Mode of cell death induced by the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG (tanespimycin) is dependent on the expression of pro-apoptotic BAX.
ABSTRACT: Inhibitors of the molecular chaperone heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) are of considerable current interest as targeted cancer therapeutic agents because of the ability to destabilize multiple oncogenic client proteins. Despite their resulting pleiotropic effects on multiple oncogenic pathways and hallmark traits of cancer, resistance to HSP90 inhibitors is possible and their ability to induce apoptosis is less than might be expected. Using an isogenic model for BAX knockout in HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells, we demonstrate the induction of BAX-dependent apoptosis at pharmacologically relevant concentrations of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG both in vitro and in tumor xenografts in vivo. Removal of BAX expression by homologous recombination reduces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo but allows a lower level of cell death via a predominantly necrotic mechanism. Despite reducing apoptosis, the loss of BAX does not alter the overall sensitivity to 17-AAG in vitro or in vivo. The results indicate that 17-AAG acts predominantly to cause a cytostatic antiproliferative effect rather than cell death and further suggest that BAX status may not alter the overall clinical response to HSP90 inhibitors. Other agents may be required in combination to enhance tumor-selective killing by these promising drugs. In addition, there are implications for the use of apoptotic endpoints in the assessment of the activity of molecularly targeted agents.
Project description:Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) inhibitors, such as 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG, tanespimycin), which is currently in phase II/phase III clinical trials, are promising new anticancer agents. Here, we explored acquired resistance to HSP90 inhibitors in glioblastoma (GB), a primary brain tumor with poor prognosis. GB cells were exposed continuously to increased 17-AAG concentrations. Four 17-AAG-resistant GB cell lines were generated. High-resistance levels with resistance indices (RI = resistant line IC(50)/parental line IC(50)) of 20 to 137 were obtained rapidly (2-8 weeks). After cessation of 17-AAG exposure, RI decreased and then stabilized. Cross-resistance was found with other ansamycin benzoquinones but not with the structurally unrelated HSP90 inhibitors, radicicol, the purine BIIB021, and the resorcinylic pyrazole/isoxazole amide compounds VER-49009, VER-50589, and NVP-AUY922. An inverse correlation between NAD(P)H/quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) expression/activity and 17-AAG IC(50) was observed in the resistant lines. The NQO1 inhibitor ES936 abrogated the differential effects of 17-AAG sensitivity between the parental and resistant lines. NQO1 mRNA levels and NQO1 DNA polymorphism analysis indicated different underlying mechanisms: reduced expression and selection of the inactive NQO1*2 polymorphism. Decreased NQO1 expression was also observed in a melanoma line with acquired resistance to 17-AAG. No resistance was generated with VER-50589 and NVP-AUY922. In conclusion, low NQO1 activity is a likely mechanism of acquired resistance to 17-AAG in GB, melanoma, and, possibly, other tumor types. Such resistance can be overcome with novel HSP90 inhibitors.
Project description:Hsp90 is widely overexpressed in cancer cells and believed to be essential for the maintenance of malignant phenotypes. Targeting Hsp90 by small molecules has shown promise in solid and hematologic malignancies, which likely involves degradation of client oncoproteins in a cell-type-specific manner. In this study, we found that structurally unrelated Hsp90 inhibitors induce DNA damage and apoptosis via p53-dependent induction of PUMA, which indirectly triggers Bax activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in colon cancer cells. Deficiency in PUMA, BAX, or p53, at lesser extent, abrogated 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG)-induced apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction, and enhanced clonogenic cell survival. Furthermore, suppression of p53-dependent p21 induction or enhanced p53 activation synergized with 17-AAG to induce PUMA-dependent apoptosis. Finally, PUMA was found to mediate apoptotic and therapeutic responses to the 17-AAG analog 17-DMAG in xenografts. These results show an important role of the p53/PUMA/Bax axis in Hsp90 inhibitor-induced killing of p53 wild-type cells, and have important implications for their clinical applications.
Project description:Gallbladder cancer (GBC) is a lethal cancer with poor prognosis associated with high invasiveness and poor response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. New therapeutic approaches are urgently needed in order to improve survival and response rates of GBC patients. We screened 130 small molecule inhibitors on a panel of seven GBC cell lines and identified the HSP90 inhibitor 17-AAG as one of the most potent inhibitory drugs across the different lines. We tested the antitumor efficacy of 17-AAG and geldanamycin (GA) in vitro and in a subcutaneous preclinical tumor model NOD-SCID mice. We also evaluated the expression of HSP90 by immunohistochemistry in human GBC tumors.In vitro assays showed that 17-AAG and GA significantly reduced the expression of HSP90 target proteins, including EGFR, AKT, phospho-AKT, Cyclin B1, phospho-ERK and Cyclin D1. These molecular changes were consistent with reduced cell viability and cell migration and promotion of G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis observed in our in vitro studies.In vivo, 17-AAG showed efficacy in reducing subcutaneous tumors size, exhibiting a 69.6% reduction in tumor size in the treatment group compared to control mice (p < 0.05).The HSP90 immunohistochemical staining was seen in 182/209 cases of GBC (87%) and it was strongly expressed in 70 cases (33%), moderately in 58 cases (28%), and weakly in 54 cases (26%).Our pre-clinical observations strongly suggest that the inhibition of HSP90 function by HSP90 inhibitors is a promising therapeutic strategy for gallbladder cancer that may benefit from new HSP90 inhibitors currently in development.
Project description:Many types of cancer express high levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs) that are molecular chaperones regulating protein folding and stability ensuring protection of cells from potentially lethal stress. HSPs in cancer cells promote survival, growth and spreading even in situations of growth factors deprivation by associating with oncogenic proteins responsible for cell transformation. Hence, it is not surprising that the identification of potent inhibitors of HSPs, notably HSP90, has been the primary research focus, in recent years. Exposure of cancer cells to HSP90 inhibitors, including 17-AAG, has been shown to cause resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment mostly attributable to induction of the heat shock response and increased cellular levels of pro-survival chaperones. In this study, we show that treatment of glioblastoma cells with 17-AAG leads to HSP90 inhibition indicated by loss of stability of the EGFR client protein, and significant increase in HSP70 expression. Conversely, co-treatment with the small-molecule kinase inhibitor D11 leads to suppression of the heat shock response and inhibition of HSF1 transcriptional activity. Beside HSP70, Western blot and differential mRNA expression analysis reveal that combination treatment causes strong down-regulation of the small chaperone protein HSP27. Finally, we demonstrate that incubation of cells with both agents leads to enhanced cytotoxicity and significantly high levels of LC3-II suggesting autophagy induction. Taken together, results reported here support the notion that including D11 in future treatment regimens based on HSP90 inhibition can potentially overcome acquired resistance induced by the heat shock response in brain cancer cells.
Project description:Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone required for the stability and function of many proteins. The chaperoning of oncoproteins by HSP90 enhances survival, growth and invasive potential of cancer cells. HSP90 inhibitors are promising new anticancer agents, in which the benzoquinone ansamycin 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG) is currently in clinical evaluation. However, the implications of acquired resistance to this class of drug remain largely unexplored. In the present study, we have generated isogenic human colonic cancer cell line SW480 that is resistant to 17-AAG by continued culturing in the compound. We used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression underlying the acquired resistance to 17-AAG in SW480 and SW480-R cell lines. Overall design: SW480 cells were incubated and treated with 17-AAG at an initial concentration of 1×IC50. The medium with the compound was replaced every 48 h to discard dead cells. When surviving cells grow to 80% confluence, cells were passaged and the 17-AAG concentration was then added as follows: 2×, 4×, 6× ……IC50 till undulated. The generated resistant cell line(SW480-R) was cultured without 17-AAG at least of 2 weeks for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays, and for other analysis. Paired parental cells in another flask were serially passaged without 17-AAG as an untreated control.
Project description:HSP90 inhibitors have the potential to treat many types of cancer due to the dependence of tumor cells on HSP90 for cell growth and proliferation. The Cullin-5 (Cul5) E3 ubiquitin ligase is required for HSP90 inhibitors to induce client protein degradation and subsequent cell death. Cul5 is expressed at low levels in breast cancer cells compared to patient matched controls. This observed low Cul5 expression may play a role in the reported decreased efficacy of 17-AAG and related HSP90 inhibitors as a monotherapy. We have developed a method for delivery of 17-AAG plus Cul5 DNA to cells via gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Delivery of AuNPs containing Cul5 DNA increases the sensitivity of Cul5 deficient AU565 cells to 17-AAG. Characterization of AuNPs by UV-vis spectrum, TEM, gel electrophoresis assay and 1H NMR indicate attachment of both 17-AAG and DNA payload as well as AuNP stability. Studies in Cul5 deficient AU565 cells reveal that delivery of Cul5 and 17-AAG together increase cytotoxicity. Our results provide evidence that delivery of DNA with drug may serve as a method to sensitize drug resistant tumor cells.
Project description:Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), which regulates the functions of multiple oncogenic signaling pathways, has emerged as a novel anticancer therapeutic target, and multiple small-molecule HSP90 inhibitors are now in clinical trials. Although the effects of HSP90 inhibitors on oncogenic signaling pathways have been extensively studied, the effects of these agents on tumor suppressor signaling pathways are currently unknown. Here, we have examined how HSP90 inhibitors affect LATS1 and the related protein LATS2, two kinases that relay antiproliferative signals in the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. Both LATS1 and LATS2 were depleted from cells treated with the HSP90 inhibitors 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), radicicol, and PU-H71. Moreover, these kinases interacted with HSP90, and LATS1 isolated from 17-AAG-treated cells had reduced catalytic activity, thus showing that the kinase is a bona fide HSP90 client. Importantly, LATS1 signaling was disrupted by 17-AAG in tumor cell lines in vitro and clinical ovarian cancers in vivo as shown by reduced levels of LATS1 and decreased phosphorylation of the LATS substrate YAP, an oncoprotein transcriptional coactivator that regulates genes involved in cell and tissue growth, including the CTGF gene. Consistent with the reduced YAP phosphorylation, there were increased levels of CTGF, a secreted protein that is implicated in tumor proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Taken together, these results identify LATS1 and LATS2 as novel HSP90 clients and show that HSP90 inhibitors can disrupt the LATS tumor suppressor pathway in human cancer cells.
Project description:ErbB2-driven breast cancers constitute 20-25% of the cases diagnosed within the USA. The humanized anti-ErbB2 monoclonal antibody, Trastuzumab (Herceptin™; Genentech), with chemotherapy is the current standard of treatment. Novel agents and strategies continue to be explored, given the challenges posed by Trastuzumab-resistance development in most patients. The HSP90 inhibitor, 17-allylaminodemethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), which induces ErbB2 degradation and attenuates downstream oncogenic signaling, is one such agent that showed significant promise in early phase I and II clinical trials. Its low water solubility, potential toxicities and undesirable side effects observed in patients, partly due to the Cremophor-based formulation, have been discouraging factors in the advancement of this promising drug into clinical use. Encapsulation of 17-AAG into polymeric nanoparticle formulations, particularly in synergistic combination with conventional chemotherapeutics, represents an alternative approach to overcome these problems. Herein, we report an efficient co-encapsulation of 17-AAG and doxorubicin, a clinically well-established and effective modality in breast cancer treatment, into biodegradable and biocompatible polypeptide-based nanogels. Dual drug-loaded nanogels displayed potent cytotoxicity in a breast cancer cell panel and exerted selective synergistic anticancer activity against ErbB2-overexpressing breast cancer cell lines. Analysis of ErbB2 degradation confirmed efficient 17-AAG release from nanogels with activity comparable to free 17-AAG. Furthermore, nanogels containing both 17-AAG and doxorubicin exhibited superior antitumor efficacy in vivo in an ErbB2-driven xenograft model compared to the combination of free drugs. These studies demonstrate that polypeptide-based nanogels can serve as novel nanocarriers for encapsulating 17-AAG along with other chemotherapeutics, providing an opportunity to overcome solubility issues and thereby exploit its full potential as an anti-cancer agent.
Project description:Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a molecular chaperone which stabilizes client proteins with important roles in tumor growth. 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), an inhibitor of HSP90 ATPase activity, occupies the ATP binding site of HSP90 causing a conformational change which destabilizes client proteins and directs them towards proteosomal degradation. Malignant melanomas have active RAF-MEK-ERK signaling which can occur either through an activating mutation in BRAF (BRAFV600E) or through activation of signal transduction upstream of BRAF. Prior work showed that 17-AAG inhibits cell growth in BRAFV600E and BRAF wildtype (BRAFWT) melanomas, although there were conflicting reports about the dependence of BRAFV600E and BRAFWT upon HSP90 activity for stability. Here, we demonstrate that BRAFWT and CRAF are bound by HSP90 in BRAFWT, NRAS mutant melanoma cells. HSP90 inhibition by 17-AAG inhibits ERK signaling and cell growth by destabilizing CRAF but not BRAFWT in the majority of NRAS mutant melanoma cells. The highly-selective BRAFV600E inhibitor, PLX4032 (vemurafenib), inhibits ERK signaling and cell growth in mutant BRAF melanoma cells, but paradoxically enhances signaling in cells with wild-type BRAF. In our study, we examined whether 17-AAG could inhibit PLX4032-enhanced ERK signaling in BRAFWT melanoma cells. As expected, PLX4032 alone enhanced ERK signaling in the BRAFWT melanoma cell lines Mel-Juso, SK-Mel-2, and SK-Mel-30, and inhibited signaling and cell growth in BRAFV600E A375 cells. However, HSP90 inhibition by 17-AAG inhibited PLX4032-enhanced ERK signaling and inhibited cell growth by destabilizing CRAF. Surprisingly, 17-AAG also stimulated melanin production in SK-Mel-30 cells and enhanced TYRP1 and DCT expression without stimulating TYR production in all three BRAFWT cell lines studied as well as in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. In vivo, the combination of 17-AAG and cellular immunotherapy directed against Tyrp1 enhanced the inhibition of tumor growth compared to either therapy alone. Our studies support a role for 17-AAG and HSP90 inhibition in enhancing cellular immunotherapy for melanoma.
Project description:Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) regulates multiple signalling pathways critical for tumour growth. As such, HSP90 inhibitors have been shown to act as effective anticancer agents in preclinical studies but, for a number of reasons, the same effect has not been observed in the clinical trials to date. One potential reason for this may be the presence of de novo or acquired resistance within the tumours. To investigate mechanisms of resistance, we generated resistant cell lines through gradual dose escalation of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG). The resultant resistant cell lines maintained their respective levels of resistance (7-240×) in the absence of 17-AAG and were also cross-resistant with other benzoquinone ansamycin HSP90 inhibitors. Expression of members of the histone deacetylase family (HDAC 1, 5, 6) was altered in the resistant cells. To determine whether HDAC activity contributed to resistance, pan-HDAC inhibitors (TSA and LBH589) and the class II HDAC-specific inhibitor SNDX275 were found to resensitize resistant cells towards 17-AAG and 17-dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin. Most significantly, resistant cells were also identified as cross-resistant towards structurally distinct HSP90 inhibitors such as radicicol and the second-generation HSP90 inhibitors CCT018159, VER50589 and AUY922. HDAC inhibition also resensitized resistant cells towards these classes of HSP90 inhibitors. In conclusion, we report that prolonged 17-AAG treatment results in acquired resistance of cancer cells towards not just 17-AAG but also to a spectrum of structurally distinct HSP90 inhibitors. This acquired resistance can be inhibited using clinically relevant HDAC inhibitors. This work supports the potential benefit of using HSP90 and HDAC inhibitors in combination within the clinical setting.