The gene expression profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from EV71-infected rhesus infants and the significance in viral pathogenesis.
ABSTRACT: Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major pathogen responsible for fatal hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). Our previous work reported on an EV71-infected rhesus monkey infant model that presented with histo-pathologic changes of the central nervous system (CNS) and lungs. This study is focused on the correlated modulation of gene expression in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from EV71-infected rhesus monkey infants. The expression of more than 500 functional genes associated with multiple pathways was modulated. The expression of genes associated with immune inflammatory responses was up-regulated during the period from days 4 to 10 post-infection. The expression of two genes (TAC1 and IL17A), which play major roles in inflammatory reactions, was remarkably up-regulated during the infection period. Furthermore, a higher expression level of the TAC1 gene was identified in the CNS compared to the lungs, but a high expression level of the IL-17A gene was observed in the lungs and not in the CNS. The results of this study suggest at least two facts about EV71 infection, which are that: the TAC1 gene that encodes substance P and neurokinin-A is present in both PBMCs and the hypothalamus; and the up-regulation of IL-17A is sustained in the peripheral blood.
Project description:To study the gene expression during EV71 infection, we have employed whole Rhesus Monkey genome microarray expression profiling as a discovery platform to identify genes with the potential to distinguish infection process. Rhesus monkey peripheral blood from the experiment or control donors was isolated, extracted the RNA and screened by microarray. The results indicated that the expression levels of more than 500 functional genes associated with multiple pathways were modulated. To confirm the results of the microarray analysis, 25 individual genes were random selected and were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR amplification. The expression levels of genes associated with immune inflammatory responses were up-regulated during the period from day 4 to 10 post-infection. The expressions of two genes (TAC1 and IL17A), which play major roles in inflammatory reactions, were remarkably up-regulated during the infection period. Overall design: Enterovirus 71 infection induced gene expression in rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured at 4, 7 and 10 days after viral infection. Three samples from two experiment donors and one control donor were performed at each time (4, 7 or 10 days). To exclude the individual difference, mix the two experiment samples at each time, and mix the three control samples.
Project description:To study the gene expression during EV71 infection, we have employed whole Rhesus Monkey genome microarray expression profiling as a discovery platform to identify genes with the potential to distinguish infection process. Rhesus monkey peripheral blood from the experiment or control donors was isolated, extracted the RNA and screened by microarray. The results indicated that the expression levels of more than 500 functional genes associated with multiple pathways were modulated. To confirm the results of the microarray analysis, 25 individual genes were random selected and were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR amplification. The expression levels of genes associated with immune inflammatory responses were up-regulated during the period from day 4 to 10 post-infection. The expressions of two genes (TAC1 and IL17A), which play major roles in inflammatory reactions, were remarkably up-regulated during the infection period. Enterovirus 71 infection induced gene expression in rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells was measured at 4, 7 and 10 days after viral infection. Three samples from two experiment donors and one control donor were performed at each time (4, 7 or 10 days). To exclude the individual difference, mix the two experiment samples at each time, and mix the three control samples.
Project description:The pathological manifestations of fatal cases of human hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) caused by enterovirus 71 (EV71) are characterized by inflammatory damage to the central nervous system (CNS). Here, the dynamic distribution of EV71 in the CNS and the subsequent pathological characteristics within different regions of neonatal rhesus macaque brain tissue were studied using a chimeric EV71 expressing green fluorescence protein. The results were compared with brain tissue obtained from the autopsies of deceased EV71-infected HFMD patients. These observations suggested that the virus was prevalent in areas around the blood vessels and nerve nuclei in the brain stem and showed a preference for astrocytes in the CNS. Interestingly, infected astrocytes within the in vivo and in vitro human and macaque systems exhibited increased expression of excitatory neurotransmitters and cytokines that also stimulated the neuronal secretion of the excitatory neurotransmitters noradrenalin and adrenalin, and this process most likely plays a role in the pathophysiological events that occur during EV71 infection.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant etiological agents of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and both belong to the human enterovirus A species of the Picornaviridae family. These viruses share similar genetic homology, although the clinical manifestations of HFMD caused by the two viruses have some discrepancies. Furthermore, the underlying mechanisms leading to these differences remain unclear. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in numerous biological or pathological processes, including host responses to viral infections, by targeting messenger RNAs (mRNAs) for translational repression or degradation. Here, we focused on differences in miRNA expression patterns in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of rhesus monkeys infected with EV71 or CA16 at different time points using high-throughput sequencing technology. For the first time, this study demonstrated that EV71 and CA16 infection result in specific miRNA expression patterns in PBMCs. Overall design: The EV71 virus strain (sub-genotype C4, GenBank: EU812515.1) that originated from an epidemic in Fuyang, China in 2008 and the CA16 virus G20 strain (sub-genotype B, GenBank: JN590244.1), which originated from an HFMD patient in Guangxi in 2010, were propagated in PBMCs at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1 the following day. Cells were infected in triplicate and collected at 0, 24 and 48 hours post infection (hpi). Cells infected with EV71 and CA16 for 0 hpi were used as controls. We defined the different experimental groups as EV71-0h, EV71-24h, EV71-48h, CA16-0h, CA16-24h and CA16-48h.
Project description:Enterovirus (EV) infection has been a serious health issue in Asia-Pacific region. It has been indicated that the occurrence of fatal hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) cases following EV71 infection is mainly attributed to pulmonary edema. However, the development of pulmonary disorders after EV71 infection remains largely unknown. To establish an EV71-infected animal model and further explore the underlying association of central nervous system (CNS) invasion with pulmonary edema, we isolated a clinical source EV71 strain (ZZ1350) from a severe case in Henan Province.We evaluated the cytotoxicity of ZZ1350 strain and the susceptibility in 3-day-old BALB/c mice with intraperitoneal, intracerebral and intramuscular inoculation. Various histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques were applied to determine the target organs or tissue damage after infection. Correlation analysis was used to identify the relationship between CNS injury and pulmonary disorders.Our experimental results suggested that ZZ1350 (C4 subtype) had high cytotoxicity against African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells and human rhabdomyosarcoma (RD) cells and neonatal BALB/c mice were highly susceptible to the infection with ZZ1350 through three different inoculation routes (2?×?106 pfu/mouse) exhibiting severe neurological and respiratory symptoms that were similar to clinical observation. Viral replication was found in brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, lung, spleen, liver, heart of infected mice and these sections also showed histopathological changes. We found that brain histology score was positive correlated with lung histology score in total experimental mice and mice under the three inoculation routes (P?<?0.05). At the same time, there were positive correlations between spinal cord score and lung score in total experimental mice and mice with intracerebral inoculation (P?<?0.05).ZZ1350 strain is effective to establish animal model of EV71 infection with severe neurological and respiratory symptoms. The development of pulmonary disorders after EV71 infection is associated with severity of CNS damage.
Project description:Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is a member of the Picornaviridae family and causes mild and self-limiting hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. CA16 infection can also progress to central nervous system (CNS) complications; however, the underlying mechanism by which CA16 penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and then causes CNS damage remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of CA16 neurotropic tropism by establishing an in vitro BBB model with CA16 infection and an in vivo CA16 rhesus monkey infant infection model. The results showed that CA16 infection induced increased permeability of the BBB accompanied by upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression. Subsequently, high-throughput miRNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis revealed that miR-1303 may regulate BBB permeability by targeting MMP9. Next, we used dual-luciferase, qRT-PCR, and western blot assays to provide evidence of MMP9 targeting by miR-1303. Further experiments revealed that CA16 infection promoted the degradation of junctional complexes (Claudin4, Claudin5, VE-Cadherin, and ZO-1), likely by downregulating miR-1303 and upregulating MMP9. Finally, EGFP-CA16 infection could enter the CNS by facilitating the degradation of junctional complexes, eventually causing neuroinflammation and injury to the CNS, which was confirmed using the in vivo rhesus monkey model. Our results indicate that CA16 might penetrate the BBB and then enter the CNS by downregulating miR-1303, which disrupts junctional complexes by directly regulating MMP9 and ultimately causing pathological CNS changes. These results provide new therapeutic targets in HFMD patients following CA16 infection.
Project description:Microarray analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), lungs, and lung lesions collected over the course of hCoV-EMC infection of 6 rhesus macaques. 6 rhesus macaques were infected intratracheally with hCoV-EMC. PBMCs were collected at days 0, 1, 3, and 6, and lungs were collected from serial sacrifices of 3 animals each at day 3 and day 6. Infection produced a mild-moderate, self-limiting respiratory infection, and was not lethal. We performed microarray analysis (using Agilent Rhesus arrays) on all lungs, lung lesions, and PBMCs collected for the study.
Project description:Enterovirus 71 (EV71), a major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease, occasionally causes severe neurological symptoms. We identified P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) as an EV71 receptor and found that an amino acid residue 145 in the capsid protein VP1 (VP1-145) defined PSGL-1-binding (PB) and PSGL-1-nonbinding (non-PB) phenotypes of EV71. However, the role of PSGL-1-dependent EV71 replication in neuropathogenesis remains poorly understood. In this study, we investigated viral replication, genetic stability, and the pathogenicity of PB and non-PB strains of EV71 in a cynomolgus monkey model. Monkeys were intravenously inoculated with cDNA-derived PB and non-PB strains of EV71, EV71-02363-EG and EV71-02363-KE strains, respectively, with two amino acid differences at VP1-98 and VP1-145. Mild neurological symptoms, transient lymphocytopenia, and inflammatory cytokine responses, were found predominantly in the 02363-KE-inoculated monkeys. During the early stage of infection, viruses were frequently detected in clinical samples from 02363-KE-inoculated monkeys but rarely in samples from 02363-EG-inoculated monkeys. Histopathological analysis of central nervous system (CNS) tissues at 10 days postinfection revealed that 02363-KE induced neuropathogenesis more efficiently than that induced by 02363-EG. After inoculation with 02363-EG, almost all EV71 variants detected in clinical samples, CNS, and non-CNS tissues, possessed a G to E amino acid substitution at VP1-145, suggesting a strong in vivo selection of VP1-145E variants and CNS spread presumably in a PSGL-1-independent manner. EV71 variants with VP1-145G were identified only in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in two out of four 02363-EG-inoculated monkeys. Thus, VP1-145E variants are mainly responsible for the development of viremia and neuropathogenesis in a non-human primate model, further suggesting the in vivo involvement of amino acid polymorphism at VP1-145 in cell-specific viral replication, in vivo fitness, and pathogenesis in EV71-infected individuals.
Project description:microRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that are key regulators of biological processes, including the immune response to viral infections. Differential expression levels of cellular miRNAs and their predicted targets have been described in the lungs of H1N1-infected BALB/c mice, the lungs of H5N1 influenza-infected cynomolgus macaques, and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of critically ill patients infected with 2009 pandemic H1N1. However, a longitudinal analysis of changes in the expression of miRNAs and their targets during influenza infection and how they relate to viral replication and host response has yet to be carried out. In the present study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of innate and adaptive immune responses as well as the expression of several miRNAs and their validated targets in both peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) collected from rhesus macaques over the course of infection with the 2009 H1N1 virus A/Mexico/4108/2009 (MEX4108). We describe a distinct set of differentially expressed miRNAs in BAL and PBMCs, which regulate the expression of genes involved in inflammation, immune response, and regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We investigated the association between OAS1 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to central nervous system (CNS) involvement of enterovirus (EV)71 infection. METHODS:This case-control study was conducted among 180 children with EV71 infection, including 72 with mild infections without any complications and 108 with severe infections and CNS involvement; 201 children undergoing routine physical examination served as the healthy controls. For all the participants, the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at OAS1 rs2660 and rs1131454 were analyzed using SNPscan multiple SNP typing methods. RESULTS:No significant differences were found between the case and control groups in genotype or allele distributions of rs2660 and rs1131454. OAS1 rs2660 polymorphism was significantly different between the children with CNS involvement and those with mild EV71 infection, and the genotype AG frequency was higher and the genotype GG frequency was lower in children with CNS involvement. No significant difference was found in the distribution of genotypes or alleles of rs1131454 between the children with CNS involvement and those with mild EV71 infection. CONCLUSIONS:OAS1 gene rs2660 and rs1131454 SNPs are not associated with the susceptibility to or CNS involvement of EV71 infection, but OAS1 rs2660 SNPs are significantly correlated with the susceptibility to CNS involvement in EV71 infection. Children carrying OAS1 rs2660 AG genotype are more likely to have CNS involvement after EV71 infection.