DSM-IV personality disorders and associations with externalizing and internalizing disorders: results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.
ABSTRACT: Although associations between personality disorders and psychiatric disorders are well established in general population studies, their association with liability dimensions for externalizing and internalizing disorders has not been fully assessed. The purpose of this study is to examine associations between personality disorders (PDs) and lifetime externalizing and internalizing Axis I disorders.Data were obtained from the total sample of 34,653 respondents from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Drawing on the literature, a 3-factor exploratory structural equation model was selected to simultaneously assess the measurement relations among DSM-IV Axis I substance use and mood and anxiety disorders and the structural relations between the latent internalizing-externalizing dimensions and DSM-IV PDs, adjusting for gender, age, race/ethnicity, and marital status.Antisocial, histrionic, and borderline PDs were strong predictors for the externalizing factor, while schizotypal, borderline, avoidant, and obsessive-compulsive PDs had significantly larger effects on the internalizing fear factor when compared to the internalizing misery factor. Paranoid, schizoid, narcissistic, and dependent PDs provided limited discrimination between and among the three factors. An overarching latent factor representing general personality dysfunction was significantly greater on the internalizing fear factor followed by the externalizing factor, and weakest for the internalizing misery factor.Personality disorders offer important opportunities for studies on the externalizing-internalizing spectrum of common psychiatric disorders. Future studies based on panic, anxiety, and depressive symptoms may elucidate PD associations with the internalizing spectrum of disorders.
Project description:Research on the structure of personality disorders (PDs) has relied primarily on exploratory analyses to evaluate trait-based models of the factors underlying the covariation of these disorders. This study used confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate whether a model that included both PD traits and a general personality dysfunction factor would account for the comorbidity of the PDs better than a trait-only model. It also examined if the internalizing/externalizing model of psychopathology, developed previously through research on the structure of Axis I disorders, might similarly account for the covariation of the Axis II disorders in a sample of 245 veterans and nonveterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. Results indicated that the best fitting model was a modified bifactor structure composed of nine lower-order common factors. These factors indexed pathology ranging from aggression to dependency, with the correlations among them accounted for by higher-order Internalizing and Externalizing factors. Further, a general factor, reflecting a construct that we termed boundary disturbance, accounted for additional variance and covariance across nearly all the indicators. The Internalizing, Externalizing, and Boundary Disturbance factors evidenced differential associations with trauma-related covariates. These findings suggest continuity in the underlying structure of psychopathology across DSM-IV Axes I and II and provide empirical evidence of a pervasive, core disturbance in the boundary between self and other across the PDs.
Project description:The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013), includes a novel approach to the diagnosis of personality disorders (PDs) in Section III, to stimulate further research with the possibility that this proposal will be included more formally in future DSM iterations. This study provides the 1st test of this proposal in a clinical sample by simultaneously examining its 2 primary components: a system for rating personality impairment and a newly developed dimensional model of pathological personality traits. Participants were community adults currently receiving outpatient mental health treatment who completed a semistructured interview for DSM-IV PDs and were then rated in terms of personality impairment and pathological traits. Data on the pathological traits were also collected through self-reports using the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). Both sets of trait scores were compared with self-report measures of general personality traits, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing behaviors. Interrater reliabilities for the clinicians' ratings of impairment and the pathological traits were fair. The impairment ratings manifested substantial correlations with symptoms of depression and anxiety, DSM-5 PDs, and DSM-5 pathological traits. The clinician and self-reported personality trait scores demonstrated good convergence with one another, both accounted for substantial variance in DSM-IV PD constructs, and both manifested expected relations with the external criteria. The traits but not the impairment ratings demonstrated incremental validity in the prediction of the DSM-IV PDs. Overall, these results support the general validity of several of the components of this new PD diagnostic system and point to areas that may require further modification.
Project description:IntroductionSubstance use often co-occurs with both internalizing and externalizing disorders, highlighting the importance of understanding reciprocal relations among problematic drug use and psychopathology. We examined affective (approach and avoidance) motivations for drug use as potential transdiagnostic constructs that relate to symptoms of common clinical disorders.Methods175 community adults with a lifetime history of drug use reported on their motivations for use, frequency of use, and DSM-5 lifetime psychopathology symptoms. Linear regression was used to examine associations between drug use motivations and psychopathology.ResultsAvoidance motivations for drug use (e.g., using to cope with distress) correlated positively with symptoms of both internalizing and externalizing disorders, borderline personality disorder, and psychiatric comorbidity. In contrast, approach motivations for drug use (e.g., using to get a thrill) correlated only with substance use disorder symptoms. Notably, motivations for drug use continued to show these transdiagnostic associations after accounting for general approach-avoidance motivational tendencies.ConclusionThese findings suggest that affective motivations for drug use provide a useful framework for conceptualizing substance problems that cuts across traditional dimensions of psychopathology.
Project description:The authors sought to clarify the structure of the genetic and environmental risk factors for 22 DSM-IV disorders: 12 common axis I disorders and all 10 axis II disorders.The authors examined syndromal and subsyndromal axis I diagnoses and five categories reflecting number of endorsed criteria for axis II disorders in 2,111 personally interviewed young adult members of the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel.Four correlated genetic factors were identified: axis I internalizing, axis II internalizing, axis I externalizing, and axis II externalizing. Factors 1 and 2 and factors 3 and 4 were moderately correlated, supporting the importance of the internalizing-externalizing distinction. Five disorders had substantial loadings on two factors: borderline personality disorder (factors 3 and 4), somatoform disorder (factors 1 and 2), paranoid and dependent personality disorders (factors 2 and 4), and eating disorders (factors 1 and 4). Three correlated environmental factors were identified: axis II disorders, axis I internalizing disorders, and externalizing disorders versus anxiety disorders.Common axis I and II psychiatric disorders have a coherent underlying genetic structure that reflects two major dimensions: internalizing versus externalizing, and axis I versus axis II. The underlying structure of environmental influences is quite different. The organization of common psychiatric disorders into coherent groups results largely from genetic, not environmental, factors. These results should be interpreted in the context of unavoidable limitations of current statistical methods applied to this number of diagnostic categories.
Project description:Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is highly comorbid with internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. The current study replicates findings indicating that BPD symptomatology is influenced by the distress subfactor of both the internalizing and the externalizing dimension of psychopathology. Confirmatory factor analysis of the covariance of continuous measures of externalizing pathology, internalizing pathology, and BPD symptoms was assessed in 837 young adults. The sample contained a range of externalizing severity from none to high severity, leading to an overrepresentation of externalizing problems. BPD symptoms were associated with both the externalizing dimension and the distress subfactor of the internalizing dimension. Interestingly, BPD had a stronger association with the externalizing dimension than observed in previous studies. Results replicated earlier findings using different and more dimensional measures. Findings indicated that BPD is more heavily influenced by the externalizing dimension of psychopathology within a high externalizing sample, such as those presenting for treatment of alcohol or substance use disorders.
Project description:This study examined the prevalence of nicotine dependence (ND) and its associations with DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) among current smokers (n=7078), controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid Axis I and II disorders. Data were derived from a nationally representative sample of the U.S. population. Although all PDs were significantly associated with ND when sociodemographic factors were controlled, only schizotypal, borderline, narcissistic and obsessive-compulsive PDs were associated with ND after adding controls for Axis I and other Axis II disorders. These associations remained significant after controlling for degree of smoking exposure. The results suggest that both shared and PD-specific pathogenetic factors underlie these PD-ND associations. Implications are also discussed in terms of the relationship between personality features of schizotypal, borderline, narcissistic and obsessive-compulsive PDs and the self-medication hypothesis and the role of neurotransmission.
Project description:Psychiatric diagnostic covariation suggests that the underlying structure of psychopathology is not one of circumscribed disorders. Quantitative modeling of individual differences in diagnostic patterns has uncovered several broad domains of mental disorder liability, of which the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra have garnered the greatest support. These dimensions have generally been estimated from lifetime or past-year comorbidity patters, which are distal from the covariation of symptoms and maladaptive behavior that ebb and flow in daily life. In this study, structural models are applied to daily diary data (Median = 94 days) of maladaptive behaviors collected from a sample (N = 101) of individuals diagnosed with personality disorders (PDs). Using multilevel and unified structural equation modeling, between-person, within-person, and person-specific structures were estimated from 16 behaviors that are encompassed by the Internalizing and Externalizing spectra. At the between-person level (i.e., individual differences in average endorsement across days) we found support for a two-factor Internalizing-Externalizing model, which exhibits significant associations with corresponding diagnostic spectra. At the within-person level (i.e., dynamic covariation among daily behavior pooled across individuals) we found support for a more differentiated, four-factor, Negative Affect-Detachment-Hostility-Disinhibition structure. Finally, we demonstrate that the person-specific structures of associations between these four domains are highly idiosyncratic.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:Individual differences in DSM-IV personality disorders (PDs) are associated with increased prevalence of substance use disorders. Our aims were to determine which combination of PDs trait scores best predict cannabis use (CU) and cannabis use disorder (CUD), and to estimate the size and significance of genetic and environmental risks in PD traits shared with CU and CUD. DESIGN:Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify PD traits for inclusion in twin analyses to explore the genetic and environmental associations between the traits and cannabis use. SETTING:Cross-sectional data were obtained from Norwegian adult twins in a face-to-face interview in 1999-2004 as part of a population-based study of mental health. PARTICIPANTS:Subjects were 1419 twins (?age = 28.2 years, range = 19-36) from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel with complete PD and cannabis data. MEASUREMENTS:PD traits were assessed using DSM-IV criteria. Life-time CU and CUD were based on DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria, including withdrawal and craving. FINDINGS:After adjusting for age and sex, antisocial [? = 0.23, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.19-0.28] and borderline PDs (? = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.14-0.26) were associated strongly with CU. Antisocial (? = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.21-0.31) and borderline PDs (? = 0.12, 95% CI = 0.06-0.18) were also linked strongly to CUD. Genetic risks in antisocial and borderline PD traits explained 32-60% of the total variance in CU and CUD. Dependent and avoidant PDs explained 11 and 16% of the total variance in CU and CUD, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:Individual differences in the liability to cannabis use and cannabis use disorder appear to be linked to genetic risks correlated with antisocial and borderline personality disorder traits.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Psychiatric co-morbidity is extensive in both psychiatric settings and the general population. Such co-morbidity challenges whether DSM-based mental disorders serve to effectively carve nature at its joints. In response, a substantial literature has emerged showing that a small number of broad dimensions - internalizing, externalizing and psychoticism - can account for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders. However, the location of personality disorders within this emerging metastructure has only recently been studied, and no studies have yet examined where pathological personality traits fit within such a broad metastructural framework. METHOD:We conducted joint structural analyses of common mental disorders, personality disorders and pathological personality traits in a sample of 628 current or recent psychiatric out-patients. RESULTS:Bridging across the psychopathology and personality trait literatures, the results provide evidence for a robust five-factor metastructure of psychopathology, including broad domains of symptoms and features related to internalizing, disinhibition, psychoticism, antagonism and detachment. CONCLUSIONS:These results reveal evidence for a psychopathology metastructure that (a) parsimoniously accounts for much of the observed covariation among common mental disorders, personality disorders and related personality traits, and (b) provides an empirical basis for the organization and classification of mental disorder.