Rewriting the rules for end joining via enzymatic splicing of DNA 3'-PO4 and 5'-OH ends.
ABSTRACT: There are many biological contexts in which DNA damage generates "dirty" breaks with 3'-PO4 (or cyclic-PO4) and 5'-OH ends that cannot be sealed by DNA ligases. Here we show that the Escherichia coli RNA ligase RtcB can splice these dirty DNA ends via a unique chemical mechanism. RtcB transfers GMP from a covalent RtcB-GMP intermediate to a DNA 3'-PO4 to form a "capped" 3' end structure, DNA3'pp5'G. When a suitable DNA 5'-OH end is available, RtcB catalyzes attack of the 5'-OH on DNA3'pp5'G to form a 3'-5' phosphodiester splice junction. Our findings unveil an enzymatic capacity for DNA 3' capping and the sealing of DNA breaks with 3'-PO4 and 5'-OH termini, with implications for DNA repair and DNA rearrangements.
Project description:Many biological scenarios generate "dirty" DNA 3'-PO4 ends that cannot be sealed by classic DNA ligases or extended by DNA polymerases. The noncanonical ligase RtcB can "cap" these ends via a unique chemical mechanism entailing transfer of GMP from a covalent RtcB-GMP intermediate to a DNA 3'-PO4 to form DNA3'pp5'G. Here, we show that capping protects DNA 3' ends from resection by Escherichia coli exonucleases I and III and from end-healing by T4 polynucleotide 3' phosphatase. By contrast, the cap is an effective primer for DNA synthesis. E. coli DNA polymerase I and Mycobacterium DinB1 extend the DNAppG primer to form an alkali-labile DNApp(rG)pDNA product. The addition of dNTP depends on pairing of the cap guanine with an opposing cytosine in the template strand. Aprataxin, an enzyme implicated in repair of A5'pp5'DNA ends formed during abortive ligation by classic ligases, is highly effective as a DNA 3' decapping enzyme, converting DNAppG to DNA3'p and GMP. We conclude that the biochemical impact of DNA capping is to prevent resection and healing of a 3'-PO4 end, while permitting DNA synthesis, at the price of embedding a ribonucleotide and a pyrophosphate linkage in the repaired strand. Aprataxin affords a means to counter the impact of DNA capping.
Project description:Escherichia coli RtcB exemplifies a family of GTP-dependent RNA repair/splicing enzymes that join 3'-PO4 ends to 5'-OH ends via stable RtcB-(histidinyl-N)-GMP and transient RNA3'pp5'G intermediates. E. coli RtcB also transfers GMP to a DNA 3'-PO4 end to form a stable "capped" product, DNA3'pp5'G. RtcB homologs are found in a multitude of bacterial proteomes, and many bacteria have genes encoding two or more RtcB paralogs; an extreme example is Myxococcus xanthus, which has six RtcBs. In this study, we purified, characterized, and compared the biochemical activities of three M. xanthus RtcB paralogs. We found that M. xanthus RtcB1 resembles E. coli RtcB in its ability to perform intra- and intermolecular sealing of a HORNAp substrate and capping of a DNA 3'-PO4 end. M. xanthus RtcB2 can splice HORNAp but has 5-fold-lower RNA ligase specific activity than RtcB1. In contrast, M. xanthus RtcB3 is distinctively feeble at ligating the HORNAp substrate, although it readily caps a DNA 3'-PO4 end. The novelty of M. xanthus RtcB3 is its capacity to cap DNA and RNA 5'-PO4 ends to form GppDNA and GppRNA products, respectively. As such, RtcB3 joins a growing list of enzymes (including RNA 3'-phosphate cyclase RtcA and thermophilic ATP-dependent RNA ligases) that can cap either end of a polynucleotide substrate. GppDNA formed by RtcB3 can be decapped to pDNA by the DNA repair enzyme aprataxin.RtcB enzymes comprise a widely distributed family of RNA 3'-PO4 ligases distinguished by their formation of 3'-GMP-capped RNAppG and/or DNAppG polynucleotides. The mechanism and biochemical repertoire of E. coli RtcB are well studied, but it is unclear whether its properties apply to the many bacteria that have genes encoding multiple RtcB paralogs. A comparison of the biochemical activities of three M. xanthus paralogs, RtcB1, RtcB2, and RtcB3, shows that not all RtcBs are created equal. The standout findings concern RtcB3, which is (i) inactive as an RNA 3'-PO4 ligase but adept at capping a DNA 3'-PO4 end and (ii) able to cap DNA and RNA 5'-PO4 ends to form GppDNA and GppRNA, respectively. The GppDNA and GppRNA capping reactions are novel nucleic acid modifications.
Project description:DNA3'pp5'G caps synthesized by the 3'-PO4/5'-OH ligase RtcB have a strong impact on enzymatic reactions at DNA 3'-OH ends. Aprataxin, an enzyme that repairs A5'pp5'DNA ends formed during abortive ligation by classic 3'-OH/5'-PO4 ligases, is also a DNA 3' de-capping enzyme, converting DNAppG to DNA3'p and GMP. By taking advantage of RtcB's ability to utilize certain GTP analogs to synthesize DNAppN caps, we show that aprataxin hydrolyzes inosine and 6-O-methylguanosine caps, but is not adept at removing a deoxyguanosine cap. We report a 1.5 Å crystal structure of aprataxin in a complex with GMP, which reveals that: (i) GMP binds at the same position and in the same anti nucleoside conformation as AMP; and (ii) aprataxin makes more extensive nucleobase contacts with guanine than with adenine, via a hydrogen bonding network to the guanine O6, N1, N2 base edge. Alanine mutations of catalytic residues His147 and His149 abolish DNAppG de-capping activity, suggesting that the 3' de-guanylylation and 5' de-adenylylation reactions follow the same pathway of nucleotidyl transfer through a covalent aprataxin-(His147)-NMP intermediate. Alanine mutation of Asp63, which coordinates the guanosine ribose hydroxyls, impairs DNAppG de-capping.
Project description:When DNA breakage results in a 3'-PO4 terminus, the end is considered 'dirty' because it cannot prime repair synthesis by DNA polymerases or sealing by classic DNA ligases. The noncanonical ligase RtcB can guanylylate the DNA 3'-PO4 to form a DNA3'pp5'GOH cap. Here we show that DNA capping precludes end joining by classic ATP-dependent and NAD(+)-dependent DNA ligases, prevents template-independent nucleotide addition by mammalian terminal transferase, blocks exonucleolytic proofreading by Escherichia coli DNA polymerase II and inhibits proofreading by E. coli DNA polymerase III, while permitting templated DNA synthesis from the cap guanosine 3'-OH primer by E. coli DNA polymerase II (B family) and E. coli DNA polymerase III (C family). Human DNA polymerase β (X family) extends the cap primer predominantly by a single templated addition step. Cap-primed synthesis by templated polymerases embeds a pyrophosphate-linked ribonucleotide in DNA. We find that the embedded ppG is refractory to surveillance and incision by RNase H2.
Project description:5'- and 3'-end healing are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5'-OH and 3'-PO4 or 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 ends are converted to 5'-PO4 and 3'-OH termini suitable for sealing by polynucleotide ligases. Here, we characterize Deinococcus radiodurans HD-Pnk as a bifunctional end-healing enzyme composed of N-terminal HD (histidine-aspartate) phosphoesterase and C-terminal P-loop polynucleotide kinase (Pnk) domains. HD-Pnk phosphorylates 5'-OH DNA in the presence of ATP and magnesium. HD-Pnk has 3'-phosphatase and 2',3'-cyclic-phosphodiesterase activity in the presence of transition metals, optimally cobalt or copper, and catalyzes copper-dependent hydrolysis of p-nitrophenylphosphate. HD-Pnk is encoded by the LIG-PARG-HD-Pnk three-gene operon, which includes polynucleotide ligase and poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase genes. We show that whereas HD-Pnk is inessential for Deinococcus growth, its absence sensitizes by 80-fold bacteria to killing by 9 kGy of ionizing radiation (IR). HD-Pnk protein is depleted during early stages of post-IR recovery and then replenished at 15 h, after reassembly of the genome from shattered fragments. ΔHD-Pnk mutant cells are competent for genome reassembly, as gauged by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Our findings suggest a role for HD-Pnk in repairing residual single-strand gaps or nicks in the reassembled genome. HD-Pnk-Ala mutations that ablate kinase or phosphoesterase activity sensitize Deinococcus to killing by mitomycin C.IMPORTANCE End healing is a process whereby nucleic acid breaks with "dirty" 3'-PO4 or 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 and 5'-OH ends are converted to 3'-OH and 5'-PO4 termini that are amenable to downstream repair reactions. Deinococcus radiodurans is resistant to massive doses of ionizing radiation (IR) that generate hundreds of dirty DNA double-strand breaks and thousands of single-strand breaks. This study highlights Deinococcus HD-Pnk as a bifunctional 3'- and 5'-end-healing enzyme that helps protect against killing by IR. HD-Pnk appears to act late in the process of post-IR recovery, subsequent to genome reassembly from shattered fragments. HD-Pnk also contributes to resistance to killing by mitomycin C. These findings are significant in that they establish a role for end-healing enzymes in bacterial DNA damage repair.
Project description:Escherichia coli RtcB is a founding member of a family of manganese-dependent RNA repair enzymes that join RNA 2?,3?-cyclic phosphate (RNA>p) or RNA 3?-phosphate (RNAp) ends to 5?-OH RNA (HORNA) ends in a multistep pathway whereby RtcB (i) hydrolyzes RNA>p to RNAp, (ii) transfers GMP from GTP to RNAp to form to RNAppG, and (iii) directs the attack of 5?-OH on RNAppG to form a 3?-5? phosphodiester splice junction. The crystal structure of the homologous archaeal RtcB enzyme revealed an active site with two closely spaced manganese ions, Mn1 and Mn2, that interact with the GTP phosphates. By studying the reactions of wild-type E. coli RtcB and RtcB alanine mutants with 3?-phosphate-, 2?,3?-cyclic phosphate-, and 3?-ppG-terminated substrates, we found that enzymic constituents of the two metal coordination complexes (Cys78, His185, and His281 for Mn1 and Asp75, Cys78, and His168 for Mn2 in E. coli RtcB) play distinct catalytic roles. For example, whereas the C78A mutation abolished all steps assayed, the D75A mutation allowed cyclic phosphodiester hydrolysis but crippled 3?-phosphate guanylylation, and the H281A mutant was impaired in overall HORNAp and HORNA>p ligation but was able to seal a preguanylylated substrate. The archaeal counterpart of E. coli RtcB Arg189 coordinates a sulfate anion construed to mimic the position of an RNA phosphate. We propose that Arg189 coordinates a phosphodiester at the 5?-OH end, based on our findings that the R189A mutation slowed the step of RNAppG/HORNA sealing by a factor of 200 compared to that with wild-type RtcB while decreasing the rate of RNAppG formation by only 3-fold.RtcB enzymes comprise a widely distributed family of manganese- and GTP-dependent RNA repair enzymes that ligate 2?,3?-cyclic phosphate ends to 5?-OH ends via RNA 3?-phosphate and RNA(3?)pp(5?)G intermediates. The RtcB active site includes two adjacent manganese ions that engage the GTP phosphates. Alanine scanning of Escherichia coli RtcB reveals distinct contributions of metal-binding residues Cys78, Asp75, and His281 at different steps of the RtcB pathway. The RNA contacts of RtcB are uncharted. Mutagenesis implicates Arg189 in engaging the 5?-OH RNA end.
Project description:Yeast tRNA ligase (Trl1) is an essential trifunctional enzyme that repairs RNA breaks with 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 and 5'-OH ends. Trl1 is composed of C-terminal cyclic phosphodiesterase and central polynucleotide kinase domains that heal the broken ends to generate the 3'-OH, 2'-PO4, and 5'-PO4 termini required for sealing by an N-terminal ligase domain. Trl1 enzymes are found in all human fungal pathogens and they are promising targets for antifungal drug discovery because: (i) their domain structures and biochemical mechanisms are unique compared to the mammalian RtcB-type tRNA splicing enzyme; and (ii) there are no obvious homologs of the Trl1 ligase domain in mammalian proteomes. Here we characterize the tRNA ligases of two human fungal pathogens: Coccidioides immitis and Aspergillus fumigatus The biological activity of CimTrl1 and AfuTrl1 was verified by showing that their expression complements a Saccharomyces cerevisiae trl1? mutant. Purified recombinant AfuTrl1 and CimTrl1 proteins were catalytically active in joining 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 and 5'-OH ends in vitro, either as full-length proteins or as a mixture of separately produced healing and sealing domains. The biochemical properties of CimTrl1 and AfuTrl1 are similar to those of budding yeast Trl1, particularly with respect to their preferential use of GTP as the phosphate donor for the polynucleotide kinase reaction. Our findings provide genetic and biochemical tools to screen for inhibitors of tRNA ligases from pathogenic fungi.
Project description:The activity of X box-binding protein 1 (XBP1), a master transcriptional regulator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis and the unfolded protein response (UPR), is controlled by a two-step noncanonical splicing reaction in the cytoplasm. The first step of nuclease cleavage by inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), a protein kinase/endoribonuclease, is conserved in all eukaryotic cells. The second step of RNA ligation differs biochemically among species. In yeast, tRNA ligase 1 (Trl1) and tRNA 2'-phosphotransferase 1 (Tpt1) act through a 5'-PO4/3'-OH pathway. In metazoans, RNA 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ligase (RtcB) ligate XBP1 exons via a 3'-PO4/5'-OH reaction. Although RtcB has been identified as the primary RNA ligase, evidence suggests that yeast-like ligase components may also operate in mammals. In this study, using mouse and human cell lines along with in vitro splicing assays, we investigated whether these components contribute to XBP1 splicing during ER stress. We found that the mammalian 2'-phosphotransferase Trpt1 does not contribute to XBP1 splicing even in the absence of RtcB. Instead, we found that 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (CNP) suppresses RtcB-mediated XBP1 splicing by hydrolyzing 2',3'-cyclic phosphate into 2'-phosphate on the cleaved exon termini. By contrast, RNA 3'-terminal cyclase (RtcA), which converts 2'-phosphate back to 2',3'-cyclic phosphate, facilitated XBP1 splicing by increasing the number of compatible RNA termini for RtcB. Taken together, our results provide evidence that CNP and RtcA fine-tune XBP1 output during ER stress.
Project description:Fungal tRNA ligase (Trl1) is an essential enzyme that repairs RNA breaks with 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 and 5'-OH ends inflicted during tRNA splicing and non-canonical mRNA splicing in the fungal unfolded protein response. Trl1 is composed of C-terminal cyclic phosphodiesterase and central polynucleotide kinase domains that heal the broken ends to generate the 3'-OH,2'-PO4 and 5'-PO4 termini required for sealing by an N-terminal ligase domain. Trl1 enzymes are found in all human fungal pathogens and are promising targets for antifungal drug discovery because their domain compositions and biochemical mechanisms are unique compared to the mammalian RtcB-type tRNA splicing enzyme. A distinctive feature of Trl1 is its preferential use of GTP as phosphate donor for the RNA kinase reaction. Here we report the 2.2 Å crystal structure of the kinase domain of Trl1 from the fungal pathogen Candida albicans with GDP and Mg2+ in the active site. The P-loop phosphotransferase fold of the kinase is embellished by a unique 'G-loop' element that accounts for guanine nucleotide specificity. Mutations of amino acids that contact the guanine nucleobase efface kinase activity in vitro and Trl1 function in vivo. Our findings fortify the case for the Trl1 kinase as an antifungal target.
Project description:RtcB enzymes are a newly discovered family of RNA ligases, implicated in tRNA splicing and other RNA repair reactions, that seal broken RNAs with 2',3'-cyclic phosphate and 5'-OH ends. Parsimony and energetics would suggest a one-step mechanism for RtcB sealing via attack by the O5' nucleophile on the cyclic phosphate, with expulsion of the ribose O2' and generation of a 3',5'-phosphodiester at the splice junction. Yet we find that RtcB violates Occam's razor, insofar as (i) it is adept at ligating 3'-monophosphate and 5'-OH ends; (ii) it has an intrinsic 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiesterase activity. The 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiesterase and ligase reactions both require manganese and are abolished by mutation of the RtcB active site. Thus, RtcB executes a unique two-step pathway of strand joining whereby the 2',3'-cyclic phosphodiester end is hydrolyzed to a 3'-monophosphate, which is then linked to the 5'-OH end to form the splice junction. The energy for the 3'-phosphate ligase activity is provided by GTP, which reacts with RtcB in the presence of manganese to form a covalent RtcB-guanylate adduct. This adduct is sensitive to acid and hydroxylamine but resistant to alkali, consistent with a phosphoramidate bond.