A DNA break inducer activates the anticodon nuclease RloC and the adaptive immunity in Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1.
ABSTRACT: Double-stranded DNA breaks (DSB) cause bacteria to augment expression of DNA repair and various stress response proteins. A puzzling exception educes the anticodon nuclease (ACNase) RloC, which resembles the DSB responder Rad50 and the antiviral, translation-disabling ACNase PrrC. While PrrC's ACNase is regulated by a DNA restriction-modification (R-M) protein and a phage anti-DNA restriction peptide, RloC has an internal ACNase switch comprising a putative DSB sensor and coupled ATPase. Further exploration of RloC's controls revealed, first, that its ACNase is stabilized by the activating DNA and hydrolysed nucleotide. Second, DSB inducers activated RloC's ACNase in heterologous contexts as well as in a natural host, even when R-M deficient. Third, the DSB-induced activation of the indigenous RloC led to partial and temporary disruption of tRNA(Glu) and tRNA(Gln). Lastly, accumulation of CRISPR-derived RNA that occurred in parallel raises the possibility that the adaptive immunity and RloC provide the genotoxicated host with complementary protection from impending infections.
Project description:<h4>Summary</h4>The conserved bacterial protein RloC, a distant homologue of the tRNA(Lys) anticodon nuclease (ACNase) PrrC, is shown here to act as a wobble nucleotide-excising and Zn(++)-responsive tRNase. The more familiar PrrC is silenced by a genetically linked type I DNA restriction-modification (R-M) enzyme, activated by a phage anti-DNA restriction factor and counteracted by phage tRNA repair enzymes. RloC shares PrrC's ABC ATPase motifs and catalytic ACNase triad but features a distinct zinc-hook/coiled-coil insert that renders its ATPase domain similar to Rad50 and related DNA repair proteins. Geobacillus kaustophilus RloC expressed in Escherichia coli exhibited ACNase activity that differed from PrrC's in substrate preference and ability to excise the wobble nucleotide. The latter specificity could impede reversal by phage tRNA repair enzymes and account perhaps for RloC's more frequent occurrence. Mutagenesis and functional assays confirmed RloC's catalytic triad assignment and implicated its zinc hook in regulating the ACNase function. Unlike PrrC, RloC is rarely linked to a type I R-M system but other genomic attributes suggest their possible interaction in trans. As DNA damage alleviates type I DNA restriction, we further propose that these related perturbations prompt RloC to disable translation and thus ward off phage escaping DNA restriction during the recovery from DNA damage.
Project description:Previous studies revealed DNA damage to occur during the toxic action of PaT, a fungal anticodon ribonuclease (ACNase) targeting the translation machinery via tRNA cleavage. Here, we demonstrate that other translational stressors induce DNA damage-like responses in yeast as well: not only zymocin, another ACNase from the dairy yeast Kluyveromyces lactis, but also translational antibiotics, most pronouncedly hygromycin B (HygB). Specifically, DNA repair mechanisms BER (base excision repair), HR (homologous recombination) and PRR (post replication repair) provided protection, whereas NHEJ (non-homologous end-joining) aggravated toxicity of all translational inhibitors. Analysis of specific BER mutants disclosed a strong HygB, zymocin and PaT protective effect of the endonucleases acting on apurinic sites. In cells defective in AP endonucleases, inactivation of the DNA glycosylase Ung1 increased tolerance to ACNases and HygB. In addition, Mag1 specifically contributes to the repair of DNA lesions caused by HygB. Consistent with DNA damage provoked by translation inhibitors, mutation frequencies were elevated upon exposure to both fungal ACNases and HygB. Since polymerase ? contributed to toxicity in all instances, error-prone lesion-bypass probably accounts for the mutagenic effects. The finding that differently acting inhibitors of protein biosynthesis induce alike cellular responses in DNA repair mutants is novel and suggests the dependency of genome stability on translational fidelity.
Project description:Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 is naturally competent and proficient at homologous recombination, so it can be transformed without restriction digests or ligation reactions. Expression vectors for this system, however, are not yet widely available. Here we describe the construction and characterization of inducible expression vectors that replicate as plasmids in A. baylyi or integrate into a nonessential part of its chromosome. These tools will facilitate the engineering of genes and genomes in this promising model organism.
Project description:Endoribonuclease toxins (ribotoxins) are produced by bacteria and fungi to respond to stress, eliminate non-self competitor species, or interdict virus infection. PrrC is a bacterial ribotoxin that targets and cleaves tRNA<sup>Lys</sup><sub>UUU</sub> in the anticodon loop. In vitro studies suggested that the post-transcriptional modification threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t<sup>6</sup>A) is required for PrrC activity but this prediction had never been validated in vivo. Here, by using t<sup>6</sup>A-deficient yeast derivatives, it is shown that t<sup>6</sup>A is a positive determinant for PrrC proteins from various bacterial species. Streptococcus mutans is one of the few bacteria where the t<sup>6</sup>A synthesis gene tsaE (brpB) is dispensable and its genome encodes a PrrC toxin. We had previously shown using an HPLC-based assay that the S. mutans tsaE mutant was devoid of t<sup>6</sup>A. However, we describe here a novel and a more sensitive hybridization-based t<sup>6</sup>A detection method (compared to HPLC) that showed t<sup>6</sup>A was still present in the S. mutans ?tsaE, albeit at greatly reduced levels (93% reduced compared with WT). Moreover, mutants in 2 other S. mutans t<sup>6</sup>A synthesis genes (tsaB and tsaC) were shown to be totally devoid of the modification thus confirming its dispensability in this organism. Furthermore, analysis of t<sup>6</sup>A modification ratios and of t<sup>6</sup>A synthesis genes mRNA levels in S. mutans suggest they may be regulated by growth phase.
Project description:tRNA damage inflicted by the Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC (EcoPrrC) underlies an antiviral response to phage T4 infection. PrrC homologs are present in many bacterial proteomes, though their biological activities are uncharted. PrrCs consist of two domains: an N-terminal NTPase module related to the ABC family and a distinctive C-terminal ribonuclease module. In this article, we report that the expression of EcoPrrC in budding yeast is fungicidal, signifying that PrrC is toxic in a eukaryon in the absence of other bacterial or viral proteins. Whereas Streptococcus PrrC is also toxic in yeast, Neisseria and Xanthomonas PrrCs are not. Via analysis of the effects of 118 mutations on EcoPrrC toxicity in yeast, we identified 22 essential residues in the NTPase domain and 11 in the nuclease domain. Overexpressing PrrCs with mutations in the NTPase active site ameliorated the toxicity of wild-type EcoPrrC. Our findings support a model in which EcoPrrC toxicity is contingent on head-to-tail dimerization of the NTPase domains to form two composite NTP phosphohydrolase sites. Comparisons of EcoPrrC activity in a variety of yeast genetic backgrounds, and the rescuing effects of tRNA overexpression, implicate tRNA(Lys(UUU)) as a target of EcoPrrC toxicity in yeast.
Project description:Breakage of tRNA by Escherichia coli anticodon nuclease PrrC (EcoPrrC) underlies a host antiviral response to phage T4 infection. Expression of EcoPrrC is cytocidal in yeast, signifying that PrrC ribotoxicity crosses phylogenetic domain boundaries. EcoPrrC consists of an N-terminal NTPase module that resembles ABC transporters and a C-terminal nuclease module that is sui generis. PrrC homologs are prevalent in many other bacteria. Here we report that Haemophilus influenzae PrrC is toxic in E. coli and yeast. To illuminate structure-activity relations, we conducted a new round of mutational analysis of EcoPrrC guided by primary structure conservation among toxic PrrC homologs. We indentify 17 candidate active site residues in the NTPase module that are essential for toxicity in yeast when EcoPrrC is expressed at high gene dosage. Their functions could be educed by integrating mutational data with the atomic structure of the transition-state complex of a homologous ABC protein.
Project description:Genotypic and phenotypic analyses were carried out to clarify the taxonomic position of the naturally transformable Acinetobacter sp. strain ADP1. Transfer tDNA-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, and selective restriction fragment amplification (amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis) indicate that strain ADP1 and a second transformable strain, designated 93A2, are members of the newly described species Acinetobacter baylyi. Transformation assays demonstrate that the A. baylyi type strain B2(T) and two other originally identified members of the species (C5 and A7) also have the ability to undergo natural transformation at high frequencies, confirming that these five strains belong to a separate species of the genus Acinetobacter, characterized by the high transformability of its strains that have been cultured thus far.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 is an ideal bacterial strain for high-throughput genetic analysis as the bacterium is naturally transformable. Thus, ADP1 can be used to investigate DNA mismatch repair, a mechanism for repairing mismatched bases. We used the mutS deletion mutant (XH439) and mutL deletion mutant (XH440), and constructed a mutS mutL double deletion mutant (XH441) to investigate the role of the mismatch repair system in A. baylyi. RESULTS:We determined the survival rates after UV irradiation and measured the mutation frequencies, rates and spectra of wild-type ADP1 and mutSL mutant via rifampin resistance assay (RifR assay) and experimental evolution. In addition, transformation efficiencies of genomic DNA in ADP1 and its three mutants were determined. Lastly, the relative growth rates of the wild type strain, three constructed deletion mutants, as well as the rifampin resistant mutants obtained from RifR assays, were measured. All three mutants had higher survival rates after UV irradiation than wild type, especially the double deletion mutant. Three mutants showed higher mutation frequencies than ADP1 and favored transition mutations in RifR assay. All three mutants showed increased mutation rates in the experimental evolution. However, only XH439 and XH441 had higher mutation rates than the wild type strain in RifR assay. XH441 showed higher transformation efficiency than XH438 when donor DNA harbored transition mutations. All three mutants showed higher growth rates than wild-type, and these four strains displayed higher growth rates than almost all their rpoB mutants. The growth rate results showed different amino acid mutations in rpoB resulted in different extents of reduction in the fitness of rifampin resistant mutants. However, the fitness cost brought by the same mutation did not vary with strain background. CONCLUSIONS:We demonstrated that inactivation of both mutS and mutL increased the mutation rates and frequencies in A. baylyi, which would contribute to the evolution and acquirement of rifampicin resistance. The mutS deletion is also implicated in increased mutation rates and frequencies, suggesting that MutL may be activated even in the absence of mutS. The correlation between fitness cost and rifampin resistance mutations in A. baylyi is firstly established.
Project description:Transfer RNA (tRNA) structure, modifications and functions are evolutionary and established in bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes. Typically the tRNA modifications are indispensable for its stability and are required for decoding the mRNA into amino acids for protein synthesis. A conserved methylation has been located on the anticodon loop specifically at the 37(th) position and it is next to the anticodon bases. This modification is called as m1G37 and it is catalyzed by tRNA (m(1)G37) methyltransferase (TrmD). It is deciphered that G37 positions occur on few additional amino acids specific tRNA subsets in bacteria. Furthermore, Archaea and Eukaryotes have more number of tRNA subsets which contains G37 position next to the anticodon and the G residue are located at different positions such as G36, G37, G38, 39, and G40. In eight bacterial species, G (guanosine) residues are presents at the 37(th) and 38(th) position except three tRNA subsets having G residues at 36(th) and 39(th) positions. Therefore we propose that m1G37 modification may be feasible at 36(th), 37(th), 38(th), 39(th) and 40(th) positions next to the anticodon of tRNAs. Collectively, methylation at G residues close to the anticodon may be possible at different positions and without restriction of anticodon 3(rd) base A, C, U or G.
Project description:Recombination between insertion sequence copies can cause genetic deletion, inversion, or duplication. However, it is difficult to assess the fraction of all genomic rearrangements that involve insertion sequences. In previous gene duplication and amplification studies of Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1, an insertion sequence was evident in approximately 2% of the characterized duplication sites. Gene amplification occurs frequently in all organisms and has a significant impact on evolution, adaptation, drug resistance, cancer, and various disorders. To understand the molecular details of this important process, a previously developed system was used to analyze gene amplification in selected mutants. The current study focused on amplification events in two chromosomal regions that are near one of six copies of the only transposable element in ADP1, IS1236 (an IS3 family member). Twenty-one independent mutants were analyzed, and in contrast to previous studies of a different chromosomal region, IS1236 was involved in 86% of these events. IS1236-mediated amplification could occur through homologous recombination between insertion sequences on both sides of a duplicated region. However, this mechanism presupposes that transposition generates an appropriately positioned additional copy of IS1236. To evaluate this possibility, PCR and Southern hybridization were used to determine the chromosomal configurations of amplification mutants involving IS1236. Surprisingly, the genomic patterns were inconsistent with the hypothesis that intramolecular homologous recombination occurred between insertion sequences following an initial transposition event. These results raise a novel possibility that the gene amplification events near the IS1236 elements arise from illegitimate recombination involving transposase-mediated DNA cleavage.