Neuroimaging and clinical features in type II (late-onset) Alexander disease.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To describe the imaging and clinical features in type II (late-onset) Alexander disease (AxD). METHODS: We retrospectively identified all cases of type II AxD evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester from January 1996 to February 2012. Clinical and neuroimaging data abstracted from the record included age at onset of symptoms, age at diagnosis, first symptom, neurologic symptoms, physical/neurologic findings on examination, genetic testing and/or biopsy (if performed), and MRI findings. RESULTS: Thirteen patients with type II AxD were identified. Median age at onset was 38 years (range: 12-63). Five patients were female. Eleven of 13 patients had atrophy of the medulla while all 13 had medullary T2 hyperintensity. In 7 patients, these brainstem regions showed patchy enhancement. Five subjects had T2 signal change in the middle cerebellar peduncle, with associated contrast enhancement in 4 subjects. Eleven of 12 patients with T2 fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging had pial FLAIR signal change in the medulla. Nine of 12 patients with spinal cord imaging had cord atrophy, and 3 of 9 of these evaluated with contrast had cervical cord enhancement. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms prior reports of atrophy and signal change of the medulla and spinal cord in late-onset AxD. We expand on previous imaging studies by identifying middle cerebellar peduncle and pial FLAIR signal changes as important diagnostic clues. Variable patchy enhancement may occur in regions of T2 hyperintensity, leading to diagnostic uncertainty. In addition, we demonstrate that previously emphasized clinical features such as palatal tremor may not be common. We affirm that age at onset predicts clinical phenotype and imaging findings.
Project description:Alexander disease (AxD) is a rare neurological disease, especially in adults. It shows variable clinical and radiological features.We diagnosed a female with AxD presenting with paroxysmal numbness of the limbs at the onset age of 28-year-old, progressing gradually to spastic paraparesis at age 30. One year later, she had ataxia, bulbar paralysis, bowel and bladder urgency. Her mother had a similar neurological symptoms and died within 2 years after onset (at the age of 47), and her maternal aunt also had similar but mild symptoms at the onset age of 54-year-old. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed abnormal signals in periventricular white matter with severe atrophy in the medulla oblongata and thoracic spinal cord, and mild atrophy in cervical spinal cord, which is unusual in the adult form of AxD. She and her daughter's glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene analysis revealed the same heterozygous missense mutation, c.1246C?>?T, p.R416W, despite of no neurological symptoms in her daughter.Our case report enriches the understanding of the familial adult AxD. Genetic analysis is necessary when patients have the above mentioned symptoms and signs, MRI findings, especially with family history.
Project description:T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) hyperintensity assessed visually in the corticospinal tract (CST) lacks sensitivity for a diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We sought to explore a quantitative approach to fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) MRI intensity across a range of ALS phenotypes.Thirty-three classical ALS patients, 10 with a flail arm presentation, and six with primary lateral sclerosis underwent MRI at 3 Tesla. Comparisons of quantitative FLAIR intensity in the CST and corpus callosum were made between 21 healthy controls and within patient phenotypic subgroups, some of whom were studied longitudinally.Mean FLAIR intensity was greater in patient groups. The cerebral peduncle intensity provided the strongest subgroup classification. FLAIR intensity increased longitudinally. The rate of change of FLAIR within CST correlated with rate of decline in executive function and ALS functional rating score.FLAIR MRI encodes quantifiable information of potential diagnostic, stratification, and monitoring value.
Project description:Background:T2 relaxation-based magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signals may provide onset time for acute ischemic strokes with an unknown onset. The ability of visual and quantitative MRI-based methods in a cohort of hyperacute ischemic stroke patients was studied. Methods:A total of 35 patients underwent 3T (3 Tesla) MRI (<9-hour symptom onset). Diffusion-weighted (DWI), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T1-weighted (T1w), T2-weighted (T2w), and T2 relaxation time (T2) images were acquired. T2-weighted fluid attenuation inversion recovery (FLAIR) images were acquired for 17 of these patients. Image intensity ratios of the average intensities in ischemic and non-ischemic reference regions were calculated for ADC, DWI, T2w, T2 relaxation, and FLAIR images, and optimal image intensity ratio cut-offs were determined. DWI and FLAIR images were assessed visually for DWI/FLAIR mismatch. Results:The T2 relaxation time image intensity ratio was the only parameter with significant correlation with stroke duration (r?=?0.49, P?=?.003), an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC?=?0.77, P?<?.0001), and an optimal cut-off (T2 ratio?=?1.072) that accurately identified patients within the 4.5-hour thrombolysis treatment window with sensitivity of 0.74 and specificity of 0.74. In the patients with the additional FLAIR, areas under the precision-recall-gain curve (AUPRG) and F1 scores showed that the T2 relaxation time ratio (AUPRG?=?0.60, F1?=?0.73) performed considerably better than the FLAIR ratio (AUPRG?=?0.39, F1?=?0.57) and the visual DWI/FLAIR mismatch (F1?=?0.25). Conclusions:Quantitative T2 relaxation time is the preferred MRI parameter in the assessment of patients with unknown onset for treatment stratification.
Project description:To report the diversity of MRI features of brainstem encephalitis (BE) induced by Enterovirus 71. This is supported by implementation and testing of our new classification scheme in order to improve the diagnostic level on this specific disease.Neuroimaging of 91 pediatric patients who got EV71 related BE were hospitalized between March, 2010 to October, 2012, were analyzed retrospectively. All patients underwent pre- and post-contrast MRI scan. Thereafter, 31 patients were randomly called back for follow-up MRI study during December 2013 to August 2014. The MRI signal patterns of BE primary lesion were analyzed and classified according to MR signal alteration at various disease stages. Findings in fatal and non-fatal cases were compared, and according to the MRI scan time point during the course of this disease, the patients' conditions were classified as 1) acute stage, 2) convalescence stage, 3) post mortem stage, and 4) long term follow-up study.103 patients were identified. 11 patients did not undergo MRI, as they died within 48 hours. One patient died on 14th day without MR imaging. 2 patients had postmortem MRI. Medical records and imaging were reviewed in the 91 patients, aged 4 months to 12 years, and two cadavers who have had MRI scan. At acute stage: the most frequent pattern (40 patients) was foci of prolonged T1 and T2 signal, with (15) or without (25) contrast enhancement. We observed a novel pattern in 4 patients having foci of low signal intensity on T2WI, with contrast enhancement. Another pattern in 10 patients having foci of contrast enhancement without abnormalities in T1WI or T2WI weighted images. Based on 2 cases, the entire medulla and pons had prolonged T1 and T2 signal, and 2 of our postmortem cases demonstrated the same pattern. At convalescence stage, the pattern observed in 4 patients was foci of prolonged T1 and T2 signal without contrast enhancement. Follow-up MR study of 31 cases showed normal in 26 cases, and demonstrated foci of prolonged T1 and T2 signal with hyper-intensity on FLAIR in 3 cases, or of prolonged T1 and T2 signal with hypo-intensity on FLAIR in 2 cases. Most importantly, MR findings of each case were thoroughly investigated and classified according to phases and MRI signal alteration.This study has provided enhanced and useful information for the MRI features of BE induced by EV71, apart from common practice established by previous reports. In addition, a classification scheme that summarizes all types of features based on the MRI signal at the four different stages of the disease would be helpful to improve the diagnostic level.
Project description:Some authors use FLAIR imaging to select patients for stroke treatment. However, the effect of hyperintensity on FLAIR images on outcome and bleeding has been addressed in only few studies with conflicting results.466 patients with anterior circulation strokes were included in this study. They all were examined with MRI before intravenous or endovascular treatment. Baseline data and 3 months outcome were recorded prospectively. Focal T2 and FLAIR hyperintensities within the ischemic lesion were evaluated by two raters, and the PROACT II classification was applied to assess bleeding complications on follow up imaging. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine predictors of bleeding complications and outcome and to analyze the influence of T2 or FLAIR hyperintensity on outcome.Focal hyperintensities were found in 142 of 307 (46.3%) patients with T2 weighted imaging and in 89 of 159 (56%) patients with FLAIR imaging. Hyperintensity in the basal ganglia, especially in the lentiform nucleus, on T2 weighted imaging was the only independent predictor of any bleeding after reperfusion treatment (33.8% in patients with vs. 18.2% in those without; p = 0.003) and there was a non-significant trend for more bleedings in patients with FLAIR hyperintensity within the basal ganglia (p = 0.069). However, there was no association of hyperintensity on T2 weighted or FLAIR images and symptomatic bleeding or worse outcome.Our results question the assumption that T2 or FLAIR hyperintensities within the ischemic lesion should be used to exclude patients from reperfusion therapy, especially not from endovascular treatment.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Progressive brain atrophy, development of T1-hypointense areas, and T2-fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR)-hyperintense lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) are popular volumetric data that are often utilized as clinical outcomes. However, the exact clinical interpretation of these volumetric data has not yet been fully established. METHODS:We enrolled 42 consecutive patients with MS who fulfilled the revised McDonald criteria of 2010. They were followed-up for more than 3 years from onset, and cross-sectional brain volumetry was performed. Patients with no brain lesions were excluded in advance from this study. For the brain volumetric data, we evaluated several parameters including age-adjusted gray-matter volume atrophy, age-adjusted white-matter volume atrophy, and T2-FLAIR lesion volume. The numbers of T1-hypointense and T2-FLAIR-hyperintense areas were also measured along the same timeline. The clinical data pertaining to disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS), and MS severity score (MSSS) at the timing of volumetry were collected. RESULTS:Among the 42 patients with MS and brain lesions, the number of T1-hypointensity (rho = 0.51, p<0.001), gray-matter atrophy (rho = 0.40, p<0.01) and white-matter atrophy (rho = 0.49, p<0.001) correlated with the EDSS. T1-hypointensity count divided by FLAIR lesion volume correlated with the MSSS (rho = 0.60, p<0.001). Meanwhile, counts or volumes of FLAIR-hyperintense lesions were associated only with the times of past relapses, and did not correlate with present neurological disability level or ongoing disease activity. These findings were consistent regardless of the presence of spinal cord lesions. CONCLUSION:Numbers of T1-hypointensities and brain atrophy equally indicated the current neurological disability in MS. The number of T1-hypointensities divided by FLAIR lesion volume represented the clinical severity. The size or number of FLAIR lesions reflected earlier relapses but was not a good indicator of neurological disability or clinical severity.
Project description:Abstract PURPOSE: To correlate MR imaging findings with molecular analyses in DIPG. METHODS: Baseline MR imaging studies, including standard pre- and post-contrast MR sequences, were reviewed from patients included in our multi-institutional, IRB-approved DIPG trial NCT01182350. Prospectively acquired imaging data were analyzed after study closure, including FLAIR/T2 tumor volume; tumor volume enhancement and cyst/necrosis; median, mean, mode, skewness, and kurtosis of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) tumor volume based on both FLAIR and enhancement at baseline. Whole-genome and RNA-sequencing identified histone mutations. We applied univariate Cox proportional-hazards regression modeling to test the association of imaging predictors with overall (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Wilcoxon rank-sum, Kruskal-Wallis, and Fisher’s exact tests compared imaging measures between groups. RESULTS: Fifty patients underwent biopsy and MRI. Median age at trial registration was 6 years (range,3.3–17.5 years); 52% of patients were female. Molecular subgroup study assignments for 48 patients’ tumors were as follows: 28 in MGMT-/EGFR-, 14 in MGMT-/EGFR+, 3 in MGMT+/EGFR-, and 3 in MGMT+/EGFR+. Further genetic testing identified mutations in histones, PDGFRA, ACVR1, TP53, EGFR, PPM1D, FGFR, and/or PI3K. Twenty-three tumors possessed histone mutations in H3F3A, 8 in HIST1H3B, and 3 in HISTH3C. Median follow-up time was 11 months (range,0.4–33 months). Poorer OS (p=0.01) and PFS (p=0.001) were significantly associated with increased enhancing tumor volume. Enhancing tumor volume also differed significantly across molecular subgroups (p=0.047). Tumor enhancement, mode, skewness, and kurtosis ADC-FLAIR differed significantly (p?0.048) between patients with H3F3A and HIST1H3B mutations. Tumor enhancement, median, mode, skewness, and kurtosis ADC-FLAIR also differed significantly (p?0.048) between patients with H3F3A and HIST1H3B or HISTH3C mutations. CONCLUSIONS: MR imaging features including enhancement and ADC histogram parameters correlate to molecular subgroups in DIPG. Further studies are required to verify and refine these findings in a larger cohort.
Project description:Disruption of the BBB in MS is associated with the development of new lesions and clinical relapses and signifies the presence of active inflammation. It is most commonly detected as enhancement on MR imaging performed with contrast agents that are costly and occasionally toxic. We investigated whether the BBB status in white matter lesions may be indirectly ascertained via examination of features on T1- and T2-weighted images obtained before the injection of a contrast agent.We considered 93 brain MR imaging studies on 16 patients that included T1-, T2-, and T2-weighted FLAIR images and predicted voxel wise enhancement after intravenous injection of a gadolinium chelate. We then used these voxel-level predictions to determine the presence or absence of abnormal enhancement anywhere in the brain.On a voxel-by-voxel basis, enhancement can be predicted by using contrast-free measures with an AUC of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.80-0.87). At the whole-brain level, enhancement can be predicted with an AUC of 0.72 (95% CI, 0.62-0.82).In many cases, breakdown of the BBB in acute MS lesions may be inferred without the need to inject an MR imaging contrast agent. The inference relies on intrinsic properties of tissue damage in acute lesions. Although contrast studies are more accurate, they may sometimes be unnecessary.
Project description:PURPOSE: To evaluate a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging contrast technique, called FLAIR*, that combines the advantages of T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) contrast and T2*-weighted contrast on a single image for assessment of white matter (WM) diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective pilot study was HIPAA compliant and institutional review board approved. Ten patients with clinically definite MS (eight men, two women; mean age, 41 years) provided informed consent and underwent 3.0-T MR imaging. Images from a T2-weighted FLAIR sequence were combined with images from a T2*-weighted segmented echo-planar imaging sequence performed during contrast material injection, yielding high-isotropic-resolution (0.55 × 0.55 × 0.55 mm(3)) FLAIR* images. Qualitative assessment was performed for image quality, lesion conspicuity, and vein conspicuity. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) was calculated to compare normal-appearing WM (NAWM) with cerebrospinal fluid, lesions, and veins. To evaluate the differences in CNR among imaging modalities, a bootstrap procedure clustered on subjects was used, together with paired t tests. RESULTS: High-quality FLAIR* images of the brain were produced at 3.0 T, yielding conspicuous lesions and veins. Lesion-to-NAWM and NAWM-to-vein CNR values were significantly higher for FLAIR* images than for T2-weighted FLAIR images (P < .0001). Findings on FLAIR* images included intralesional veins for lesions located throughout the brain and a hypointense rim around some WM lesions. CONCLUSION: High-isotropic-resolution FLAIR* images obtained at 3.0 T yield high contrast for WM lesions and parenchymal veins, making it well suited to investigate the relationship between WM abnormalities and veins in a clinical setting.
Project description:Background:The purpose of this study was to assess the reproducibility of the previously described T2-fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) mismatch sign as a specific imaging marker in non-enhancing isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutant, 1p/19q non-codeleted lower-grade glioma (LGG), encompassing both diffuse and anaplastic astrocytoma. Methods:MR scans (n = 154) from 3 separate databases with genotyped LGG were evaluated by 2 independent reviewers to assess (i) presence/absence of "T2-FLAIR mismatch" sign and (ii) presence/absence of homogeneous signal on T2-weighted images. Interrater agreement with Cohen's kappa (κ) was calculated, as well as diagnostic test performance of the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign to identify IDH-mutant astrocytoma. Results:There was substantial interrater agreement for the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign [κ = 0.75 (0.64-0.87)], but only fair agreement for T2 homogeneity [κ = 0.38 (0.25-0.52)]. The T2-FLAIR mismatch sign was present in 38 cases (25%) and had a positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 68%, a sensitivity of 51%, and a specificity of 100%. Conclusions:With a robust interrater agreement, our study confirms that among non-enhancing LGG the T2-FLAIR mismatch sign represents a highly specific imaging marker for IDH-mutant astrocytoma. This non-invasive marker may enable a more informed patient counsel and can aid in the treatment decision processes in a significant proportion of patients presenting with non-enhancing, LGG-like lesions.