Anoxybacillus suryakundensis sp. nov, a moderately thermophilic, alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from hot spring at Jharkhand, India.
ABSTRACT: Four closely related facultative anaerobe, moderately thermophilic, Gram positive rods (JS1(T), JS5, JS11, and JS15) were isolated from sediment samples from a hot spring at Suryakund, Jharkhand, India. Colonies were pale yellow, rough surface with uneven edges on TSA after 72 h incubation. Heterotrophic growth was observed at 40-60°C and pH 5.5-11.5; optimum growth occurred at 55°C and pH 7.5. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed the strains belong to genus Anoxybacillus. DNA-DNA homology values among strains were above 70% and showed distinct ERIC and REP PCR profile. On the basis of morphology and biochemical characteristics, strain JS1(T) was studied further. Strain JS1(T) showed 99.30% sequence similarity with A. flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis, 99.23% with A. mongoliensis, 99.16% with A. eryuanensis, 98.74% with A. flavithermus subsp. flavithermus, 98.54% with A. tengchongensis, 98.51% with A. pushchinoensis, 97.91% with A. thermarum, 97.82% with A. kaynarcensis, 97.77% with A. ayderensis and A. kamchatkensis, 97.63% with A. salavatliensis, 97.55% with A. kestanbolensis, 97.48% with A. contaminans, 97.27% with A. gonensis and 97.17% with A. voinovskiensis. In 16S rRNA secondary structure based phylogenetic comparison, strain JS1(T) was clustered with Anoxybacillus eryuanensis, A. mongoliensis, and A. flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis and showed 15 species specific base substitutions with maximum variability in helix 6. Moreover, DNA-DNA relatedness between JS1(T) and the closely related type strains were well below 70%. The DNA G+C content was 42.1 mol%. The major fatty acids were C(15:0 iso), C(16:0 iso) and C(17:0iso). The polar lipids were a phosphatidylgylycerol, a diphosphatidylglycerol, a phosphatidylethnolamine, a phosphatidylcholine, a phosphatidyl monomethylethanolamine and four unknown lipids. Based on polyphasic approach, strain JS1(T) represent a novel species of the genus Anoxybacillus for which Anoxybacillus suryakundensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JS1(T) (= DSM 27374(T) = LMG 27616(T) =JCM19211(T)).
Project description:Species of Anoxybacillus are widespread in geothermal springs, manure, and milk-processing plants. The genus is composed of 22 species and two subspecies, but the relationship between its lifestyle and genome is little understood. In this study, two high-quality draft genomes were generated from Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1, isolated from Malaysian hot springs. De novo assembly and annotation were performed, followed by comparative genome analysis with the complete genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus WK1 and two additional draft genomes, of A. flavithermus TNO-09.006 and A. kamchatkensis G10. The genomes of Anoxybacillus spp. are among the smaller of the family Bacillaceae. Despite having smaller genomes, their essential genes related to lifestyle adaptations at elevated temperature, extreme pH, and protection against ultraviolet are complete. Due to the presence of various competence proteins, Anoxybacillus spp. SK3-4 and DT3-1 are able to take up foreign DNA fragments, and some of these transferred genes are important for the survival of the cells. The analysis of intact putative prophage genomes shows that they are highly diversified. Based on the genome analysis using SEED, many of the annotated sequences are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. The presence of glycosyl hydrolases among the Anoxybacillus spp. was compared, and the potential applications of these unexplored enzymes are suggested here. This is the first study that compares Anoxybacillus genomes from the aspect of lifestyle adaptations, the capacity for horizontal gene transfer, and carbohydrate metabolism.
Project description:Twelve thermophilic <i>Anoxybacillus</i> strains were isolated from sediment and water samples from a Karvachar hot spring located in the northern part of Nagorno-Karabakh. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic characteristics, one of the isolates, designated strain K1<sup>T</sup>, was studied in detail. The cells are straight, motile rods that are 0.2-0.4×2.3-7.2 µm in size. The strain is a Gram-stain-positive, moderately thermophilic facultative anaerobe with an optimum growth temperature of 60-65 °C and a growth temperature range of 45-70 °C. Growth of strain K1<sup>T</sup> was observed at pH 6-11 (optimum, pH 8-9) and was inhibited in the presence of NaCl concentrations above 2.5 % (optimum, 1-1.5 %). The isolate could utilize a wide variety of carbon sources, including d-arabinose, d-ribose, d-galactose, d-fructose, d-mannitol, maltose, aesculin, melibiose, sucrose, trehalose, raffinose, amidone, glycogen, turanose, d-lyxose, d-tagatose, potassium gluconate and 2-keto-gluconate. The strain was able to hydrolyse starch, casein and gelatin, was positive for oxidase and catalase, and reduced nitrate to nitrite, but was negative for H<sub>2</sub>S production. Production of urease and indole was not observed. The major cellular fatty acids were C<sub>15 : 0</sub> iso, C<sub>16 : 0</sub> and C<sub>17 : 0</sub> iso (52.5, 13.6 and 19.6 % of total fatty acids, respectively). Strain K1<sup>T</sup> shares >99 % 16S rRNA sequence similarity and a genomic average nucleotide identity value of 94.5 % with its closest relative, <i>Anoxybacillus flavithermus</i> DSM 2641<sup>T</sup>, suggesting that it represents a separate and novel species, for which the name <i>Anoxybacillus karvacharensis</i> sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of <i>Anoxybacillus karvacharensis</i> is K1<sup>T</sup> (=DSM 106524<sup>T</sup>=KCTC 15807<sup>T</sup>).
Project description:?-Glucosidase is claimed as a key enzyme in cellulose hydrolysis. The cellulosic fibers are usually entrapped with hemicelluloses containing xylose. So there is ongoing interest in searching for glucose- and xylose-stimulated ?-glucosidases to increase the efficiency of hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass.A thermostable ?-glucosidase gene (Bglp) was cloned from Anoxybacillus flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis E13T and characterized. Optimal enzyme activity was observed at 60 °C and pH 7.0. Bglp was relatively stable at 60 °C with a 10-h half-life. The kinetic parameters V max and K m for p-nitrophenyl-?-D-glucopyranoside (pNPG) were 771?±?39 ?mol/min/mg and 0.29?±?0.01 mM, respectively. The activity of Bglp is dramatically stimulated by glucose or xylose at concentrations up to 1.4 M. After Bglp was added to Celluclast® 1.5 L, the conversion of sugarcane bagasse was 48.4?±?0.8%, which was much higher than of Celluclast® 1.5 L alone. Furthermore, Bglp showed obvious advantages in the hydrolysis when initial concentrations of glucose and xylose are high.The supplementation of BglP significantly enhanced the glucose yield from sugarcane bagasse, especially in the presence of high concentrations of glucose or xylose. Bglp should be a promising candidate for industrial applications.
Project description:The thermophilic spore-forming bacterium Anoxybacillus flavithermus is responsible for powdered milk product spoilage, and its presence in dairy processing environments is a concern. Here, the complete genome sequence of the A. flavithermus strain 52-1A isolated from a heat-processed powdered milk product concentrate in Switzerland is presented.
Project description:Here, we report the draft genomes of five strains of Geobacillus spp., one Caldibacillus debilis strain, and one draft genome of Anoxybacillus flavithermus, all thermophilic spore-forming Gram-positive bacteria.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gram-positive bacteria of the genus Anoxybacillus have been found in diverse thermophilic habitats, such as geothermal hot springs and manure, and in processed foods such as gelatin and milk powder. Anoxybacillus flavithermus is a facultatively anaerobic bacterium found in super-saturated silica solutions and in opaline silica sinter. The ability of A. flavithermus to grow in super-saturated silica solutions makes it an ideal subject to study the processes of sinter formation, which might be similar to the biomineralization processes that occurred at the dawn of life. RESULTS:We report here the complete genome sequence of A. flavithermus strain WK1, isolated from the waste water drain at the Wairakei geothermal power station in New Zealand. It consists of a single chromosome of 2,846,746 base pairs and is predicted to encode 2,863 proteins. In silico genome analysis identified several enzymes that could be involved in silica adaptation and biofilm formation, and their predicted functions were experimentally validated in vitro. Proteomic analysis confirmed the regulation of biofilm-related proteins and crucial enzymes for the synthesis of long-chain polyamines as constituents of silica nanospheres. CONCLUSIONS:Microbial fossils preserved in silica and silica sinters are excellent objects for studying ancient life, a new paleobiological frontier. An integrated analysis of the A. flavithermus genome and proteome provides the first glimpse of metabolic adaptation during silicification and sinter formation. Comparative genome analysis suggests an extensive gene loss in the Anoxybacillus/Geobacillus branch after its divergence from other bacilli.
Project description:Anoxybacillus flavithermus strain 25 was isolated from a sediment sample from the Garga hot spring in the Barguzin Valley, Baikal Region, Russian Federation (54°19'3.72?N, 110°59'38.4?E). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,838,680 bp and encodes 3,009 genes.
Project description:Anoxybacillus kamchatkensis G10 is a spore-forming thermophilic bacterium isolated from a hot spring in Indonesia. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of A. kamchatkensis G10 that may reveal insights into aerobic/anaerobic metabolisms and carbon utilization in moderate thermophiles.
Project description:The Anoxybacillus flavithermus KU2-6-11 was isolated from sediments of a nameless hot spring. The hot spring is located in Uzon caldera (Kamchatka, Russia). The sequenced and annotated genome is 2,646,305 bp and encodes 2787genes. The draft genome sequence of the Anoxybacillus flavithermus KU2-6-11 has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession PEDM01000000 and the sequences could be found at the site https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/PEDM01000000.
Project description:Spores of thermophilic spore-forming bacteria are a common cause of contamination in dairy products. We isolated the thermophilic strain Anoxybacillus flavithermus TNO-09.006 from a milk-processing plant, and we report the complete genome of this isolate consisting of a single chromosome of 2.65 Mb.