Low global sensitivity of metabolic rate to temperature in calcified marine invertebrates.
ABSTRACT: Metabolic rate is a key component of energy budgets that scales with body size and varies with large-scale environmental geographical patterns. Here we conduct an analysis of standard metabolic rates (SMR) of marine ectotherms across a 70° latitudinal gradient in both hemispheres that spanned collection temperatures of 0-30 °C. To account for latitudinal differences in the size and skeletal composition between species, SMR was mass normalized to that of a standard-sized (223 mg) ash-free dry mass individual. SMR was measured for 17 species of calcified invertebrates (bivalves, gastropods, urchins and brachiopods), using a single consistent methodology, including 11 species whose SMR was described for the first time. SMR of 15 out of 17 species had a mass-scaling exponent between 2/3 and 1, with no greater support for a 3/4 rather than a 2/3 scaling exponent. After accounting for taxonomy and variability in parameter estimates among species using variance-weighted linear mixed effects modelling, temperature sensitivity of SMR had an activation energy (Ea) of 0.16 for both Northern and Southern Hemisphere species which was lower than predicted under the metabolic theory of ecology (Ea 0.2-1.2 eV). Northern Hemisphere species, however, had a higher SMR at each habitat temperature, but a lower mass-scaling exponent relative to SMR. Evolutionary trade-offs that may be driving differences in metabolic rate (such as metabolic cold adaptation of Northern Hemisphere species) will have important impacts on species abilities to respond to changing environments.
Project description:Body size and temperature are primary determinants of metabolic rate, and the standard metabolic rate (SMR) of animals ranging in size from unicells to mammals has been thought to be proportional to body mass (M) raised to the power of three-quarters for over 40 years. However, recent evidence from rigorously selected datasets suggests that this is not the case for birds and mammals. To determine whether the influence of body mass on the metabolic rate of vertebrates is indeed universal, we compiled SMR measurements for 938 species spanning six orders of magnitude variation in mass. When normalized to a common temperature of 38 degrees C, the SMR scaling exponents of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals are significantly heterogeneous. This suggests both that there is no universal metabolic allometry and that models that attempt to explain only quarter-power scaling of metabolic rate are unlikely to succeed.
Project description:Despite many decades of research, the allometric scaling of metabolic rates (MRs) remains poorly understood. Here, we argue that scaling exponents of these allometries do not themselves mirror one universal law of nature but instead statistically approximate the non-linearity of the relationship between MR and body mass. This 'statistical' view must be replaced with the life-history perspective that 'allows' organisms to evolve myriad different life strategies with distinct physiological features. We posit that the hypoallometric allometry of MRs (mass scaling with an exponent smaller than 1) is an indirect outcome of the selective pressure of ecological mortality on allocation 'decisions' that divide resources among growth, reproduction, and the basic metabolic costs of repair and maintenance reflected in the standard or basal metabolic rate (SMR or BMR), which are customarily subjected to allometric analyses. Those 'decisions' form a wealth of life-history variation that can be defined based on the axis dictated by ecological mortality and the axis governed by the efficiency of energy use. We link this variation as well as hypoallometric scaling to the mechanistic determinants of MR, such as metabolically inert component proportions, internal organ relative size and activity, cell size and cell membrane composition, and muscle contributions to dramatic metabolic shifts between the resting and active states. The multitude of mechanisms determining MR leads us to conclude that the quest for a single-cause explanation of the mass scaling of MRs is futile. We argue that an explanation based on the theory of life-history evolution is the best way forward.
Project description:Whether basal metabolic rate-body mass scaling relationships have a single exponent is highly discussed, and also the correct statistical model to establish relationships. Here, we aimed (1) to identify statistically best scaling models for 17 mammalian orders, Marsupialia, Eutheria and all mammals, and (2) thereby to prove whether correcting for differences in species' body temperature and their shared evolutionary history improves models and their biological interpretability. We used the large dataset from Sieg et al. (The American Naturalist174, 2009, 720) providing species' body mass (BM), basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body temperature (T). We applied different statistical approaches to identify the best scaling model for each taxon: ordinary least squares regression analysis (OLS) and phylogenetically informed analysis (PGLS), both without and with controlling for T. Under each approach, we tested linear equations (log-log-transformed data) estimating scaling exponents and normalization constants, and such with a variable normalization constant and a fixed exponent of either ? or ¾, and also a curvature. Only under temperature correction, an additional variable coefficient modeled the influence of T on BMR. Except for Pholidata and Carnivora, in all taxa studied linear models were clearly supported over a curvature by AICc. They indicated no single exponent at the level of orders or at higher taxonomic levels. The majority of all best models corrected for phylogeny, whereas only half of them included T. When correcting for T, the mathematically expected correlation between the exponent (b) and the normalization constant (a) in the standard scaling model y = a xb was removed, but the normalization constant and temperature coefficient still correlated strongly. In six taxa, T and BM correlated positively or negatively. All this hampers a disentangling of the effect of BM, T and other factors on BMR, and an interpretation of linear BMR-BM scaling relationships in the mammalian taxa studied.
Project description:The surface area (SA) of organs and cells may vary with temperature, which changes the SA exchange limitation on metabolic flows as well as the influence of temperature on metabolic scaling. The effect of SA change can intensify (when the effect is the same as that of temperature) or compensate for (when the effect is the opposite of that of temperature) the negative effects of temperature on metabolic scaling, which can result in multiple patterns of metabolic scaling with temperature among species. The present study aimed to examine whether metabolic scaling in black carp changes with temperature and to identify the link between metabolic scaling and SA at the organ and cellular levels at different temperatures. The resting metabolic rate (RMR), gill surface area (GSA) and red blood cell (RBC) size of black carp with different body masses were measured at 10 °C and 25 °C, and the scaling exponents of these parameters were compared. The results showed that both body mass and temperature independently affected the RMR, GSA and RBC size of black carp. A consistent scaling exponent of RMR (0.764, 95% CI [0.718-0.809]) was obtained for both temperatures. The RMR at 25 °C was 2.7 times higher than that at 10 °C. At both temperatures, the GSA scaled consistently with body mass by an exponent of 0.802 (95% CI [0.759-0.846]), while RBC size scaled consistently with body mass by an exponent of 0.042 (95% CI [0.010-0.075]). The constant GSA scaling can explain the constant metabolic scaling as temperature increases, as metabolism may be constrained by fluxes across surfaces. The GSA at 10 °C was 1.2 times higher than that at 25 °C, which suggests that the constraints of GSA on the metabolism of black carp is induced by the higher temperature. The RBC size at 10 °C was 1.1 times higher than that at 25 °C. The smaller RBC size (a larger surface-to-volume ratio) at higher temperature suggests an enhanced oxygen supply and a reduced surface boundary limit on b R, which offset the negative effect of temperature on b R.
Project description:Eastern Asia (EA) is a key region for the diversification of flowering plants in the Northern Hemisphere, but few studies have focused on the biogeographic history within EA in the context of the other northern continents. Polygonatum is an important medicinal genus widely distributed in the Northern Hemisphere with its highest species richness in EA, and it represents an excellent model for studying the evolution of biogeographic patterns in this region. Divergence time estimation was used to examine the biogeographic history of Polygonatum based on nuclear ITS and four plastid sequences (rbcL, matK, psbA-trnH and trnC-petN) from 30 Polygonatum species and 35 outgroup taxa. The ancestral area of Polygonatum and subsequent dispersal routes were inferred using Bayes-Lagrange. Polygonatum was estimated to have originated in southern EA during the middle Miocene (14.34-13.57 Ma) with subsequent south-to-north expansion in the late Miocene. Multiple intercontinental dispersal events were inferred between EA and Europe or North America, and all of them have occurred recently in the late Miocene to Pliocene. The separation of Polygonatum into the south and north lineages and their subsequent diversifications in the late Miocene supports the existence of a biogeographic divide between the northern and southern parts of EA that also coincides with the retreat and redevelopment of the arid zone in EA in the Neogene. Our results demonstrate the complexity of biogeographic history of Polygonatum in the Northern Hemisphere including early vicariance followed by frequent and recent dispersals in the Neogene.
Project description:Investigating the physiological mechanisms of closely related species that exhibit distinct geographic distributions and thermal niches is essential for understanding their thermal tolerance capacities and local adaptations in view of climate warming. The variations in upper thermal limits (LT50) under acute heat shock and cardiac activity, standard metabolic rate (SMR), anaerobic metabolite production and molecular responses (expression of molecular chaperones and glycolysis metabolism genes) under increasing temperatures in two oyster subspecies were studied. The populations of two oyster subspecies, Crassostrea gigas gigas and C. gigas angulata, exhibit different latitudinal distributions along the northern and southern coastlines of China, respectively, which experience different environmental conditions. The LT50 was significantly higher, by ?1°C, in the southern than in the northern oysters. In both subspecies, temperature increases had powerful effects on heart rate, SMR and gene expression. The southern oysters had the highest Arrhenius breakpoint temperatures for heart rate (31.4 ± 0.17°C) and SMR (33.09°C), whereas the heart rate (28.86 ± 0.3°C) and SMR (29.22°C) of the northern oysters were lower. The same patterns were observed for the Q 10 coefficients. More thermal sensitivity was observed in the northern oysters than in their southern counterparts, as the heat-shock proteins (HSPs) in the northern oysters were expressed first and had a higher induction at a lower temperature than those of southern oysters. Furthermore, different expression patterns of energetic metabolism genes (HK, PK, and PEPCK) were observed. In the northern oysters, increasing anaerobic glycolysis genes (PEPCK) and end products (succinate) were found at 36-43°C, indicating a transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism and a lower aerobic scope compared with the southern oysters. These two subspecies experience different environmental conditions, and their physiological performances suggested species-specific thermal tolerance windows in which the southern oysters, with mild physiological flexibility, had a higher potential capability to withstand heat stress. Overall, our results indicate that comparing and unifying physiological and molecular mechanisms can provide a framework for understanding the likely effects of global warming on marine ectotherms in intertidal regions.
Project description:The relationship between mammalian basal metabolic rate (BMR, ml of O(2) per h) and body mass (M, g) has been the subject of regular investigation for over a century. Typically, the relationship is expressed as an allometric equation of the form BMR = aM(b). The scaling exponent (b) is a point of contention throughout this body of literature, within which arguments for and against geometric (b = 2/3) and quarter-power (b = 3/4) scaling are made and rebutted. Recently, interest in the topic has been revived by published explanations for quarter-power scaling based on fractal nutrient supply networks and four-dimensional biology. Here, a new analysis of the allometry of mammalian BMR that accounts for variation associated with body temperature, digestive state, and phylogeny finds no support for a metabolic scaling exponent of 3/4. Data encompassing five orders of magnitude variation in M and featuring 619 species from 19 mammalian orders show that BMR proportional, variant M(2/3).
Project description:Due in part to their large size, aggressive temperament, and difficulty in handling, there are few physiological studies of adult crocodilians in the literature. As a result, studies comparing individuals across an ontogenetic series and comparisons among species are also lacking. We addressed this gap in knowledge by measuring standard metabolic rates (SMR) of three species of crocodilians (Crocodylus porosus, C. johnsoni, and Alligator mississippiensis), and included individuals that ranged from 0.22 to 114 kg. Allometric scaling of SMR with body mass was similar among the species, but C. porosus had significantly higher SMR than did C. johnsoni or A. mississippiensis. Differences in SMR among species are potentially related to behavioural differences in levels of aggression; C. porosus are the most aggressive of the crocodilians measured, and have rates of standard metabolism that are approximately 36% higher at the grand mean body size than those measured for C. johnsoni or A. mississippiensis, which are among the least aggressive crocodilians.
Project description:We studied the effects of metabolic cold adaptation (MCA) in two populations of a eurythermal species, spotted seatrout (Cynoscion nebulosus) along the U.S. East Coast. Fish were captured from their natural environment and acclimated at control temperatures 15 °C or 20 °C. Their oxygen consumption rates, a proxy for metabolic rates, were measured using intermittent flow respirometry during acute temperature decrease or increase (2.5 °C per hour). Mass-specific standard metabolic rates (SMR) were higher in fish from the northern population across an ecologically relevant temperature gradient (5 °C to 30 °C). SMR were up to 37% higher in the northern population at 25 °C and maximum metabolic rates (MMR) were up to 20% higher at 20 °C. We found evidence of active metabolic compensation in the southern population from 5 °C to 15 °C (Q10 < 2), but not in the northern population. Taken together, our results indicate differences in metabolic plasticity between the northern and southern populations of spotted seatrout and provide a mechanistic basis for predicting population-specific responses to climate change.
Project description:Metabolism fuels all biological activities, and thus understanding its variation is fundamentally important. Much of this variation is related to body size, which is commonly believed to follow a 3/4-power scaling law. However, during ontogeny, many kinds of animals and plants show marked shifts in metabolic scaling that deviate from 3/4-power scaling predicted by general models. Here, we show that in diverse aquatic invertebrates, ontogenetic shifts in the scaling of routine metabolic rate from near isometry (bR = scaling exponent approx. 1) to negative allometry (bR < 1), or the reverse, are associated with significant changes in body shape (indexed by bL = the scaling exponent of the relationship between body mass and body length). The observed inverse correlations between bR and bL are predicted by metabolic scaling theory that emphasizes resource/waste fluxes across external body surfaces, but contradict theory that emphasizes resource transport through internal networks. Geometric estimates of the scaling of surface area (SA) with body mass (bA) further show that ontogenetic shifts in bR and bA are positively correlated. These results support new metabolic scaling theory based on SA influences that may be applied to ontogenetic shifts in bR shown by many kinds of animals and plants.