DABO Boronates: Stable Heterocyclic Boronic Acid Complexes for Use in Suzuki-Miyaura Cross-Coupling Reactions.
ABSTRACT: Diethanolamine complexed heterocyclic boronic acids (DABO boronates) are air-stable reagents that can be used directly in Suzuki-Miyaura reactions in the presence of water or a protic co-solvent. Interestingly, heterocyclic DABO boronates can be stored for extended periods of time at room temperature with no noticeable degradation, unlike their boronic acid counterparts. Heterocyclic DABO boronates constitute an operationally simple and efficient alternative to other boronic acid derivatives as coupling partners in palladium catalyzed cross-coupling reactions under standard Suzuki-Miyaura conditions.
Project description:The palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction has been investigated on meso-substituted trans-A(2)B-corrole using tailored Pd-catalyst systems.We present the first examples of Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions on meso-substituted trans-A(2)B-corrole derivatives with neutral, sterically hindered, inactivated and heteroaromatic boronic acids and esters, alkenylboronic acids, as well as quickly deboronating aryl boronic acids and benzo-condensated five membered heterocyclic boronic acids. In addition, we established a high-yield procedure for the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction of corroles with neutral boronic acids.Due to the lability of the free-base corrole macrocycles, functionalization of the corrole periphery was performed with the corresponding Cu-metallated species. meso-Substituted trans-A(2)B-corrole can hence be regarded as highly versatile platform towards more sophisticated corrole systems.X-ray structure analysis of a functionalized meso-substituted trans-A(2)B copper corrole exhibited the typical features of such a Cu-complex: short N-Cu distances and a saddled corrole configuration.Moreover, we observed a sensitivity of the formal oxidation state of the coordinated copper ions towards Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reaction conditions, where the central copper(III) ion approaches the characteristic features of a copper(II) species. This redox behaviour was examined by UV/vis absorption spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) experiments and time-dependent density functional theoretical calculations.
Project description:The nickel-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of aryl halides and phenol-derived substrates with aryl boronic acids using green solvents, such as 2-Me-THF and tert-amyl alcohol, is reported. This methodology employs the commercially available and air-stable precatalyst, NiCl2(PCy3)2, and gives biaryl products in synthetically useful to excellent yields. Using this protocol, bis(heterocyclic) frameworks can be assembled efficiently.
Project description:Using asymmetric catalysis to simultaneously form carbon-carbon bonds and generate single isomer products is strategically important. Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling is widely used in the academic and industrial sectors to synthesize drugs, agrochemicals and biologically active and advanced materials. However, widely applicable enantioselective Suzuki-Miyaura variations to provide 3D molecules remain elusive. Here we report a rhodium-catalysed asymmetric Suzuki-Miyaura reaction with important partners including aryls, vinyls, heteroaromatics and heterocycles. The method can be used to couple two heterocyclic species so the highly enantioenriched products have a wide array of cores. We show that pyridine boronic acids are unsuitable, but they can be halogen-modified at the 2-position to undergo reaction, and this halogen can then be removed or used to facilitate further reactions. The method is used to synthesize isoanabasine, preclamol, and niraparib-an anticancer agent in several clinical trials. We anticipate this method will be a useful tool in drug synthesis and discovery.
Project description:Conditions for the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of lithium triisopropyl borates are reported, as well as a procedure for a one-pot lithiation, borylation, and subsequent Suzuki-Miyaura coupling of various heterocycles with aryl halides. These borate species are much more stable toward protodeboronation than the corresponding boronic acids and can conveniently be stored on benchtop at room temperature.
Project description:New technology has been developed that enables Suzuki-Miyaura couplings involving widely utilized MIDA boronates to be run in water as the only medium, mainly at room temperature. The protocol is such that no organic solvent is involved at any stage; from the reaction through to product isolation. Hence, using the E factor scale as a measure of greenness, the values for these cross-couplings approach zero.
Project description:We report the preparation of hitherto unprecedented 3-cyanoallyl boronates using condensation of the parent ?-boryl aldehyde and nitriles. The resulting allyl boronates have been used to generate a wide range of borylated thiophenes, which represent a valuable class of heterocycles in modern drug discovery. Subsequent Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling enabled the synthesis of pharmaceutically important 3,5-disubstituted aminothiophenes. Moreover, late stage functionalization gave access to borylated bromothiophene and thieno[2,3-b]pyridines.
Project description:Nanoformulated calixarenes functionalized with N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC)-palladium complexes were found to be efficient nano-reactors for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of water soluble iodo- and bromoaryl compounds with cyclic triol arylborates at low temperature in water without any organic co-solvent. Combined with an improved one-step synthesis of triol arylborates from boronic acid, this remarkably efficient new tool provided a variety of 4'-arylated phenylalanines and tyrosines in good yields at low catalyst loading with a wide functional group tolerance.
Project description:A highly stereocontrolled synthesis of tetrasubstituted acyclic all-carbon olefins has been developed via a stereoselective enolization and tosylate formation, followed by a palladium-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling of the tosylates and pinacol boronic esters in the presence of a Pd(OAc)2/RuPhos catalytic system. Both the enol tosylation and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions tolerate an array of electronically and sterically diverse substituents and generate high yield and stereoselectivity of the olefin products. Judicious choice of substrate and coupling partner provides access to either the E- or Z-olefin with excellent yield and stereochemical fidelity. Olefin isomerization was observed during the Suzuki-Miyaura coupling. However, under the optimized cross-coupling reaction conditions, the isomerization was suppressed to <5% in most cases. Mechanistic probes indicate that the olefin isomerization occurs via an intermediate, possibly a zwitterionic palladium carbenoid species.
Project description:Boronic acids which quickly deboronate under basic conditions, such as polyfluorophenylboronic acid and five-membered 2-heteroaromatic boronic acids, are especially challenging coupling partners for Suzuki-Miyaura reactions. Nevertheless, being able to use these substrates is highly desirable for a number of applications. Having found that monodentate biarylphosphine ligands can promote these coupling processes, we developed a precatalyst that forms the catalytically active species under conditions where boronic acid decomposition is slow. With this precatalyst, Suzuki-Miyaura reactions of a wide range of (hetero)aryl chlorides, bromides, and triflates with polyfluorophenyl, 2-furan, 2-thiophene, and 2-pyrroleboronic acids and their analogues proceed at room temperature or 40 °C in short reaction times to give the desired products in excellent yields.
Project description:Many boronic acids, including 2-heterocyclic, vinyl, and cyclopropyl derivatives, are inherently unstable, which can limit their benchtop storage and/or efficient cross-coupling. We herein report the first general solution to this problem: in situ slow release of unstable boronic acids from the corresponding air-stable MIDA boronates. This remarkably general approach has transformed all three classes of these unstable boronic acids into shelf-stable and highly effective building blocks for cross-coupling with a wide range of aryl and heteroaryl chlorides.