Candida utilis and Chlorella vulgaris counteract intestinal inflammation in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.).
ABSTRACT: Intestinal inflammation, caused by impaired intestinal homeostasis, is a serious condition in both animals and humans. The use of conventional extracted soybean meal (SBM) in diets for Atlantic salmon and several other fish species is known to induce enteropathy in the distal intestine, a condition often referred to as SBM induced enteropathy (SBMIE). In the present study, we investigated the potential of different microbial ingredients to alleviate SBMIE in Atlantic salmon, as a model of feed-induced inflammation. The dietary treatments consisted of a negative control based on fish meal (FM), a positive control based on 20% SBM, and four experimental diets combining 20% SBM with either one of the three yeasts Candida utilis (CU), Kluyveromyces marxianus (KM), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) or the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris (CV). Histopathological examination of the distal intestine showed that all fish fed the SC or SBM diets developed characteristic signs of SBMIE, while those fed the FM, CV or CU diets showed a healthy intestine. Fish fed the KM diet showed intermediate signs of SBMIE. Corroborating results were obtained when measuring the relative length of PCNA positive cells in the crypts of the distal intestine. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed decreased expression of amino acid, fat and drug metabolism pathways as well as increased expression of the pathways for NOD-like receptor signalling and chemokine signalling in both the SC and SBM groups while CV and CU were similar to FM and KM was intermediate. Gene expression of antimicrobial peptides was reduced in the groups showing SBMIE. The characterisation of microbial communities using PCR-DGGE showed a relative increased abundance of Firmicutes bacteria in fish fed the SC or SBM diets. Overall, our results show that both CU and CV were highly effective to counteract SBMIE, while KM had less effect and SC had no functional effects.
Project description:Single cell proteins, such as Candida utilis, are known to have immunomodulating effects in the distal intestine (DI) of Atlantic salmon, whereas soybean meal (SBM) can cause soybean meal induce enteritis (SBMIE). Inflammatory or immunomodulatory stimuli at the local level in the intestine may alter the plasma protein profile of Atlantic salmon. These changes can be helpful tools in diagnosis for fish diseases and indicators for fish health. The present work aimed to identify local intestinal tissue responses and changes in plasma protein profiles of Atlantic salmon fed C. utilis yeast, SBM, or combined diets. Fish meal (FM) based diet was used as a control diet and the six experimental diets were: FM diet with 200 g/kg C. utilis (FM200CU) and five diets containing 200 g/kg SBM together with 0 (SBM group), 25, 50, 100 or 200 g/kg C. utilis (SBM25CU, SBM50CU, SBM100CU and SBM200CU groups, respectively). Intestine morphology of fish fed FM200CU where not affected whereas SBM group presented changes characteristic of SBMIE. Low inclusion of C. utilis in SBM diet showed a modulation of immune cell populations, but did not alleviate inflammatory symptom.
Project description:With increasing levels of fish meal (FM) protein in aquafeeds being replaced with soybean meal (SBM) protein, understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in response to alternative diets has become a critical concern. Thus, the goal of this study was to examine transcriptional differences in the intestine of juvenile yellow perch through RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq), after their initial introduction to a formulated diet with 75% SBM protein inclusion for 61 days, compared to those fed a traditional FM-based diet. Transcriptomic analysis revealed a concise set of differentially expressed genes in juveniles fed the SBM-based diet, the majority of which were intrinsic to the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Analysis of total body lipid and cholesterol levels were also investigated, with no between-treatment differences detected. Results of this study demonstrate that in response to SBM-based diets, yellow perch juveniles up-regulate the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in order to maintain homeostasis. These findings suggest that the upregulation of the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway may negatively impact fish growth due to its large energy expenditure, and future studies are warranted.
Project description:Gene expression was studied in Atlantic cod fed two different diets, fish meal (FM) and dehulled and extracted soybean meal (SBM). RNA was isolated from the distal part of the mid-intestine of Atlantic cod and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) was employed to screen for genes that showed changes in expression in response to the two dietary treatments. We made a cDNA subtracted library, isolated and sequenced 192 clones. Identification of 157 clones was predicted by BLAST. Most of the clones were previously unidentified in cod. Expression of 12 selected clones was further studied by quantitative PCR. Expression of four clones showing similarity to aminopeptidase N, transcobalamin I precursor, cytochrome P450 3A40, and ras-related nuclear protein was significantly up regulated in intestine of cod fed SBM compared to cod fed FM. A trend towards up regulation of a clone with similarity to fatty acid binding protein in SBM-fed cod was also observed. No significant differences in expression were observed for: transmembrane 4 superfamily protein member, polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase, glutathione peroxidase, peroxiredoxin 4, SEC61, F-BOX, and 14-3-3.
Project description:An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal (SBM) with cottonseed meal (CSM) on growth and health of grass carp. Four isonitrogenous diets containing 0, 16.64, 32.73 and 48.94% of CSM, respectively, as replacements of 0, 35, 68 and 100% of SBM were fed to fish (initial body weight 7.14 ± 0.75 g/fish) in triplicate aquaria twice daily. The results indicated that fish fed diet containing 16.64% CSM as a replacement of 35% of SBM was not affected in weight gain (WG), feed efficiency ratio (FER) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) (P>0.05), while fish fed diets containing higher level of dietary CSM (32.73 and 48.94%) significantly decreased WGand PER and significantly increased FCR (P<0.05). Fish fed diets containing 16.64% of CSM had significantly increased hematocrit (Ht) and hemoglobin (Hb) values compared with fish fed with other diets (P<0.05). The activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), gene expression levels of GSH-Px and CAT, and content of malondialdehyde (MDA) were significantly lower for fish fed diets containing 16.64% CSM compared with fish fed other diets (P<0.05). These results showed 16.64% CSM could be used to replace 35% SBM in the diets of juvenile grass carp and without health impact.
Project description:Proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2), activated by trypsin and other serine proteinases, is a key initiator of inflammatory responses in the intestine of mammals. Atlantic salmon fed diets with standard qualities of soybean meal (SBM) show enteritis of the distal intestine as well as increased activity of trypsin in both luminal contents and wall tissue. Luminal trypsin activity may possibly be involved in immune related disorders of the intestine also in Atlantic salmon via activation of PAR 2. In the present study our aim was to investigate if PAR-2 play a role in SBM induced enteritis. We performed multiple alignments based on nucleic acid sequences of PAR-2 from various animals available from public databases, and designed primers for use in cloning of the Atlantic salmon PAR-2 transcript. We further cloned and characterized the full length sequence of Atlantic salmon PAR-2 and investigated the expression in both early and chronic stages of SBM induced enteropathy. Two full length versions of PAR-2 cDNA were identified and termed PAR-2a and PAR-2b. Expression of the two PAR-2 transcripts was detected in all 18 tissues examined, but most extensively in the intestine and gills. A significant up-regulation in the distal intestine was observed for the PAR-2a transcript after 1 day feeding diets containing SBM. After 3 weeks of feeding, PAR-2a was down-regulated compared to the fish fed control diets. These findings may indicate that PAR-2a participates in inflammatory responses in both the early and later stages of the SBM enteropathy. In the chronic stages of the enteropathy, down-regulation of PAR-2a may indicate a possible desensitization of the PAR-2a receptor. Expression of PAR-2b was not altered in the first 7 days of SBM feeding, but a significant up regulation was observed after 3 weeks, suggesting a putative role in chronic stages of SBM induced enteritis. The expression differences of the two PAR-2 transcripts in the feed trials may indicate that they have different roles in the SBM induced enteritis.
Project description:A 12-week factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the interactive effects of dietary algal meal (Schizochytrium sp., AM) and micro-minerals (MM, either organic [OM] or inorganic [IM]) on the immune and antioxidant status, and the expression of hepatic genes involved in the regulation of antioxidants, inflammatory cytokines, lipid metabolism, and organ growth of largemouth bass (LMB; Micropterus salmoides) fed high-and low-fishmeal (FM) diets. For this purpose, two sets of six iso-nitrogenous (42% crude protein) and iso-lipidic (12% lipid) diets, such as high (35%) and low (10%) FM diets were formulated. Within each FM level, AM was used to replace 50% or 100% of fish oil (FO), or without AM (FO control) and supplemented with either OM or IM (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, and Se). Diets were fed to juvenile LMB (initial weight, 25.87?±?0.08?g) to near satiation twice daily. The results indicated that FO replacement by dietary AM did not change the levels of most biochemical (ALB, AMY, TP and GLOB), antioxidants (SOD, GPx and GSH), and immune (IgM and lysozyme) parameters in LMB, except ALP and CAT. MM affected only hepatic GSH, with lower values in fish fed the OM diets. FM influenced the levels of ALP, AMY, GLOB, IgM, and MDA (P?<?0.05). A three-way interactive effect (P?=?0.016) was found on IgM only, with lower levels in fish fed diet 12 (low-FM, AM100, OM). Subsequently, the relative expressions of hepatic antioxidants (Cu/Zn-SOD and GPx-4), inflammatory cytokines (TNF-? and TGF-?1), lipid metabolism (FASN and CYP7A1), and organ growth (IGF-I) related genes were affected by the dietary treatments, with interactions being present in Cu/Zn-SOD, TNF-?, TGF-?1, FASN and IGF-I. Overall, dietary AM could be used as an alternative to FO in low-FM diets without compromising the health of LMB, especially when it is supplemented with MM.
Project description:Fish were fed a standard fish meal (FM) diet or a diet with partial replacement of FM with solvent extracted camelina meal (CM) (8%, 16% or 24% CM inclusion) during a 16-week feeding trial. A significant decrease in growth performance was seen in fish fed the CM inclusion diets. A 44k oligonucleotide array experiment was used to identify any differentially expressed transcripts in the distal intestine of the fish fed the 24% CM diet compared to the control. The expression level of these genes was validated using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, which was also used to measure transcript expression in the fish fed the 8% CM and 16% CM diets. Histopathological analysis was used to quantify any physical signs in inflammation in the distal intestine of the Atlantic salmon fed the CM-containing diets. Overall design: Two condition experiment, 0% CM vs 24% CM, Biological replicates: 9 control replicates, 9 expermiental replicates
Project description:Costs of compounded diets containing fish meal as a primary protein source can be expected to rise as fish meal prices increase in response to static supply and growing demand. Alternatives to fish meal are needed to reduce production costs in many aquaculture enterprises. Some plant proteins are potential replacements for fish meal because of their amino acid composition, lower cost and wide availability. In this study, we measured utilization of soybean meal (SBM) and soy protein concentrate (SPC) by Florida pompano fed compounded diets, to determine the efficacy of these products as fish meal replacements. We also calculated apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for canola meal (CM), corn gluten meal (CGM), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), following typical methods for digestibility trials. Juvenile Florida pompano were fed fish-meal-free diets containing graded levels of SBM and SPC, and weight gain was compared to a control diet that contained SBM, SPC, and fish meal. Fish fed diets that contained 25-30 percent SBM in combination with 43-39 percent SPC had weight gain equivalent to fish fed the control diet with fish meal, while weight gain of fish fed other soy combinations was significantly less than that of the control group. Apparent crude protein digestibility of CGM was significantly higher than that of DDGS but not significantly different from CM. Apparent energy digestibility of DDGS was significantly lower than CGM but significantly higher than CM. Findings suggested that composition of the reference diet used in a digestibility trial affects the values of calculated ADCs, in addition to the chemical and physical attributes of the test ingredient.
Project description:Taurine (Tau) is an amino sulfonic acid, which is widely distributed in animal tissues, whereas it is almost lacking in plants with the exception of certain algae, seaweeds, and few others. In the aquafeed industry, Tau is mainly used as a feed additive to promote growth in marine fish species with limited cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase activity. In particular, Tau supplementation is required in feeds in which fishmeal (FM) is substituted with high percentages of plant-derived protein sources such as soybean meals (SBM) that have much lower levels of Tau than FM. In addition to being a growth promoter, Tau exert powerful antioxidant properties being a scavenger of the reactive oxygen species (ROS). Under sustained swimming conditions, an intracellular increase in ROS production can occur in fish red muscle where the abundance of mitochondria (the main site of ROS formation) is high. Accordingly, this study aimed at investigating the effects of dietary Tau on European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) growth and oxidative stress response induced by swimming exercise. Individually tagged fish of 92.57 ± 20.33 g mean initial weight were fed two experimental diets containing the same low percentage of FM and high percentage of SBM. One diet was supplemented with 1.5% of Tau. Tau supplemented in the diet had a positive effect on fish growth, and enhanced swimming performance and antioxidant status. Two swim endurance tests were performed during the feeding trial. Metabolic oxygen consumption (MO2) was measured during exercise at incremental swimming speeds (0.7, 1.4, 2.1, 2.8, 3.5, and then 4.2 BL (body length) s-1, until fatigue). Fish maximal sustainable swimming speed (Ucrit) was determined too. To investigate the antioxidant effect of dietary Tau, we also measured ROS production in fish blood by RBA (respiratory burst activity) assay and quantified the expression of genes coding for antioxidant enzymes by qPCR (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) , such as SOD (superoxide dismutase), GPX (glutathione peroxidase), and CAT (catalase) in red muscle and liver. There was a significant effect of Tau upon Ucrit during exercise. Additionally, ROS production was significantly lower in fish fed with Tau supplemented diet, supporting the role of Tau as ROS scavenger. The protective effect of Tau against oxidative stress induced by forced swimming was denoted also by a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes gene expression in fish liver and muscle. Taken together these results demonstrate that Tau is beneficial in low FM-based diets for seabass.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Increased inclusion of plant proteins in aquafeeds has become a common practice due to the high cost and limited supply of fish meal but generally leads to inferior growth performance and health problems of fish. Effective method is needed to improve the plant proteins utilization and eliminate their negative effects on fish. This study took a unique approach to improve the utilization of soybean meal (SBM) by fish through autochthonous plant-degrading microbe isolation and subsequent fermentation. RESULTS:A strain of Shewanella sp. MR-7 was isolated and identified as the leading microbe that could utilize SBM in the intestine of turbot. It was further optimized for SBM fermentation and able to improve the protein availability and degrade multiple anti-nutritional factors of SBM. The fishmeal was able to be replaced up to 45% by Shewanella sp. MR-7 fermented SBM compared to only up to 30% by SBM in experimental diets without adverse effects on growth and feed utilization of turbot after feeding trials. Further analyses showed that Shewanella sp. MR-7 fermentation significantly counteracted the SBM-induced adverse effects by increasing digestive enzymes activities, suppressing inflammatory responses, and alleviating microbiota dysbiosis in the intestine of turbot. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated that plant protein utilization by fish could be significantly improved through pre-digestion with isolated plant-degrading host microbes. Further exploitation of autochthonous bacterial activities should be valuable for better performances of plant-based diets in aquaculture.