another profession (27.1%; mean interruptions/hour rate: 2.04), by ED colleagues of the same profession (24.1%; 1.81) and by telephone/beeper (21%; 1.57). Concerning the contents of interruption events, interruptions most frequently occurred referring to a parallel case under care (30.3%, 2.07), concerning the current case (19.1%; 1.28), or related to coordination activities (18.2%, 1.24). Regression analyses revealed that interruptive communication related to parallel cases significantly increased ED providers' stress levels (β=0.24, P=0.03). This association remained significant after controlling for ED workload. DISCUSSION:Interruptions that refer to parallel cases under care were associated with increased stress among ED physicians and nurses. Our approach to distinguish between sources and contents of interruptions contributes to an improved understanding of potential benefits and risks of workflow interruptions in ED work environments. Despite some limitations, our findings add to future research on the implications of interruptions for effective and safe patient care and work in complex and dynamic care environments.