Epidemiology of anal HPV infection in high-risk men attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic in Puerto Rico.
ABSTRACT: Recent studies in Puerto Rico have reported an increasing incidence of anal cancer in Puerto Rican men. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among men attending an STI clinic in Puerto Rico.We conducted a cross-sectional study among 205 men 18 years and older. A comprehensive survey was administered that included a demographic and a behavioral assessment. Separate logistic regression models were performed to determine factors associated with any, high-risk (HR), and multiple anal HPV infection.The mean age of the study sample was 38.0±13.5 years. The most common HR types were 58, 51 and 31. Overall, HR anal HPV infection was found in 53.5% of the participants. Multiple HPV types in the anal canal were found in 47.6% of the sample. A third (29.8%) of participants reported being men who had sex with men (MSM). MSM had a significantly higher prevalence of any, HR and multiple HPV infection (p-value<0.05). Separate multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that being MSM was associated with any (OR = 4.5; [95%CI: 1.9-10.7]), HR (OR = 3.4; [95%CI: 1.1-10.3) and multiple anal HPV infection (OR = 3.6; [95%CI: 1.5-9.1). HIV was marginally associated with multiple anal HPV infection in multivariate analysis (OR = 3.3; 95%CI = 1.0-11.0).Anal HPV is common among sexually active men attending this STI clinic, with higher likelihood of anal HPV infection among MSM.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To estimate the prevalence of anal HPV infection, genotype distribution, intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) and correlates in a cohort of HIV-infected patients attending at Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) clinic in Brazil.<h4>Study design</h4>A descriptive analysis was performed which includes, demographic, behavioral and clinical data. Anal specimens from HIV-positive men and women were collected during a regular visit and they were used for cytology and histopathology tests, as well as for HPV molecular identification.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 223 patients (143 females and 80 males) were enrolled in the study and, HPV was identified in 68.6% of the sample. The frequency of HR-HPV, HPV16/18 and multiple HPV infection were similar in both groups. The upstream regulatory region (URR) sequencing was carried out in 38 samples identified as HPV16-positive, and European variants were the most frequent (69.2%), followed by Africans (25.6%) and Asiatic-Americans (5.1%). Having more than 20 sexual partners was associated with multiple HPV infection (p = 0.000) while, anal sex and the first intercourse before 15 years of age was a risk factor for any HPV infection (p = 0.001). Being MSM (men who have sex with men) was a risk factor for any HPV and multiple infections (p = 0.002). The CD4 count >500 cells/mm3 was a protective factor for the HPV16/18 (p = 0.048) and multiple infections (p = 0.023), and the undetectable viral load and HAART treatment were both protective for any HPV (p = 0.010), HR-HPV (p = 0.091) and multiple infections (p = 0.006). Abnormal anoscopy was found in 23.7% (53/223) of the total number of patients, and this was significantly associated with all types of investigated HPV infections (p<0.0001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>In this study, anal HPV infection was common among young HIV-positive men and women, particularly in MSM. Anal cancer screening in patients at risk, such as those who are HIV-positive, and mainly those with anal HPV infection and a history of STI, will increase the likelihood of detecting anal intraepithelial neoplasia.
Project description:Prevalence estimates of anal high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) are needed in sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is endemic. This study evaluated anal HR-HPV in Nigeria among HIV-positive and HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) for future immunization recommendations.We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare the prevalence of anal HR-HPV infections between 64 HIV-negative and 90 HIV-positive MSM. Multivariate Poisson regression analyses were used to examine demographic and behavioral risk factors associated with any HR-HPV infections.The median age of the 154 participants was 25 years (interquartile range, 22-28 years; range, 16-38 years), and the median age at initiation of anal sex with another man was 16 years (interquartile range, 13-18 years; range, 7-29 years). The prevalence of anal HR-HPV was higher among HIV-positive than HIV-negative MSM (91.1% vs. 40.6%, P < 0.001). In the multivariate analysis, HIV infection (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR], 2.02; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.49-2.72), 10 years or more since anal sexual debut (aPR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.07-1.49), and concurrent relationships with men (aPR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04-1.67) were associated with increased anal HR-HPV prevalence.Anal HR-HPV infection is high for young Nigerian MSM, and rates are amplified in those coinfected with HIV. Providing universal coverage as well as catch-up immunization for young MSM may be an effective anal cancer prevention strategy in Nigeria.
Project description:Little is known about the epidemiology on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among HIV-infected men in Korea. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, genotype distribution and risk factors associated with anal HPV infection among HIV-infected men in Korea.A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted with HIV-infected men in Korea. Participants completed a detailed sexual behavior risk factor questionnaire. Anal samples were collected for cytology and HPV genotyping. Factors associated with anal HPV infection were assessed using multivariable logistic regression, stratifying by sexual behaviour.A total of 201 HIV-infected men were included in the study: 133 were from men who have sex with men (MSM) and 68 from men who have sex with women (MSW). Any anal HPV infection was detected in 82.7% of HIV-infected MSM and in 51.5% of HIV- infected MSW (P < 0.001). High-risk HPV (HR-HPV) prevalence was higher among MSM (47.4%) than MSW (25.0%; P = 0.002). The HR-HPV types identified most frequently were HPV 16 (11%), HPV 18 (9.9%), and HPV 58 (5%) in MSM, and HPV 58(11%) and HPV 16 (8.9%) in MSW. Prevalence of any HPV types in 9-valent vaccine types was higher among MSM than MSW (47.4% vs 22.1%. P = 0.001). Abnormal anal cytology was more commonly detected in MSM than MSW (42.9% vs.19.1%, P < 0.001). In HIV-infected MSM, higher number of lifetime male sex partners was significantly associated with any anal HPV infection, but age was a significant risk factor associated with anal HR-HPV infection.Anal HPV infection was highly prevalent in HIV-infected MSM in Korea, and also commonly found in HIV-infected MSW. In HIV-infected MSM, the significant risk factor for being infected with any HPV infection was lifetime number of male sexual partners, and with anal oncogenic HPV infection was age.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection remains a great concern in relation to African men who have sex with men (MSM), especially those infected with HIV. The prevalence of HR-HPV and associated risk factors was estimated in a cross-sectional observational study covering MSM living in Bangui, Central African Republic. METHODS:MSM receiving care at the Centre National de Référence des Infections Sexuellement Transmissibles et de la Thérapie Antirétrovirale, Bangui, were included. HIV serostatus and socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics were collected. HPV DNA was detected and genotyped on anal swabs using Anyplex™ II HPV28 test (Seegene, South Korea), and HSV DNA by in-house real-time PCR. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine risk factors associated with HPV outcomes. RESULTS:42 MSM (mean age, 23.2 years; range, 14-39) including 69.1% HIV-1-positive and 30.9% HIV-negative were prospectively enrolled. The prevalence of anal HPV was 69.1%, including 82.7% of HR-HPV which were multiple in 52.0%. The most prevalent genotypes were HPV-35, HPV-58, HPV-59 and HPV-31. While, HPV-16 and HPV-18 were present in a minority of samples. Multiple HR-HPV infection was more frequent in HIV-positive MSM (41.4%) with 2.7 genotypes per anal samples than in HIV-negative (7.7%) with 1.5 genotypes per anal samples. HPV types included in the prophylactic Gardasil-9® vaccine were detected in 68.9% of specimens and HPV-58 was the most frequently detected. MSM infected by HPV-16 and HPV-18 were all infected by HIV-1. Few anal swabs (11.9%) contained HSV-2 DNA without relationship with HPV detection. Condomless receptive anal intercourse was the main risk factor to being infected with any type of HPV and condomless insertive anal intercourse was significantly less associated with HPV contamination than receptive anal intercourse (Odd ratio = 0.02). CONCLUSION:MSM in Bangui are at-risk of HIV and HR-HPV anal infections. The unusual distribution of HPV-35 as predominant HPV suggests possible geographic specificities in the molecular epidemiology of HR-HPV in sub-Saharan Africa. Scaling up prevention strategies against HPV infection and related cancers adapted for MSM in Africa should be prioritized. Innovative interventions should be conceived for the MSM population living in Bangui.
Project description:This study aimed to assess the prevalence of and associated risk factors for anal high-risk human papillomavirus (hr-HPV) infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW) in Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia.This was baseline data from a prospective cohort study with clinic sites in Jakarta and Bali (Indonesia), Bangkok (Thailand), and Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia).MSM and TGW aged 18 years and older from Indonesia, Thailand, and Malaysia were enrolled. Demographic and behavioral characteristics were assessed, and anal samples were collected for HPV genotyping. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to assess risk factors for anal hr-HPV overall and among HIV-positive participants.A total of 392 participants were enrolled, and 48 were TGW. As many as 245 were HIV-positive, and 78.0% of the participants were on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Median CD4 count was 439?cells/mm and 68.2% had undetectable HIV-RNA. HIV-positive participants had significantly more hr-HPV compared to HIV-negative participants (76.6% vs 53.5%, P?<?.001). HPV-16 was the most common high-risk type (20%), whereas HPV-33, -39, and -58 were significantly more common among HIV-positive participants. HIV-positive participant significantly associated with anal hr-HPV infection compared with HIV-negative (OR: 2.87, 95% CI: 1.76-4.70, P ? .001), whereas among HIV-positive participants transgender identity had lower prevalence of hr-HPV infection (OR: 0.42, 95% CI: 0.19-0.91, P?=?.03).High-risk HPV infection was very common among MSM and TGW in South-East Asia. Overall, HIV-infection, regardless of cART use and immune status, significantly increased the risk, while among HIV-positive participants transgender identity seemed to decrease the risk of anal hr-HPV.
Project description:Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) can co-exist in pharyngeal and cervical malignancies. However, the natural history and factors associated with persistent HPV infection among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) are unclear.131 HIV-infected MSM were followed for 48 weeks and screened for multiple co-infections, including seminal EBV DNA and high risk (HR)-HPV messenger RNA (mRNA) at several sites (semen, anal, pharynx). Primary analysis tested if seminal EBV shedding was associated with increased prevalence of HR-HPV at baseline using univariate tests and multivariable logistic regression. In participants with detectable anal HR-HPV at baseline, we tested if presence of seminal EBV shedding at baseline was also predictive of reduced HR-HPV clearance by log-rank test (over 48 weeks of follow-up).Baseline prevalence of HR-HPV was: anal 44% (N = 54/121); pharynx 3.8% (N = 5/131); semen 7.1% (N = 7/98). Seminal EBV shedding was present in 28% of participants and was associated with more than double the prevalence of detectable anal HR-HPV mRNA (71.4% for EBV shedders versus 33.3% for non-shedders, p < 0.01). In participants with detectable anal HR-HPV at baseline, we found increased persistence of HR-HPV over 48 weeks of follow-up (measured as time to first negative HR-HPV test in the EBV shedding group (p < 0.01).Seminal EBV shedding was associated with an increased risk of having detectable anal HR-HPV in a cohort of HIV-infected MSM on suppressive ART. Future studies should examine if co-infection with EBV and HR-HPV may act synergistically in pathogenesis of anal cancer in HIV-infected individuals.
Project description:It is largely unknown if antihuman papillomavirus (HPV) serum antibody responses vary by anatomic site of infection in men.This study assessed type-specific anti-HPV serum antibody prevalence associated with corresponding HPV DNA detection in the external genitalia and the anal canal of 1,587 heterosexual men and 199 men who have sex with men (MSM).We observed that HPV 6 and 16 seroprevalence was higher in the presence of same HPV-type infection in the anal canal compared with same HPV-type infection in the external genitalia only, and among MSM compared with the heterosexual men. Seropositivity to HPV 6 was strongly associated with HPV 6 DNA detection in the anal canal but not in the external genitalia alone among both heterosexual men [adjusted prevalence ratio (APR), anal+/genital+ vs. anal-/genital-: 4.2, 95% confidence interval (CI), 11.7-10.5; anal+/genital- vs. anal-/genital-: 7.9 (95% CI, 3.7-17.0)] and MSM [APR, anal+/genital+ vs. anal-/genital-: 5.6 (95% CI, 2.7-11.9); anal+/genital- vs. anal-/genital-: 3.2 (95% CI, 2.1-4.9)]. Similar associations between seropositivity to HPV 16 and anal HPV 16 DNA detection were only observed in MSM [anal+/genital+ vs. anal-/genital-: 3.1 (95% CI, 2.0-5.0); anal+/genital- vs. anal-/genital-: 2.2 (95% CI, 1.3-3.5)].Our data showed that seroprevalence varied by anatomic site of HPV infection, suggesting differences in epithelium type present at these anatomic sites may be relevant.Our finding is instrumental in advancing our understanding of immune mechanism involved in anatomic site-specific antibody response.
Project description:Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of developing human papillomavirus (HPV)-related anal cancer. We compared HPV genotypes in anal tissues (Bx) and anal liquid-based cytology fluid (LBC) from HIV-positive and HIV-negative MSM.Bx (32 normal, 41 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 22 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL)), along with LBC from the same visit, were selected from 61 HIV-positive and 34 HIV-negative MSM who enrolled into a prospective cohort in Bangkok, Thailand. HPV genotyping was performed on Bx and LBC.Any HPV and high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) prevalence were 63.2% and 60.0% in Bx and 71.6% and 62.1% in LBC, respectively. HIV-positive MSM had higher rates of HR-HPV genotypes detection (70.5% vs. 47.1%, p=0.03) in LBC than HIV-negative MSM. HPV16 (27%) was the most common HR-HPV found in HSIL tissue. In HIV-positive MSM, the frequency of HR-HPV detection increased with histopathologic grading in both Bx and LBC samples. HSIL was associated with the presence of any HR-HPV(OR 7.6 (95%CI 1.8-31.9); P=0.006) in LBC and in Bx((OR 5.6 (95%CI 1.4-22.7); P=0.02).Our data strongly support the integration of HR-HPV screening on LBC samples, along with HPV vaccination, into an anal cancer prevention program.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:The relationship between sexual practices, identity and role among Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) and HIV risk is the subject of ongoing investigation but less is known about how these aspects of sexuality relate to human papilloma-virus (HPV), an independent risk factor for HIV. This observational study investigated the relationship between HPV and sexual practices, identity and role as well as other sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV risk factors among HIV-negative heterosexually and homosexually identified Peruvian MSM. SETTING:Community-based clinic for MSM in Lima, Peru. PARTICIPANTS:756 subjects were screened based on inclusion criteria of: born anatomically male; age ≥18 years; had any anal intercourse with a man during the previous 12 months; residing in metropolitan Lima; HIV negative; willing to commit to twice-yearly clinic visits for 24 months; had not participated in an HIV or HPV vaccine study. 600/756 participants met the inclusion criteria and were enrolled, of whom 48% (284) identified as homosexual and 10% (57) as heterosexual, the basis of the analyses performed. RESULTS:Compared with homosexually identified MSM, heterosexually identified MSM had completed fewer years of formal education and were less likely to have: anogenital HPV or visible anal warts; given oral sex to a man; or used a condom with their most recent female sexual partner (all p<0.05). Conversely, heterosexually identified MSM were more likely to have: visible penile warts; used a condom during last anal intercourse; smoked cigarettes; had transactional sex; and used drugs during sex in the previous month (all p<0.01). There was no difference found between heterosexually and homosexually identified MSM by syphilis or high-risk HPV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS:HPV burden, wart type (penile vs anal) and select HIV/STI risk behaviours differed between heterosexually and homosexually identified Peruvian MSM. Understanding the implications of these differences can lead to tailored HIV/STI prevention interventions for heterosexually identified MSM. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT01387412.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Anal precancers and cancers can be detected during screening with high-resolution anoscopy (HRA). The sensitivity of HRA depends on the burden and duration of human papillomavirus (HPV) among those screened as well as anoscopist proficiency, which is highly correlated with prior screening experience. Our objective was to compare the identification and type of HPV and the likelihood of HRA-detected precancer for men who have sex with men (MSM) undergoing their first HRA-screening in Nigeria. METHODS:MSM were recruited from an HIV test-and-treat cohort, TRUST/RV368, into a new anal cancer screening program. Anal swabs obtained during screening underwent Ion Torrent next-generation sequencing using barcoded HPV PCR broad-spectrum primers 5+/6+ to detect up to 161 HPVs. All high-risk (HR) HPVs and the most abundant low-risk (LR)-HPVs were evaluated as type-specific infections with some categorized as belonging to a multiple infection. HRA screening results included benign, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), or HSIL as detected by cytology or histology. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of HPV and other cofactors with any SIL. RESULTS:Among 342 MSM, 60% were HIV-infected, 89% were under 35 years of age, and 51% had 8 or more years since anal coital debut. Of those with SIL, 89% had LSIL and only 11% had HSIL. Prevalence of any HPV and high-risk (HR)-HPV was 92% and 74%, respectively. The most prevalent genotypes in rank order were HPV6 (31%), HPV16 (23%), HPV42 (20%), HPV11 (18%), HPV45 (18%), and HPV51 (17%). For multiple HR-HPVs, 31% had a single HR-HPV, 32% had 2-3, and 10% had 4 or more. Low-risk HPVs, type 6 and/or 11, were common (42%) and were significantly associated with SIL (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]:1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-3.1) together with perianal warts (aOR:6.7, 95% CI: 3.3-13.5). In contrast, HR-HPV and multiple HR-HPVs were not significantly associated with SIL (all p?>?0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Detection of HSIL was low. Although HR-HPV was abundant, HSIL development also depends on the duration of HR-HPV infections and the anoscopist's level of experience. As our cohort ages and the anoscopist becomes more skilled, detection of HSIL will likely improve.