Application of Osthol Induces a Resistance Response Against Powdery Mildew in Pumpkin Leaves
ABSTRACT: Plants can defend themselves against fungal infection by natural means induced by biotic and abiotic elicitors. Osthol is a natural compound extracted from dried fruits of Cnidii Monnieri Fructus. In this study, it has been shown to not only be a fungicide with acceptable curative properties (control efficacy of 68.72), but it also showed a significant prophylactic effect (with control efficacy of 77.36) against pumpkin powdery mildew at a concentration of 100 ?g·mL?1. In pumpkin leaves with/or without inoculation of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, osthol treatment induced the accumulation of chitinase and peroxidase and enhanced the transcription of chitinase gene in non-inoculated leaves. The potentiation of phenylalanine amonia-lyase activity in leaves by osthol application and following inoculation was absent in that with inoculation or osthol treatment, indicating that induced PAL in osthol-pretreated plants was inoculation-mediated. In conclusion, this natural compound could induce resistance response in the plant against powdery mildew.
Project description:Phyllosphere microbiota play a crucial role in plant-environment interactions and their microbial community and function are influenced by biotic and abiotic factors. However, there is little research on how pathogens affect the microbial community of phyllosphere fungi. In this study, we collected 16 pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) leaf samples which exhibited powdery mildew disease, with a severity ranging from L1 (least severe) to L4 (most severe). The fungal community structure and diversity was examined by Illumina MiSeq sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of ribosomal RNA genes. The results showed that the fungal communities were dominated by members of the Basidiomycota and Ascomycota. The Podosphaera was the most dominant genus on these infected leaves, which was the key pathogen responsible for the pumpkin powdery mildew. The abundance of Ascomycota and Podosphaera increased as disease severity increased from L1 to L4, and was significantly higher at disease severity L4 (P < 0.05). The richness and diversity of the fungal community increased from L1 to L2, and then declined from L2 to L4, likely due to the biotic pressure (i.e., symbiotic and competitive stresses among microbial species) at disease severity L4. Our results could give new perspectives on the changes of the leaf microbiome at different pumpkin powdery mildew disease severity.
Project description:Cucurbit powdery mildew (PM) is one of the most severe fungal diseases, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PM resistance remain largely unknown, especially in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.). The goal of this study was to identify gene expression differences in PM-treated plants (harvested at 24 h and 48 h after inoculation) and untreated (control) plants of inbred line "112-2" using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). The inbred line "112-2" has been purified over 8 consecutive generations of self-pollination and shows high resistance to PM. More than 7600 transcripts were examined in pumpkin leaves, and 3129 and 3080 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in inbred line "112-2" at 24 and 48 hours post inoculation (hpi), respectively. Based on the KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway database and GO (Gene Ontology) database, a complex regulatory network for PM resistance that may involve hormone signal transduction pathways, transcription factors and defense responses was revealed at the transcription level. In addition, the expression profiles of 16 selected genes were analyzed using quantitative RT-PCR. Among these genes, the transcript levels of 6 DEGs, including bHLH87 (Basic Helix-loop-helix transcription factor), ERF014 (Ethylene response factor), WRKY21 (WRKY domain), HSF (heat stress transcription factor A), MLO3 (Mildew Locus O), and SGT1 (Suppressor of G-Two Allele of Skp1), in PM-resistant "112-2" were found to be significantly up- or down-regulated both before 9 hpi and at 24 hpi or 48 hpi; this behavior differed from that observed in the PM-susceptible material (cultivar "Jiujiangjiaoding"). The transcriptome data provide novel insights into the response of Cucurbita moschata to PM stress and are expected to be highly useful for dissecting PM defense mechanisms in this major vegetable and for improving pumpkin breeding with enhanced resistance to PM.
Project description:Jasmonic acid (JA) is an important plant hormone associated with plant-pathogen defense. To study the role of JA in plant-fungal interactions, we applied a JA biosynthesis inhibitor, sodium diethyldithiocarbamate (DIECA), on wheat leaves. Our results showed that application of 10 mM DIECA 0-2 days before inoculation effectively induced resistance to powdery mildew (Bgt) in wheat. Transcriptome analysis identified 364 up-regulated and 68 down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in DIECA-treated leaves compared with water-treated leaves. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of the DEGs revealed important GO terms and pathways, in particular, response to growth hormones, activity of glutathione metabolism (e.g., glutathione transferase activity), oxalate oxidase, and chitinase activity. Gene annotaion revealed that some pathogenesis-related (PR) genes, such as PR1.1, PR1, PR10, PR4a, Chitinase 8, beta-1,3-glucanase, RPM1, RGA2, and HSP70, were induced by DIECA treatment. DIECA reduced JA and auxin (IAA) levels, while increased brassinosteroid, glutathione, and ROS lesions in wheat leaves, which corroborated with the transcriptional changes. Our results suggest that DIECA can be applied to increase plant immunity and reduce the severity of Bgt disease in wheat fields.
Project description:Plant resistance proteins mediate pathogen recognition and activate innate immune responses to restrict pathogen proliferation. One common feature of these proteins is an NB-ARC domain. In this study, we characterized a gene encoding a protein with an NB-ARC domain from wild Chinese grapevine Vitis pseudoreticulata accession "Baihe-35-1," which was identified in a transcriptome analysis of the leaves following inoculation with Erysiphe necator (Schw.), a causal agent of powdery mildew. Transcript levels of this gene, designated VpCN (GenBank accession number KT265084), increased strongly after challenge of grapevine leaves with E. necator. The deduced amino acid sequence was predicted to contain an NB-ARC domain in the C-terminus and an RxCC-like domain similar to CC domain of Rx protein in the N-terminus. Ectopic expression of VpCN in Arabidopsis thaliana resulted in either a wild-type phenotype or a dwarf phenotype. The phenotypically normal transgenic A. thaliana showed enhance resistance to A. thaliana powdery mildew Golovinomyces cichoracearum, as well as to a virulent bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Moreover, promoter::GUS (?-glucuronidase) analysis revealed that powdery mildew infection induced the promoter activity of VpCN in grapevine leaves. Finally, a promoter deletion analysis showed that TC rich repeat elements likely play an important role in the response to E. necator infection. Taken together, our results suggest that VpCN contribute to powdery mildew disease resistant in grapevine.
Project description:To investigate the candidate genes governing Pm5.1 and their effects on powdery resistance, the RNA-sequencing based transcriptomes of the powdery mildew resistant segment substitution line SSL508-28 and recurrent parent D8 were compared 48 h after inoculation with the PM pathogen. Overall design: mRNA levels of the leaves of SSL508-28 and D8 after 48 h of powdery mildew inoculation, along with uninfected control leaves from each, was generated by deep sequencing, in triplicate, using Illumina Hiseq2500
Project description:Plant sense potential microbial pathogen using pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The Lectin receptor-like kinase genes (LecRKs) are involved in various cellular processes mediated by signal transduction pathways. In the present study, an L-type lectin receptor kinase gene LecRK-V was cloned from Haynaldia villosa, a diploid wheat relative which is highly resistant to powdery mildew. The expression of LecRK-V was rapidly up-regulated by Bgt inoculation and chitin treatment. Its transcript level was higher in the leaves than in roots, culms, spikes and callus. Single-cell transient overexpression of LecRK-V led to decreased haustorium index in wheat variety Yangmai158, which is powdery mildew susceptible. Stable transformation LecRK-V into Yangmai158 significantly enhanced the powdery mildew resistance at both seedling and adult stages. At seedling stage, the transgenic line was highly resistance to 18 of the tested 23 Bgt isolates, hypersensitive responses (HR) were observed for 22 Bgt isolates, and more ROS at the Bgt infection sites was accumulated. These indicated that LecRK-V confers broad-spectrum resistance to powdery mildew, and ROS and SA pathways contribute to the enhanced powdery mildew resistance in wheat.
Project description:Grapevine powdery mildew is one of the most damaging fungal diseases. Therefore, a precise understanding of the grapevine disease resistance system becomes a subject of significant importance. Plant microRNAs(miRNAs) have been implicated to play regulatory roles in plant biotic stress responses. In this study, high-throughput sequencing and miRDeep-P were employed to identify miRNAs in Chinese wild Vitis pseudoreticulata leaves following inoculation with Erysiphe necator. Altogether, 126 previously identified microRNAs and 124 novel candidates of miRNA genes were detected. Among them, 43 conserved miRNAs belong to 20 families and 23 non-conserved but previously-known miRNAs belong to 15 families. Following E. necator inoculation, 119 miRNAs were down-regulated and 131 were up-regulated. Furthermore, the expression changes occurring in 32 miRNAs were significant. The expression patterns of some miRNAs were validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and qRT-PCR. A total of 485 target genes were predicted and categorized by Gene Ontology (GO). In addition, 14 vvi-miRNAs were screened with 36 targets which may be involved in powdery mildew resistance in grape. Highly accumulated vvi-NewmiR2118 was detected from accession "Baihe-35-1," whose targets were mostly NBS-LRR resistance genes. It was down-regulated rapidly and strongly in "Baihe-35-1" leaves after inoculated with E. necator, indicating its involvement in grape powdery mildew resistance. Finally, the study verified interaction between vvi-NewmiR2118 and RPP13 by histochemical staining and GUS fluorescence quantitative assay.
Project description:Trichoderma harzianum TH12 is a microbial pesticide for certain rapeseed diseases. The mechanism of systemic resistance induced by TH12 or its cell-free culture filtrate (CF) in Brassica napus (AACC) and Raphanus alboglabra (RRCC) to powdery mildew disease caused by ascomycete Erysiphe cruciferarum was investigated. In this study, we conducted the first large-scale global study on the cellular and molecular aspects of B. napus and R. alboglabra infected with E. cruciferarum. The histological study showed the resistance of R. alboglabra to powdery mildew disease. The growth of fungal colonies was not observed on R. alboglabra leaves at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days post-inoculation (dpi), whereas this was clearly observed on B. napus leaves after 6 dpi. In addition, the gene expression of six plant defense-related genes, namely, PR-1, PR-2 (a marker for SA signaling), PR-3, PDF 1.2 (a marker for JA/ET signaling), CHI620, and CHI570, for both genotypes were analyzed in the leaves of B. napus and R. alboglabra after treatment with TH12 or CF and compared with the non-treated ones. The qRT-PCR results showed that the PR-1 and PR-2 expression levels increased in E. cruciferarum-infected leaves, but decreased in the TH12-treated leaves compared with leaves treated with CF. The expression levels of PR-3 and PDF1.2 decreased in plants infected by E. cruciferarum. However, expression levels increased when the leaves were treated with TH12. For the first time, we disclosed the nature of gene expression in B. napus and R. alboglabra to explore the resistance pathways in the leaves of both genotypes infected and non-infected by powdery mildew and inoculated or non-inoculated with elicitor factors. Results suggested that R. alboglabra exhibited resistance to powdery mildew disease, and the application of T. harzianum and its CF are a useful tool to facilitate new protection methods for resist or susceptible plants.
Project description:Powdery mildew (PM), caused by Podosphaera xanthii, is a major threat to the global cucurbit yield. The molecular mechanisms underlying the PM resistance of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duch.) are largely unknown. A homolog of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor was previously identified through a transcriptomic analysis of a PM-resistant pumpkin. In this study, this bHLH homolog in pumpkin has been functionally characterized. CmbHLH87 is present in the nucleus. CmbHLH87 expression in the PM-resistant material was considerably downregulated by PM; and abscisic acid, methyl jasmonate, ethephon, and NaCl treatments induced CmbHLH87 expression. Ectopic expression of CmbHLH87 in tobacco plants alleviated the PM symptoms on the leaves, accelerated cell necrosis, and enhanced H2O2 accumulation. The expression levels of PR1a, PR5, and NPR1 were higher in the PM-infected transgenic plants than in PM-infected wild-type plants. Additionally, the chlorosis and yellowing of plant materials were less extensive and the concentration of bacteria at infection sites was lower in the transgenic tobacco plants than in the wild-type plants in response to bacterial wilt and scab pathogens. CmbHLH87 may be useful for genetic engineering of novel pumpkin cultivars in the future.
Project description:We used two wheat genotypes, the susceptible wheat cultivar ‘8866 ’(S) and its near isogenic line with single powdery mildew resistance gene ‘pm30’ (R), to investigate gene expression changes in response to powdery mildew infection by using Wheat Genome Array Overall design: wheat young leveas of near isogenic lines before or 12 hours after powdery mildew infection were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.The leaf samples were harvested from three independent biological replicates, and the leaves without inoculation were regarded as control.