The role of disordered protein regions in the assembly of decapping complexes and RNP granules.
ABSTRACT: The removal of the 5' cap structure by the decapping enzyme DCP2 inhibits translation and generally commits the mRNA to irreversible 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic degradation by XRN1. DCP2 catalytic activity is stimulated by DCP1, and these proteins form the conserved core of the decapping complex. Additional decapping factors orchestrate the recruitment and activity of this complex in vivo. These factors include enhancer of decapping 3 (EDC3), EDC4, like Sm14A (LSm14A), Pat, the LSm1-7 complex, and the RNA helicase DDX6. Decapping factors are often modular and feature folded domains flanked or connected by low-complexity disordered regions. Recent studies have made important advances in understanding how these disordered regions contribute to the assembly of decapping complexes and promote phase transitions that drive RNP granule formation. These studies have also revealed that the decapping network is governed by interactions mediated by short linear motifs (SLiMs) in these disordered regions. Consequently, the network has rapidly evolved, and although decapping factors are conserved, individual interactions between orthologs have been rewired during evolution. The plasticity of the network facilitates the acquisition of additional subunits or domains in pre-existing subunits, enhances opportunities for regulating mRNA degradation, and eventually leads to the emergence of novel functions.
Project description:The removal of the 5'-cap structure by the decapping enzyme DCP2 and its coactivator DCP1 shuts down translation and exposes the mRNA to 5'-to-3' exonucleolytic degradation by XRN1. Although yeast DCP1 and DCP2 directly interact, an additional factor, EDC4, promotes DCP1-DCP2 association in metazoan. Here, we elucidate how the human proteins interact to assemble an active decapping complex and how decapped mRNAs are handed over to XRN1. We show that EDC4 serves as a scaffold for complex assembly, providing binding sites for DCP1, DCP2 and XRN1. DCP2 and XRN1 bind simultaneously to the EDC4 C-terminal domain through short linear motifs (SLiMs). Additionally, DCP1 and DCP2 form direct but weak interactions that are facilitated by EDC4. Mutational and functional studies indicate that the docking of DCP1 and DCP2 on the EDC4 scaffold is a critical step for mRNA decapping in vivo. They also revealed a crucial role for a conserved asparagine-arginine containing loop (the NR-loop) in the DCP1 EVH1 domain in DCP2 activation. Our data indicate that DCP2 activation by DCP1 occurs preferentially on the EDC4 scaffold, which may serve to couple DCP2 activation by DCP1 with 5'-to-3' mRNA degradation by XRN1 in human cells.
Project description:P bodies are cytoplasmic RNA granules containing the Dcp1-Dcp2 decapping enzymes where mRNA decay can occur. Here, we describe the characterization of P bodies in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Most information on the property and function of P bodies stems from studies in the distantly related budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Edc3 was identified as a scaffold protein required for P-body assembly. However, we found that, unlike in S. cerevisiae, fission yeast Edc3 was dispensable for P-body formation. Pdc1, a novel partner of the fission yeast decapping enzyme, with a limited similarity to plant Edc4/Varicose that is required for the assembly of P bodies, was identified (tandem affinity purification-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem mass spectrometry [TAP-MALDI MS/MS]). Pdc1 interacts with Dcp2 through its C terminus and contains a coiled-coil region for self-interaction to mediate P-body formation. In line with the model that Pdc1 cross-bridges different proteins, additional interactions can be demonstrated with components such as Edc3 and Ste13. Although Pdc1 is not required for the interaction between Dcp1 and Dcp2, our data suggest that Pdc1 acts as a functional homologue of Edc4, a third component of the decapping enzymes that is thought to be absent from fungi. Together, these results highlight the diverse P-body protein compositions between different species and might help to provide insight into their evolutionary paths.
Project description:The Dcp1:Dcp2 decapping complex catalyses the removal of the mRNA 5' cap structure. Activator proteins, including Edc3 (enhancer of decapping 3), modulate its activity. Here, we solved the structure of the yeast Edc3 LSm domain in complex with a short helical leucine-rich motif (HLM) from Dcp2. The motif interacts with the monomeric Edc3 LSm domain in an unprecedented manner and recognizes a noncanonical binding surface. Based on the structure, we identified additional HLMs in the disordered C-terminal extension of Dcp2 that can interact with Edc3. Moreover, the LSm domain of the Edc3-related protein Scd6 competes with Edc3 for the interaction with these HLMs. We show that both Edc3 and Scd6 stimulate decapping in vitro, presumably by preventing the Dcp1:Dcp2 complex from adopting an inactive conformation. In addition, we show that the C-terminal HLMs in Dcp2 are necessary for the localization of the Dcp1:Dcp2 decapping complex to P-bodies in vivo. Unexpectedly, in contrast to yeast, in metazoans the HLM is found in Dcp1, suggesting that details underlying the regulation of mRNA decapping changed throughout evolution.
Project description:Cap hydrolysis is a critical control point in the life of eukaryotic mRNAs and is catalyzed by the evolutionarily conserved Dcp1-Dcp2 complex. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, decapping is modulated by several factors, including the Lsm family protein Edc3, which directly binds to Dcp2. We show that Edc3 binding to Dcp2 is mediated by a short peptide sequence located C terminal to the catalytic domain of Dcp2. This sequence is required for Edc3 to stimulate decapping activity of Dcp2 in vitro, for Dcp2 to efficiently accumulate in P-bodies, and for efficient degradation of the RPS28B mRNA, whose decay is enhanced by Edc3. In contrast, degradation of YRA1 pre-mRNA, another Edc3-regulated transcript, occurs independently from this region, suggesting that the effect of Edc3 on YRA1 is independent of its interaction with Dcp2. Deletion of the sequence also results in a subtle but significant defect in turnover of the MFA2pG reporter transcript, which is not affected by deletion of EDC3, suggesting that the region affects some other aspect of Dcp2 function in addition to binding Edc3. These results raise a model for Dcp2 recruitment to specific mRNAs where regions outside the catalytic core promote the formation of different complexes involved in mRNA decapping.
Project description:DCP1 stimulates the decapping enzyme DCP2, which removes the mRNA 5' cap structure committing mRNAs to degradation. In multicellular eukaryotes, DCP1-DCP2 interaction is stabilized by additional proteins, including EDC4. However, most information on DCP2 activation stems from studies in S. cerevisiae, which lacks EDC4. Furthermore, DCP1 orthologs from multicellular eukaryotes have a C-terminal extension, absent in fungi. Here, we show that in metazoa, a conserved DCP1 C-terminal domain drives DCP1 trimerization. Crystal structures of the DCP1-trimerization domain reveal an antiparallel assembly comprised of three kinked alpha-helices. Trimerization is required for DCP1 to be incorporated into active decapping complexes and for efficient mRNA decapping in vivo. Our results reveal an unexpected connectivity and complexity of the mRNA decapping network in multicellular eukaryotes, which likely enhances opportunities for regulating mRNA degradation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Turnover of mRNA is a critical step in the regulation of gene expression, and an important step in mRNA decay is removal of the 5' cap. We previously demonstrated that the expression of some immediate early gene mRNAs is controlled by RNA stability during early differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS:Here we show that the mouse decapping protein Dcp1a is phosphorylated via the ERK signaling pathway during early differentiation of preadipocytes. Mass spectrometry analysis and site-directed mutagenesis combined with a kinase assay identified ERK pathway-mediated dual phosphorylation at Ser 315 and Ser 319 of Dcp1a. To understand the functional effects of Dcp1a phosphorylation, we examined protein-protein interactions between Dcp1a and other decapping components with co-immunoprecipitation. Dcp1a interacted with Ddx6 and Edc3 through its proline-rich C-terminal extension, whereas the conserved EVH1 (enabled vasodilator-stimulated protein homology 1) domain in the N terminus of Dcp1a showed a stronger interaction with Dcp2. Once ERK signaling was activated, the interaction between Dcp1a and Ddx6, Edc3, or Edc4 was not affected by Dcp1a phosphorylation. Phosphorylated Dcp1a did, however, enhanced interaction with Dcp2. Protein complexes immunoprecipitated with the recombinant phosphomimetic Dcp1a(S315D/S319D) mutant contained more Dcp2 than did those immunoprecipitated with the nonphosphorylated Dcp1a(S315A/S319A) mutant. In addition, Dcp1a associated with AU-rich element (ARE)-containing mRNAs such as MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1), whose mRNA stability was analyzed under the overexpression of Dcp1a constructs in the Dcp1a knockdown 3T3-L1 cells. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE:Our findings suggest that ERK-phosphorylated Dcp1a enhances its interaction with the decapping enzyme Dcp2 during early differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells.
Project description:Cellular liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) results in the formation of dynamic granules that play an important role in many biological processes. On a molecular level, the clustering of proteins into a confined space results from an indefinite network of intermolecular interactions. Here, we introduce and exploit a novel high-throughput bottom-up approach to study how the interactions between RNA, the Dcp1:Dcp2 mRNA decapping complex and the scaffolding proteins Edc3 and Pdc1 result in the formation of processing bodies. We find that the LLPS boundaries are close to physiological concentrations upon inclusion of multiple proteins and RNA. Within in vitro processing bodies the RNA is protected against endonucleolytic cleavage and the mRNA decapping activity is reduced, which argues for a role of processing bodies in temporary mRNA storage. Interestingly, the intrinsically disordered region (IDR) in the Edc3 protein emerges as a central hub for interactions with both RNA and mRNA decapping factors. In addition, the Edc3 IDR plays a role in the formation of irreversible protein aggregates that are potentially detrimental for cellular homeostasis. In summary, our data reveal insights into the mechanisms that lead to cellular LLPS and into the way this influences enzymatic activity.
Project description:5' mediated cytoplasmic RNA decay is a conserved cellular process in eukaryotes. While the functions of the structured core domains in this pathway are well-studied, the role of abundant intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) is lacking. Here we reconstitute the Dcp1:Dcp2 complex containing a portion of the disordered C-terminus and show its activity is autoinhibited by linear interaction motifs. Enhancers of decapping (Edc) 1 and 3 cooperate to activate decapping by different mechanisms: Edc3 alleviates autoinhibition by binding IDRs and destabilizing an inactive form of the enzyme, whereas Edc1 stabilizes the transition state for catalysis. Both activators are required to fully stimulate an autoinhibited Dcp1:Dcp2 as Edc1 alone cannot overcome the decrease in activity attributed to the C-terminal extension. Our data provide a mechanistic framework for combinatorial control of decapping by protein cofactors, a principle that is likely conserved in multiple 5' mRNA decay pathways.
Project description:Pat proteins regulate the transition of mRNAs from a state that is translationally active to one that is repressed, committing targeted mRNAs to degradation. Pat proteins contain a conserved N-terminal sequence, a proline-rich region, a Mid domain and a C-terminal domain (Pat-C). We show that Pat-C is essential for the interaction with mRNA decapping factors (i.e. DCP2, EDC4 and LSm1-7), whereas the P-rich region and Mid domain have distinct functions in modulating these interactions. DCP2 and EDC4 binding is enhanced by the P-rich region and does not require LSm1-7. LSm1-7 binding is assisted by the Mid domain and is reduced by the P-rich region. Structural analysis revealed that Pat-C folds into an alpha-alpha superhelix, exposing conserved and basic residues on one side of the domain. This conserved and basic surface is required for RNA, DCP2, EDC4 and LSm1-7 binding. The multiplicity of interactions mediated by Pat-C suggests that certain of these interactions are mutually exclusive and, therefore, that Pat proteins switch decapping partners allowing transitions between sequential steps in the mRNA decapping pathway.
Project description:In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mRNA transcripts with premature termination codons are targeted for deadenylation independent decapping and 5' to 3' decay in a quality control pathway termed nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). Critical factors in NMD include Upf1, Upf2, and Upf3, as well as the decapping enzyme, Dcp2/Dcp1. Loss of Upf2 or Upf3 leads to the accumulation of not only Upf1 and Dcp2 in P-bodies, but also of the decapping-activators Pat1, Dhh1, and Lsm1. An interaction between Upf1 and Dcp2 has been identified, which might recruit Dcp2 to the NMD decapping complex. To determine the nature and significance of the Dcp2-Upf1 interaction, we utilized the yeast two-hybrid assay to assess Upf1 interactions with various mRNA decapping factors. We find that although Dcp2 can interact with Upf1, this interaction is indirect and is largely dependent on the Edc3 protein, which interacts with the N-terminal domain of Upf1 at an overlapping, but not identical, site as Upf2. We also found that Pat1 has an independent two-hybrid interaction with the N-terminus of Upf1. Assessment of both reporter and endogenous NMD transcripts suggest that the decapping stimulators, including Edc3 and Pat1, as well as Edc1 and Edc2, are not essential for NMD under normal conditions. This work defines a larger decapping complex involved in NMD, but indicates that components of that complex are not required for general NMD and might either regulate a subset of NMD transcripts or be essential for proper NMD under different environmental conditions.