Transcript analysis of heat shock protein 72 in vitrified 2-cell mouse embryos and subsequent in vitro development.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:The aim of the study was to compare the effects of two different concentrations of cryoprotectants by cryotopvitrification on survival, developmental capacity and Heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72) expression of two-cell mouse embryos. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this experimental study, transcript analysis of Hsp72 gene was performed on non-vitrified and vitrified 2-cell mouse embryos via a nested quantitative polymerase chain reaction (nqPCR) subsequent to normalization with Hprt1 as the reference gene. The different cryoprotectant combinations were 15% (vit1:7.5% of each ethylene glycol (EG) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), 30% (vit2:15% EG + 15% DMSO) and control group with no cryoprotectants. Vitrified and fresh 2-cell embryos were cultured to obtain cleavage and blastocyst formation rates. The results were analyzed via one-way analysis of variance and the mean values were compared with least significant difference (LSD) (p< 0.05). RESULTS:The relative expression of Hsp72 in vit2 (30% v/v) was significantly higher than vit1 (15% v/v). Survival rates were the same for both vitrification treatments and significantly lower than the control group. Cleavage and blastocyst rates in vit1 were significantly higher than vit2 while those in two vitrified groups were significantly lower than the control group. CONCLUSION:Our developmental data demonstrated that vit1 treatment (7.5% EG and 7.5% DMSO) was more efficient than vit2 (15% EG and 15% DMSO) in mouse embryos. The cryotopvitrification with two concentrations of cryoprotectants caused the relative changes of Hsp72 transcript level, but the stability of the gene in vit1 was significantly higher than vit2 and closer to the fresh 2-cell embryos.
Project description:this study was conducted on the effects of vitrification cryotop method on gene expression of mature oocytes in Mus musculus.transcript analyses of three mouse genes, namely Mater, Hook1 and Sod1, were performed upon non-vitrified and vitrified oocytes with different concentrations of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG),15%: 7.5% DMSO + 7.5% EG, and 30%: 15% DMSO + 15% EG, using cryotop following normalization of transcripts with Hprt1 by nested quantitative PCR.vitrification caused down-regulation of Mater and Hook1 and up-regulation of Sod1 when lower concentrations of cryoprotectants were used as opposed to the control group. The relative expression of Sod1 in vit(2) (30% v/v) was significantly higher than vit(1) (15% v/v)(.) Quantitative transcript analysis of Mater and Hook1 for the vit(2) condition failed to produce any data. Survival rates were the same for both vitrification treatments and significantly lower than control group.although vit(1) treatment had lower survival rate compared to control group, it demonstrated better stability comparing to vit(2) based on the transcript analysis.
Project description:PURPOSE: To compare closed-system solid surface vitrification with slow freezing. METHODS: Mouse 2-cell embryos (n = 348) were divided into vitrification, slow freezing and non-frozen groups. For vitrification, embryos were exposed to 10% ethylene glycol (EG), 10% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) and 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) for 10 min, then transferred into 17.5% EG, 17.5% DMSO, 0.25 M trehalose and 10% FBS in PBS. They were placed on hemi-straws and inserted into 0.5 ml straws inside a previously cooled aluminum cylinder. Slow freezing was done in straws by the conventional method. RESULTS: Vitrified embryos had significantly higher survival, further cleavage and blastocyst formation rates than those in the slow freezing group (p < 0.001) and were comparable to controls. Blastocysts in the vitrification and control groups had significantly more cells than those in the slow freezing group (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Closed-system vitrification was more effective than conventional slow freezing.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are one of the most promising adult stem cells for clinical application in a cell therapy. The development of large-scale cryopreservation techniques, such as vitrification, for MSCs is a prerequisite for clinical therapies. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and ethylene glycol (EG) are two types of cryoprotectants widely used for cell vitrification. However, the effects of DMSO and EG on the biological characteristics and transcriptome profiles of MSCs after cryopreservation remain unknown. In the present study, the viability, immunophenotype of cell surface markers, proliferation, differentiation potency, and global gene expression of rhesus macaque bone marrow-derived MSCs vitrified using DMSO and EG were studied. The results showed that vitrification did not affect the morphology, surface markers, and differentiation of the MSCs, and compared to DMSO, EG better protected cell viability and proliferation. Most importantly, vitrification resulted in changes in a large number of transcripts of MSCs either preserved using DMSO or EG. This report is the first to examine the effects of DMSO and EG on global gene expression in stem cells. These results will be beneficial to understanding the biological process involved in MSC vitrification and will contribute to improving cryopreservation protocols that maintain transcriptomic identity with high cryosurvival for preclinical research and clinical long-term storage.
Project description:PURPOSE: To report a successful delivery after the transfer of a re-cryopreserved day-7 hatched blastocyst. METHODS AND RESULTS: A 30-year-old woman underwent a long-treatment protocol for ovarian stimulation. Fourteen mature oocytes were obtained, and twelve were fertilized. On day 3, two cleaved embryos were transferred, but no implantation occurred. The remaining embryos were vitrified. Subsequently, two vitrified day-3 embryos were transferred. The woman became pregnant and delivered a healthy baby. Subsequently, two vitrified day-3 embryos were transferred, but no pregnancy occurred. Subsequently, all the remaining vitrified day-3 embryos were cultured. On day 5, no blastocyst was obtained. The remaining embryos were continued to be cultured. On day 7, a hatched blastocyst was obtained and re-vitrified. Subsequently, the re-vitrified day-7 hatched blastocyst was transferred. The woman became pregnant and delivered a healthy female. CONCLUSIONS: The day-7 hatched blastocyst developed from vitrified embryos can be re-vitrified and have pregnancy potential after re-warming.
Project description:PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of laser-assisted hatching and necrotic blastomere removal on the development of vitrified-warmed mouse embryos. METHODS: The vitrified-warmed four-cell stage mouse embryos were divided into five groups; vitrified intact with no laser-assisted hatching, vitrified intact with laser-assisted hatching, vitrified damaged with neither laser assisted hatching nor necrotic blastomere removal, vitrified damaged with laser-assisted hatching, and vitrified damaged with necrotic blastomere removal. Thereafter blastocyst formation, blastomere and apoptotic cell number within all groups were statistically compared. RESULTS: The rate of blastocyst formation showed a significant improvement in the group vitrified intact with laser-assisted hatching. However, neither laser-assisted hatching nor necrotic blastomere removal can improve a delayed vitrified-warmed damaged embryos in term of blastocyst formation and total cell number. Nevertheless, apoptotic cell number was significantly reduced after application of both techniques. CONCLUSIONS: Laser-assisted hatching can improve the development of vitrified-warmed intact four-cell stage mouse embryos, whereas necrotic blastomere removal has no significant effect on the development of vitrified-warmed four-cell stage damaged embryos.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitrification on morpho-functional parameters (blastomere/chromatin integrity and bioenergy/oxidative potential) of mouse preimplantation embryos.<h4>Methods</h4>In vivo produced mouse (4/16-cell, morulae and blastocyst-stage) embryos were randomly divided into vitrification and control groups. For vitrification, embryos were exposed to a 2-step loading of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol, before being placed in a small nylon loop and submerged into liquid nitrogen. After warming, the cryoprotectants were diluted by a 3-step procedure. Embryo morphology, chromatin integrity and energy/oxidative status were compared between groups.<h4>Results</h4>Vitrification induced low grade blastomere cytofragmentation (P?<?0.05) and low chromatin damage only in embryos at the morula stage (P?<?0.001). Mitochondrial (mt) distribution pattern was affected by vitrification only in early embryos (P?<?0.001). Mitochondrial activity did not change upon vitrification in morula-stage embryos but it was reduced in blastocyst-stage embryos (P?<?0.05). Intracellular ROS levels significantly increased in embryos at the morula and blastocyst stages (P?<?0.001). Colocalization of active mitochondria and ROS increased only in vitrified blastocysts.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In conclusion, this study elucidates the developmentally-related and mild effects of vitrification on morphology, nuclear and bioenergy/oxidative parameters of mouse embryos and demonstrates that vitrification is a suitable method for preserving predictive parameters of embryo ability to induce a full-term pregnancy.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Re-vitrification of embryos immediately after thawing or after a culture period could be used to preserve the extra embryos after embryo transfer. This study aims to clarify the effect of re-vitrification on Bax and Bcl-2 gene expressions of compact and early blastocyst stage embryos. MATERIALS AND METHODS:This experimental study was performed on mouse embryos. We collected 8-cell stage embryos (n=400) from female mature mice, 60-62 hoursafter injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). The embryos were divided into 5 groups: fresh (n=80), vitrified at the 8-cell stage (n=80), vitrified at the blastocyst stage (n=80), vitrified at the 8-cell stage, and re-vitrified at the compact (n=80) and early blastocyst stages (n=80). Embryos were vitrified by cryolock. We analyzed the developmental rates of the vitrified-warmed embryos with the chi-square test. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) data were analyzed with SPSS version 16 using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test. P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. RESULTS:The expanded blastocyst formation rate showed a significant difference in re-vitrified embryos compared with fresh embryos (P<0.05). However, this result was similar between the two re-vitrified groups. Our data showed a significant difference in expression of the Bax and Bcl-2 genes between re-vitrified and fresh embryos (P<0.05). Expressions of the Bax and Bcl-2 genes showed no significant difference between the two re-vitrified groups. CONCLUSIONS:Based on our study, re-vitrification could affect developmental rate and expressions of the Bax and Bcl2 genes.
Project description:PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of vitrification on the preimplantation developmental competence of mouse 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell stage embryos. METHODS: Mouse 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell stage embryos were cryopreserved using the cryotop vitrification method and subsequently warmed on a later date. The embryos were then assessed by their morphology, blastocyst formation and hatching rates. Additionally, trophectoderm (TE) and inner cell mass (ICM) cell numbers were compared in hatched blastocysts from the control and experimental groups. RESULTS: Vitrified embryos at the 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell stages appeared morphologically normal after warming. The overall survival rate of vitrified embryos at various stages after warming was 96.7% and there were no significant differences among 2-cell stage (96.0%), 4-cell stage (96.8%) and 8-cell stage (97.1%) embryos (P > 0.05). The blastocyst formation rate (69.4%) and hatching rate (52.6%) of vitrified 2-cell embryos were significantly lower than that from the control group and vitrified 8-cell embryos (P < 0.05). In the vitrified 4-cell embryo group, the blastocyst formation rate (90.3%) was similar to the 8-cell group (91.2%), but the hatching rate (60.0%) was significantly lower than that of the non-vitrified control ( 84.1%) and vitrified 8-cell embryo (78.4%) groups (P < 0.05). When further development to the fully hatched blastocyst stage was compared, hatched blastocysts derived from vitrified 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell embryos had significantly lower cell counts both in the ICM and TE, as compared to fresh blastocysts (P < 0.05). Among the vitrified 2-cell, 4-cell and 8-cell embryo groups, there were no significant differences in the cell counts of ICM and TE (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Although cryotop vitrification was suitable for the cryopreservation of mouse embryos from the 2-cell stage, 4-cell stage and 8-cell stage without significant loss of survival, vitrification had an adverse effect on the development of 2-cell embryos. Mouse embryos at the 8-cell stage had the best tolerance for vitrification and would yield the highest level of post-vitrification developmental competence among early cleavage stage embryos. Nevertheless, it is unclear how these findings can be extrapolated to human embryos.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Nowadays, oocytes and embryos vitrification has become a routine technique. Based on clinical judgment, re-vitrification maybe required. But little is known about re-vitrification impact on genes expression. OBJECTIVE:The impact of re-vitrification on apoptotic and implanting genes, Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4, at compaction stage embryos were evaluated in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this experimental study, 8 cell embryos (n=240) were collected from female mature mice, 60-62 hr post HCG injection. The embryos were divided randomly to 3 groups included: fresh (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage (n=80), vitrified at 8 cell stage thawed and re-vitrified at compaction stage (n=80). Embryos were vitrified by using cryolock, (open system) described by Kuwayama. Q-PCR was used to examine the expression of Bax, Bcl2 ErbB4 genes in derived blastocysts. RESULTS:Our result showed that expanded blastocyst rate was similar between vitrified and re-vitrified groups, while re-vitrified embryos showed significant decrease in expanded blastocyst rate comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.03). In addition, significant difference was observed on apoptotic gene expression when comparing re-vitrified and fresh embryos (p=0.004), however expression of Bax and Bcl-2 (apoptotic) genes didn't demonstrate a significant difference between re-vitrified and vitrified groups. The expression rate of ErbB4, an implantation gene was decreased in re-vitrified embryos comparing with fresh embryos (p=0.003), but it was similar between re-vitrified and vitrified embryos. CONCLUSION:Re-vitrification can alter the expression of Bax, Bcl-2 and ErbB4 genes and developmental rate of mouse embryos in compaction stage.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Embryo cryopreservation is the process that water is removed from the cell by cryoprotectant materials, and embryos are stored at temperature below zero. This process may affect the viability and developmental potential of embryos. OBJECTIVE:In this study, the effect of the vitrification cryotop method on the expression level of Oct4 and Mest developmental genes in mouse blastocysts was examined. MATERIALS AND METHODS:The collected 2-cell embryos of superovulated mouse by oviduct flushing were divided into non-vitrified and vitrified groups. These embryos were cultured to the blastocyst stage directly in the non-vitrified group and in the vitrified group, these embryos were cultured to 4-8 cell embryos, vitrified with cryotop in these stages and after 2-6 months, warmed and cultured to blastocyst embryos. Quantitative expression of two developmental genes, namely Oct4 and Mest, were performed in these groups, using RNA purification and Real-time RT-PCR. RESULTS:Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression level of both genes, Oct4 and Mest, was reduced significantly in the vitrified-warmed group relative to the control group (p=0.046 and p=0.001). CONCLUSION:This study revealed that morphologically normal embryos show a reduced amount of Oct4 and Mest transcripts which indicate that the vitrification method negatively effects the expression level of these two developmental genes.