Project description:Following injury, pathologically activated vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs) can engage in disordered extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, leading to VF fibrosis and impaired voice function. Given the importance of scar VFFs to phenotypically appropriate in vitro modeling of VF fibrosis, we pursued detailed characterization of scar VFFs obtained from surgically injured rat VF mucosae, compared with those obtained from experimentally naïve, age-matched tissue. Scar VFFs initially exhibited a myofibroblast phenotype characterized by increased proliferation, increased Col1a1 transcription and collagen, type I synthesis, increased Acta2 transcription and ?-smooth muscle actin synthesis, and enhanced contractile function. These features were most distinct at passage 1 (P1); we observed a coalescence of the scar and naïve VFF phenotypes at later passages. An empirical Bayes statistical analysis of the P1 cell transcriptome identified 421 genes that were differentially expressed by scar, compared with naïve, VFFs. These genes were primarily associated with the wound response, ECM regulation, and cell proliferation. Follow-up comparison of P1 scar VFFs and their in vivo tissue source showed substantial transcriptomic differences. Finally, P1 scar VFFs responded to treatment with hepatocyte growth factor and transforming growth factor-?3, two biologics with reported therapeutic value. Despite the practical limitations inherent to working with early passage cells, this experimental model is easily implemented in any suitably equipped laboratory and has the potential to improve the applicability of preclinical VF fibrosis research.
Project description:Vocal fold fibroblasts (VFF) are responsible for extracellular matrix synthesis supporting lamina propria in normal and diseased conditions. When tissue is injured, VFF become activated and differentiate into myofibroblasts to facilitate wound healing response. We investigated if vocal fold myofibroblasts can be utilized as surrogate cells for scarred VFF.In vitro.Normal VFF cell lines from a 21-year-old male (N21), 59-year-old female (N59), and a scar VFF cell line from a 56-year-old female (S56) were used in this study. 10 ng/mL of transforming growth factor (TGF?1) was applied for 5 days to normal VFF. Myofibroblast differentiation was determined with immunocytochemistry and western blot, measuring alpha smooth muscle actin (?-SMA). Cell growth, proliferation, contractile properties, and gene expression profiles were evaluated.N21, N59, and S56 VFF presented elongated configuration. N21+ and N21- VFF demonstrated significantly greater proliferation compared to N59+, N59-, and S56 VFF at 6 days. ?-SMA was expressed in all cells. Fibronectin, alpha smooth actin, connective tissue growth factor, and metallopeptidase inhibitor were the highest genes expression in VFF treated with transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF?1). At 24 hours, S56 VFF showed lower contraction compared to N21+ and N59+ VFF, but at 60 hours S56 VFF had lower collagen contraction compared to all cell groups. Highest collagen contraction matrices were measured with VFF treated with TGF?1 at 24 hours and N59- VFF at 60 hours.VFF treated with TGF?1 (myofibroblasts) appear to have similar phenotypic characteristics but different genotypic behavior compared to scar VFF.N/A. Laryngoscope, 126:E110-E117, 2016.
Project description:Candidate cell sources for vocal fold scar treatment include mesenchymal stromal cells from bone marrow (BM-MSC) and adipose tissue (AT-MSC). Mechanosensitivity of MSC can alter highly relevant aspects of their behavior, yet virtually nothing is known about how MSC might respond to the dynamic mechanical environment of the larynx. Our objective was to evaluate MSC as a potential cell source for vocal fold tissue engineering in a mechanically relevant context. A vibratory strain bioreactor and cDNA microarray were used to evaluate the similarity of AT-MSC and BM-MSC to the native cell source, vocal fold fibroblasts (VFF). Posterior probabilities for each of the microarray transcripts fitting into specific expression patterns were calculated, and the data were analyzed for Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment. Significant wound healing and cell differentiation GO terms are reported. In addition, proliferation and apoptosis were evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Results revealed that VFF shared more GO terms related to epithelial development, extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling, growth factor activity, and immune response with BM-MSC than with AT-MSC. Similarity in glycosaminoglycan and proteoglycan activity dominated the ECM analysis. Analysis of GO terms relating to MSC differentiation toward osteogenic, adipogenic, and chondrogenic lineages revealed that BM-MSC expressed fewer osteogenesis GO terms in the vibrated and scaffold-only conditions compared to polystyrene. We did not evaluate if vibrated BM-MSC recover osteogenic expression markers when returned to polystyrene culture. Immunostaining for Ki67 and cleaved caspase 3 did not vary with cell type or mechanical condition. We conclude that VFF may have a more similar wound healing capacity to BM-MSC than to AT-MSC in response to short-term vibratory strain. Furthermore, BM-MSC appear to lose osteogenic potential in the vibrated and scaffold-only conditions compared to polystyrene, potentially attenuating the risk of osteogenesis for in vivo applications.
Project description:Vocal fold fibroblast's (VFF) strategic location in the lamina propria and their ability to respond to external stimuli by producing inflammatory molecules suggest their possible direct involvement in innate immunity. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are an essential signaling component to this response, as they allow for recognition of various microorganisms, leading to subsequent induction of pro-inflammatory genes. The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of VFF in the host immune response and subsequent influence on inflammatory cytokine secretion.VFF derived from polyp, scar, and normal tissue were treated with 5 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TLR1 through 9, CD14, and MD-2 were measured during stable conditions by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Expression of TLR4 and IL-1R type-1 genes were quantified after 24 hrs LPS stimulation by reverse transcription-PCR. LPS responsiveness was determined by NF-κB nuclear translocation as measured by subunit p65 expression in nucleus with immunocytochemistry. Downstream effects were confirmed with immunoassay measuring IL-8 concentrations in supernatant after 8 hrs.All VFFs constitutively expressed TLR1 to 6, TLR9, CD14, and MD-2 mRNA. Polyp VFF exhibited significantly higher TLR4 transcript levels (p < 0.001) in comparison to scar and normal VFF. LPS stimulated scar and polyp VFF exhibited increased levels of p65 in the nucleus (p < 0.01) and secreted greater IL-8 protein (p < 0.0001) compared to normal VFF.VFF constitutively express genes for the receptors essential to the host immune response. Scar and polyp VFF produced greater LPS responsiveness resulting in over-activated inflammatory patterns. These findings support VFF role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory vocal fold disorders and suggests their presence in the wound bed could lead to chronic inflammation.
Project description:The design of cell-based therapies for vocal fold tissue engineering requires an understanding of how cells adapt to the dynamic mechanical forces found in the larynx. Our objective was to compare mechanotransductive processes in therapeutic cell candidates (mesenchymal stromal cells from adipose tissue and bone marrow, AT-MSC and BM-MSC) to native cells (vocal fold fibroblasts-VFF) in the context of vibratory strain. A bioreactor was used to expose VFF, AT-MSC, and BM-MSC to axial tensile strain and vibration at human physiological levels. Microarray, an empirical Bayes statistical approach, and geneset enrichment analysis were used to identify significant mechanotransductive pathways associated with the three cell types and three mechanical conditions. Two databases (Gene Ontology, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) were used for enrichment analyses. VFF shared more mechanotransductive pathways with BM-MSC than with AT-MSC. Gene expression that appeared to distinguish the vibratory strain condition from polystyrene condition for these two cells types related to integrin activation, focal adhesions, and lamellipodia activity, suggesting that vibratory strain may be associated with cytoarchitectural rearrangement, cell reorientation, and extracellular matrix remodeling. In response to vibration and tensile stress, BM-MSC better mimicked VFF mechanotransduction than AT-MSC, providing support for the consideration of BM-MSC as a cell therapy for vocal fold tissue engineering. Future research is needed to better understand the sorts of physical adaptations that are afforded to vocal fold tissue as a result of focal adhesions, integrins, and lamellipodia, and how these adaptations could be exploited for tissue engineering.
Project description:Vocal fold disorders affect 3-9% of the U.S. population. Tissue engineering offers an alternative strategy for vocal fold repair. Successful engineering of vocal fold tissues requires a strategic combination of therapeutic cells, biomimetic scaffolds, and physiologically relevant mechanical and biochemical factors. Specifically, we aim to create a vocal fold-like microenvironment to coax stem cells to adopt the phenotype of vocal fold fibroblasts (VFFs). Herein, high frequency vibratory stimulations and soluble connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) were sequentially introduced to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) cultured on a poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL)-derived microfibrous scaffold for a total of 6 days. The initial 3-day vibratory culture resulted in an increased production of hyaluronic acids (HA), tenascin-C (TNC), decorin (DCN), and matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP1). The subsequent 3-day CTGF treatment further enhanced the cellular production of TNC and DCN, whereas CTGF treatment alone without the vibratory preconditioning significantly promoted the synthesis of collagen I (Col 1) and sulfated glycosaminoglycans (sGAGs). The highest level of MMP1, TNC, Col III, and DCN production was found for cells being exposed to the combined vibration and CTGF treatment. Noteworthy, the vibration and CTGF elicited a differential stimulatory effect on elastin (ELN), HA synthase 1 (HAS1), and fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1). The mitogenic activity of CTGF was only elicited in naïve cells without the vibratory preconditioning. The combined treatment had profound, but opposite effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, Erk1/2 and p38, and the Erk1/2 pathway was critical for the observed mechano-biochemical responses. Collectively, vibratory stresses and CTGF signals cooperatively coaxed MSCs toward a VFF-like phenotype and accelerated the synthesis and remodeling of vocal fold matrices.
Project description:The clinical use of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has been hampered by their poor performance after transplantation into failing hearts. Here, to improve the therapeutic potential of BM-MSCs, we developed a strategy termed in vivo priming in which BM-MSCs are primed in vivo in myocardial infarction (MI)-induced hearts through genetically engineered hepatocyte growth factor-expressing MSCs (HGF-eMSCs) that are encapsulated within an epicardially implanted 3D cardiac patch. Primed BM-MSCs through HGF-eMSCs exhibited improved vasculogenic potential and cell viability, which ultimately enhanced vascular regeneration and restored cardiac function to the MI hearts. Histological analyses further demonstrated that the primed BM-MSCs survived longer within a cardiac patch and conferred cardioprotection evidenced by substantially higher numbers of viable cardiomyocytes in the MI hearts. These results provide compelling evidence that this in vivo priming strategy can be an effective means to enhance the cardiac repair of MI hearts.
Project description:Defining the immune physiology of culture-adapted mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) derived from distinct tissue compartments informs their potential utility as pharmaceuticals. Here, we have investigated the comparative immune plasticity of MSCs and hepatic stellate cells (HeSCs) isolated from human and murine bone marrow (BM) and liver, respectively. Although both BM-MSCs and HeSCs share mesenchymal phenotype and overall molecular genetic responses to inflammatory cues, HeSCs differ from BM-MSCs in a meaningful manner. We show that culture-adapted HeSCs express substantially higher levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), matrix metalloproteinase-1, and chemokine (C?C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2) than BM-MSCs. Both human BM-MSCs and HeSCs inhibit T-cell proliferation by a shared indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-dependent mechanism. However, HeSCs are distinct from BM-MSCs by their significant differential expression of HGF, CCL2, IL-8, CCL11, and GMCSF when cocultured with and/or without activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We have investigated MSCs and HeSCs derived from murine systems to describe interspecies comparability. Murine BM-MSCs inhibit T-cell proliferation through inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) but not IDO. However, murine HeSCs inhibit T-cell proliferation through a mechanism distinct from either IDO or iNOS. Altogether, these results suggest that although culture-adapted BM-MSCs and HeSCs display a similar phenotype, their secretome and immune plasticity are in part distinct likely mirroring their tissular origins. In addition, the discordance in immune biology between mouse and human sourced HeSC and BM-MSCs speaks to the importance of comparative biology when interrogating rodent systems for human translational insights. Stem Cells 2019;37:1075-1082.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) play a crucial role in tissue repair by secretion of tissue nutrient factors such as hepatocyte growth factor (HGF). However, studies examining the effects of HGF on the proliferation and differentiation of MSCs used different concentrations of HGF and reported conflicting conclusions. This study aimed to determine the mechanisms by which different concentrations of HGF regulate MSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, and validate the mechanism in an animal model of early stage avascular necrosis of femoral head (ANFH). Our results demonstrate that a low concentration of HGF (20 ng/ml) preferentially promotes MSC osteogenic differentiation through increased c-Met expression and phosphorylation, Akt pathway activation, and increased expression of p27, Runx2 and Osterix. In contrast, a high concentration of HGF (100 ng/ml) strongly induced proliferation by inducing strong activation of the ERK1/2 signalling pathway. As validated by animal experiments, high localized expression of HGF achieved by transplantation of HGF transgenic MSCs into ANFH rabbits increased the number of MSCs. Subsequently, 2 weeks after transplantation, HGF levels decreased and MSCs differentiated into osteoblasts and resulted in efficient tissue repair. Our results demonstrate that sequential concentration changes in HGF control the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs in vivo. This phenomenon can be exploited therapeutically to induce bone regeneration and, in turn, improve the efficacy of pharmacological intervention for ANFH treatment.