The anti-tumor histone deacetylase inhibitor SAHA and the natural flavonoid curcumin exhibit synergistic neuroprotection against amyloid-beta toxicity.
ABSTRACT: With the trend of an increasing aged population worldwide, Alzheimer's disease (AD), an age-related neurodegenerative disorder, as one of the major causes of dementia in elderly people is of growing concern. Despite the many hard efforts attempted during the past several decades in trying to elucidate the pathological mechanisms underlying AD and putting forward potential therapeutic strategies, there is still a lack of effective treatments for AD. The efficacy of many potential therapeutic drugs for AD is of main concern in clinical practice. For example, large bodies of evidence show that the anti-tumor histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA), may be of benefit for the treatment of AD; however, its extensive inhibition of HDACs makes it a poor therapeutic. Moreover, the natural flavonoid, curcumin, may also have a potential therapeutic benefit against AD; however, it is plagued by low bioavailability. Therefore, the integrative effects of SAHA and curcumin were investigated as a protection against amyloid-beta neurotoxicity in vitro. We hypothesized that at low doses their synergistic effect would improve therapeutic selectivity, based on experiments that showed that at low concentrations SAHA and curcumin could provide comprehensive protection against A?25-35-induced neuronal damage in PC12 cells, strongly implying potent synergism. Furthermore, network analysis suggested that the possible mechanism underlying their synergistic action might be derived from restoration of the damaged functional link between Akt and the CBP/p300 pathway, which plays a crucial role in the pathological development of AD. Thus, our findings provided a feasible avenue for the application of a synergistic drug combination, SAHA and curcumin, in the treatment of AD.
Project description:Objective: Laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common malignant tumors in the head and neck region. Due to the poor response to chemotherapeutics in patients and low survival rate, successful treatment of larynx cancer still remains a challenge. Therefore, the identification of novel treatment options is needed. We investigated the anticancer effects of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor, on two different laryngeal cancer cell lines RK33 and RK45. We also studied the antiproliferative action of SAHA in combination with cisplatin and defined the type of pharmacological interaction between these drugs. Materials and Methods: Viability and proliferation of larynx cancer cell lines were studied by methylthiazolyldiphenyl-tetrazolium bromide method and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine incorporation assay, respectively. The type of interaction between SAHA and cisplatin was determined by an isobolographic analysis. Western blotting, flow cytometry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction method were used to determine acetylation of histone H3, cell cycle progression and genes expression, respectively. Apoptosis was assessed by means of nucleosomes released to cytosol. Results: SAHA alone or in combination with cisplatin inhibited larynx cancer cells proliferation, whereas displayed relatively low toxicity against normal cells - primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts. The mixture of SAHA with cisplatin exerted additive and synergistic interaction in RK33 and RK45 cells, respectively. We showed that SAHA induced hyperacetylation of histone H3 K9, K14 and K23 and triggered apoptosis. SAHA also caused cell cycle arrest by upregulation of CDKN1A and downregulation of CCND1 encoding p21WAF1/CIP1 and cyclin D1 proteins, respectively. Conclusion: Our studies demonstrated that SAHA may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against larynx tumors.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) large granular lymphocyte (LGL) leukaemia features a clonal proliferation of CD3(-) NK cells that can be classified into either aggressive or chronic categories. The NKL cell line, derived from an aggressive Asian NK cell leukaemia, and patient samples from chronic NK-LGL leukaemia were used in our study to probe for synergistic efficacy of the epigenetic drugs vorinostat (SAHA) and cladribine in this disease. We demonstrate that histone deacetylases (HDACs) are over-expressed in both aggressive and chronic NK leukaemia. Administration of the HDAC inhibitor SAHA reduces class I and II HDAC expression and enhances histone acetylation in leukaemic NK cells. In vitro combination treatment with SAHA and cladribine dose-dependently exerts synergistic cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on leukaemic NK cells. Expression profiling of apoptotic regulatory genes suggests that both compounds led to caspase-dependent apoptosis through activation of intrinsic mitochondrial and extrinsic death receptor pathways. Collectively, these data show that combined epigenetic therapy, using HDAC and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, may be a promising therapeutic approach for NK-LGL leukaemia.
Project description:Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare form of aggressive B cell lymphoma caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). Current chemotherapy approaches result in dismal outcomes, and there is an urgent need for new PEL therapies. Previously, we established, in a direct xenograft model of PEL-bearing immune-compromised mice, that treatment with the proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib (Btz), increased survival relative to that after treatment with doxorubicin. Herein, we demonstrate that the combination of Btz with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid (SAHA, also known as vorinostat) potently reactivates KSHV lytic replication and induces PEL cell death, resulting in significantly prolonged survival of PEL-bearing mice. Importantly, Btz blocked KSHV late lytic gene expression, terminally inhibiting the full lytic cascade and production of infectious virus in vivo. Btz treatment led to caspase activation and induced DNA damage, as evidenced by the accumulation of phosphorylated ?H2AX and p53. The addition of SAHA to Btz treatment was synergistic, as SAHA induced early acetylation of p53 and reduced interaction with its negative regulator MDM2, augmenting the effects of Btz. The eradication of KSHV-infected PEL cells without increased viremia in mice provides a strong rationale for using the proteasome/HDAC inhibitor combination therapy in PEL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression is associated with the development of head and neck cancer (HNC) and represents one of the main therapeutic targets for this disease. The use of EGFR inhibitors has limited efficacy due to their primary and acquired resistance, partially because of increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). The HDAC inhibitor SAHA has been shown to revert EMT in different tumours, including HNC. In this study, we investigated the cooperative role of SAHA and the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib in both HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNC cell lines. METHODS:A panel of 12 HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNC cell lines were screened for cell viability upon treatment with SAHA, gefitinib and the combination of the two. Epithelial/mesenchymal marker expression, as well as activation of signalling pathway, were assessed upon SAHA treatment. ?Np63? silencing with shRNA lentiviral particles was used to determine its role in cell proliferation, migration and TGF? pathway activation. RESULTS:We found that both SAHA and gefitinib have antitumour activity in both HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNC cell lines and that their combination has a synergistic effect in inhibiting cell growth. SAHA treatment reverts EMT and inhibits the expression of the transcription factor ?Np63?. Suppression of ?Np63? reduces EGFR protein levels and decreases cell proliferation and TGF?-dependent migration in both HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNC cell lines. CONCLUSIONS:Our results, by giving a clear molecular mechanism at the basis of the antitumour activity of SAHA in HNC cell lines, provide a rationale for the clinical evaluation of SAHA in combination with gefitinib in both HPV-positive and HPV-negative HNC patients. Further knowledge is key to devising additional lines of combinatorial treatment strategies for this disease.
Project description:Hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology include acetylcholine (ACh) deficiency and plaque deposition. Emerging studies suggest that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may interact with amyloid ? (A?) to promote aggregation of insoluble A? plaques in brains of patients. Current therapeutic options available for AD patients, such as AChE inhibitors, provide only symptomatic relief. In this study, we screened four natural compounds believed to harbor cognitive benefits-curcumin, piperine, bacoside A, and chebulinic acid. In the first section, preliminary screening through computational molecular docking simulations gauged the suitability of the compounds as novel AChE inhibitors. From here, only compounds that met the in silico selection criteria were selected for the second section through in vitro investigations, including AChE enzyme inhibition assay, 3-(4,5-dimenthylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Thioflavin T (ThT) assay, and biochemical analysis via a neuronal cell line model. Of the four compounds screened, only curcumin (-9.6 kcal/mol) and piperine (-10.5 kcal/mol) showed favorable binding affinities and interactions towards AChE and were hence selected. In vitro AChE inhibition demonstrated that combination of curcumin and piperine showed greater AChE inhibition with an IC50 of 62.81 ± 0.01 ?g/ml as compared to individual compounds, i.e., IC50 of curcumin at 134.5 ± 0.06 ?g/ml and IC50 of piperine at 76.6 ± 0.08 ?g/ml. In the SH-SY5Y cell model, this combination preserved cell viability up to 85%, indicating that the compounds protect against A?-induced neuronal damage (p < 0.01). Interestingly, our results also showed that curcumin and piperine achieved a synergistic effect at 35 ?M with an synergism quotient (SQ) value of 1.824. Synergistic behavior indicates that the combination of these two compounds at lower concentrations may provide a better outcome than singularly used for A? proteins. Combined curcumin and piperine managed to inhibit aggregation (reduced ThT intensity at 0.432 a.u.; p < 0.01) as well as disaggregation (reduced ThT intensity at 0.532 a.u.; p < 0.01) of fibrillar A?42. Furthermore, combined curcumin and piperine reversed the A?-induced up-regulation of neuronal oxidative stress (p < 0.01). In conclusion, curcumin and piperine demonstrated promising neuroprotective effects, whereas bacoside A and chebulinic acid may not be suitable lead compounds. These results are hoped to advance the field of natural products research as potentially therapeutic and curative AD agents.
Project description:Combination of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) and bortezomib (SAHA/bortezomib) was shown to synergistically induce killing of lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and Burkitt lymphoma (BL) of type III or Wp-restricted latency, both of which express EBNA3A, -3B and -3C proteins. We hypothesize that SAHA/bortezomib can counteract the survival functions conferred by the EBNA3 proteins. We tested the effect of SAHA/bortezomib on the survival of BL cell lines containing EBNA3A, -3B or -3C knockout EBV with or without the respective revertant EBNA3 genes. Isobologram analysis showed that SAHA/bortezomib induced significantly greater synergistic killing of EBNA3C-revertant cells when compared with EBNA3C-knockout cells. Such differential response was not observed in either EBNA3A or -3B revertant versus their knockout pairs. Interestingly, EBNA3C-knockout cells showed significant G2/M arrest whilst EBNA3C-revertant cells and LCLs escaped G2/M arrest induced by SAHA/bortezomib and became more susceptible to the induction of apoptosis. In parallel, SAHA/bortezomib induced stronger expression of p21WAF1 but weaker expression of p-cdc25c, an M-phase inducer phosphatase, in EBNA3C-expressing cells when compared with EBNA3C-knockout cells. SAHA/bortezomib also induced greater growth suppression of EBNA3C-expressing xenografts (EBNA3C-revertant and LCL) than that of EBNA3C-knockout xenografts in SCID mice. In conclusion, our data showed that SAHA/bortezomib could synergistically induce killing of BL and LCL through counteracting the survival functions of EBNA3C, providing a strong basis for clinical testing of this drug combination in patients with EBV-associated lymphoproliferative diseases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:PARP-1 plays a critical role in DNA damage repair and contributes to progression of cancer. To explore the role of PARP-1 in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we analyzed the expression of PARP-1 in AML and its relation to the clinical prognosis. Then, we investigated the efficacy and mechanism of PARP inhibitor BMN673 (Talazoparib) combined with NL101, a novel SAHA-bendamustine hybrid in vitro and in vivo. METHODS:The expression of PARP-1 in 339 cytogenetically normal AML (CN-AML) cases was evaluated using RT-PCR. According to the expression of PARP-1, the clinical characteristics and prognosis of the patients were grouped and compared. The combination effects of BMN673 and NL101 were studied in AML cells and B-NSG mice xenograft model of MV4-11. FINDINGS:We found patients in high PARP-1 expression group had higher levels of blast cells in bone marrow (P?=?.003) and white blood cells (WBC) in peripheral blood (P?=?.008), and were associated with a more frequent FLT3-ITD mutation (28.2% vs 17.3%, P?=?.031). The overall survival (OS) and event free survival (EFS) of the high expression group were significantly shorter than those in the low expression group (OS, P?=?.005 and EFS, P?=?.004). BMN673 combined with NL101 had a strong synergistic effect in treating AML. The combination significantly induced cell apoptosis and arrested cell cycle in G2/M phase. Mechanistically, BMN673 and NL101 combinatorial treatment promoted DNA damage. In vivo, the combination effectively delayed the development of AML and prolonged survival. INTERPRETATION:High PARP-1 expression predicts poor survival in CN-AML patients. The synergistic effects of PARP inhibitor BMN673 in combination with SAHA-bendamustine hybrid, NL101, provide a new therapeutic strategy against AML. FUND: National Natural Science Foundation of China and Zhejiang Provincial Key Innovation Team.
Project description:Radiosensitizing agents are capable of augmenting the damage of ionizing radiation preferentially on cancer cells, thereby increasing the potency and the specificity of radiotherapy. Metal-based nanoparticles have recently gathered ground in radio-enhancement applications, owing to their exceptional competence in amplifying the cell-killing effects of irradiation. Our aim was to examine the radiosensitizing performance of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and the chromatin-modifying histone deacetylase inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) alone and in combination. We observed that the colony-forming capability of cancer cells decreased significantly and the DNA damage, detected by ?H2AX immunostaining, was substantially greater after combinational treatments than upon individual drug exposures followed by irradiation. Synergistic radiosensitizing effects of AuNPs and SAHA were proven on various cell lines, including radioresistant A549 and DU-145 cancer cells. 3D cultures often manifest radio- and drug-resistance, nevertheless, AuNPs in combination with SAHA could effectively enhance the potency of irradiation as the number of viable cells decreased significantly when spheroids received AuNP + SAHA prior to radiotherapy. Our results imply that a relaxed chromatin structure induced by SAHA renders the DNA of cancerous cells more susceptible to the damaging effects of irradiation-triggered, AuNP-released reactive electrons. This feature of AuNPs should be exploited in multimodal treatment approaches.
Project description:The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response is a therapeutic target for pharmacologic intervention in cancer cells. We hypothesized that combining carfilzomib (CFZ), a proteasome inhibitor, and vorinostat (SAHA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, would synergistically activate ER stress in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, resulting in enhanced anti-tumor activity.Five NSCLC cell lines were treated with CFZ, SAHA, or the combination and cell proliferation measured using the MTT assay. Calcusyn software was utilized to determine the combination index as a measure of synergy. Cell viability and cytotoxicity were measured using trypan blue exclusion, CellTiter, and CytoTox assays. Western blot was used to measure markers of apoptosis, ER stress, and oxidative stress-related proteins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using the fluorophore CM-H2DCFDA.Synergistic activity was observed for all cell lines following 48 and 72 h of combined treatment. H520 and A549 cell lines were used to assess viability and apoptosis. In both cell lines, increased death and cleaved caspase-3 were observed following combination treatment as compared with single-agent treatments. Combination therapy was associated with upregulation of ER stress-regulated proteins including activating transcription factor 4, GRP78/BiP, and C/EBP homologous protein. Both cell lines also showed increased ROS and the oxidative stress-related protein, heat shock protein 70.Combining proteasome inhibition with HDAC inhibition enhances ER stress, which may contribute to the synergistic anticancer activity observed in NSCLC cell lines. Further preclinical and clinical studies of CFZ + SAHA in NSCLC are warranted.
Project description:Hybrid anticancer drugs are of great therapeutic interests as they can potentially overcome the deficiencies of conventional chemotherapy drugs and improve the efficacy. Many studies have revealed that the combination of histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) and alkylating agents have synergistic effects. We reported a novel hybrid NL-101, in which the side chain of bendamustine was replaced with the hydroxamic acid of HDACi vorinostat (SAHA). NL-101 exhibited efficient anti-proliferative activity on myeloid leukemia cells especially Kasumi-1 and NB4 cells, accompanied by S phase arrest and caspase-3 dependent apoptosis. Importantly, it presented both the properties of HDAC inhibition and DNA damaging, as assessed by the acetylation of histone H3 and DNA double-strand breaks marker ?-H2AX. NL-101 also down-regulated the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL which was involved in the mitochondrial death pathway. Meanwhile, NL-101 induced apoptosis and DNA damage in primary cells from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients. NL-101 treatment could significantly prolong the survival time of t(8;21) leukemia mice with enhanced efficacy than bendamustine. These data demonstrate that NL-101 could be a potent and selective agent for leukemia treatment.