Towards the Total Synthesis of Marineosin A: Construction of the Macrocyclic Pyrrole and an Advanced, Functionalized Spiroaminal Model.
ABSTRACT: Herein, we describe the enantioselective construction of the 12-membered macrocyclic pyrrole core 4 of marineosin A in 5.1% overall yield from (S)-propylene oxide. The route features a key Stetter reaction to install a 1,4-diketone, which is then subjected to Paal-Knorr pyrrole synthesis and ring closing metathesis (RCM) to afford macrocycle 4. A divergence point in the synthetic scheme also enabled access to a highly functionalized spiroaminal model system 8 via an acid-mediated hydroxyketoamide cyclization strategy.
Project description:The solution-phase synthesis of a discovery library of 178 tricyclic pyrrole-2-carboxamides was accomplished in nine steps and seven purifications starting with three benzoyl-protected amino acid methyl esters. Further diversity was introduced by two glyoxaldehydes and 41 primary amines. The combination of Pauson-Khand, Stetter, and microwave-assisted Paal-Knorr reactions was applied as a key sequence. The discovery library was designed with the help of QikProp 2.1, and physicochemical data are presented for all pyrroles. Library members were synthesized and purified in parallel and analyzed by LC/MS. Selected compounds were fully characterized.
Project description:The application of new chemical reactions in a biological context has advanced bioconjugation methods for both fundamental research and commercial arenas. Recent adaptations of reactions such as Huisgen 1,3-dipolar or Diels-Alder cycloadditions have enabled the labeling of specific residues in biomolecules by the attachment of molecules carrying azides, alkynes, or strained alkenes. Although these are fundamental tools, there is a need for the discovery of reactions that can label native proteins. We report herein the adaptation of the Paal-Knorr reaction to label lysine residues in proteins via pyrrole linkages.
Project description:The title pyrrole derivative compound, C(12)H(17)NO(4), was synthesized from methyl 3-oxopenta-noate by a Knorr-type reaction and contains a pyrrole ring to which two diagonal alk-oxy-carbonyl groups and two diagonal alkyl substituents are attached. The methyl-carbonyl and ethyl-carbonyl substituents are approximately co-planar with the pyrrole ring, making dihedral angles of 5.64?(2) and 3.44?(1)°, respectively. In the crystal, adjacent mol-ecules are assembled by pairs of N-H?O hydrogen bonds into dimers in a head-to-head mode.
Project description:Polygodial, a terpenoid dialdehyde isolated from Polygonum hydropiper?L., is a known agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid?1 (TRPV1). In this investigation a series of polygodial analogues were prepared and investigated for TRPV1-agonist and anticancer activities. These experiments led to the identification of 9-epipolygodial, which has antiproliferative potency significantly exceeding that of polygodial. 9-Epipolygodial was found to maintain potency against apoptosis-resistant cancer cells as well as those displaying the multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype. In addition, the chemical feasibility for the previously proposed mechanism of action of polygodial, involving the formation of a Paal-Knorr pyrrole with a lysine residue on the target protein, was demonstrated by the synthesis of a stable polygodial pyrrole derivative. These studies reveal rich chemical and biological properties associated with polygodial and its direct derivatives. These compounds should inspire further work in this area aimed at the development of new pharmacological agents, or the exploration of novel mechanisms of covalent modification of biological molecules with natural products.
Project description:The enantioselective total synthesis of the pyrrolophane natural product streptorubin B is described. Key steps in the concise route include the application of a one-pot enantioselective aldol cyclization/Wittig reaction and an anionic oxy-Cope rearrangement to forge the crucial 10-membered ring. Comparisons between CD spectra of synthetic and natural samples of streptorubin B coupled with X-ray crystallography allowed for the determination of the absolute stereochemistry of this natural product for the first time. These studies also provided unambiguous proof of the relative configuration between the butyl side chain and the bispyrrole subunit. Additional studies revealed a novel atropstereoselective Paal-Knorr pyrrole condensation and provided fundamental experimental insight into the barrier for atropisomerization of the natural product.
Project description:A facile and diversity-oriented approach has been developed for the synthesis of pyrrole-, pyridine-, or azepine-appended (het)aryl aminoamides via the N-allylation/homoallylation-ring-closing metathesis (RCM) strategy. Microwave condition was efficiently utilized for N-allylation of (het)aryl aminoamides to synthesize di-, tri-, and tetra-allyl/homoallylated RCM substrates in good yields. All of the RCM substrates were successfully converted to respective pyrroles 6a-h, 13a,b, 15a,b, pyridines 11a-d, 13c, and azepines 7a,b via RCM. All of the five-, six-, and seven-membered N-heterocycles were synthesized in shorter reaction times with excellent yields without isomerization products. A one-pot reaction to synthesize compounds 6a and 6b without isolating corresponding RCM substrates was achieved successfully. The synthetic utility of the compound 6b has been demonstrated by synthesizing biaryl derivatives 17a,b under the microwave Suzuki coupling reaction condition.
Project description:A short and efficient synthesis of model spiroiminals that have the same stereochemistry as marineosins A and B, but different conformations, was carried out in six or seven steps from 6-methyltetrahydropyran-2-one. These spiroiminals were also prepared biomimetically by reduction of an enol ether. A more highly substituted spiroiminal with the same stereochemistry and conformation as marineosin A was prepared in 11 steps from parasorbic acid. A macrocyclic pyrrole lactone was prepared stereospecifically in 10 steps. A five-step sequence converted the lactone to a late hemi-iminal intermediate that has resisted the methylation and spiroiminal formation that would lead to marineosin A.
Project description:A novel one-pot tandem process involving Knoevenagel condensation, Michael addition, selective amidation, and Paal-Knorr cyclization to diverse functionalized 3-hydroxy-2-furanyl-acrylamides from simple 2-oxoaldehydes and aroylacetonitriles was presented. Attempts were also made to expand the scope of the reaction to different 2-heteroarylfurans. The packing diagram of the molecules viewed down along the ?-axis of the unit cell showed a characteristic intramolecular classical O-H···O hydrogen bond between hydroxyl and carbonyl O atoms leading to self-associated (Z)-2-furanyl-acrylamides.
Project description:The marine Streptomyces sp. CNQ-617 produces two diastereomers, marineosins A and B. These are structurally related to alkyl prodiginines, but with a more complex cyclization and an unusual spiroaminal skeleton. We report the identification of the mar biosynthetic gene cluster and demonstrate production of marineosins through heterologous expression in a S. venezuelae host named JND2. The mar cluster shares the same gene organization and has high homology to the genes of the red cluster (which directs the biosynthesis of undecylprodiginine) but contains an additional gene, named marA. Replacement of marA in the JND2 strain leads to the accumulation of premarineosin, which is identical to marineosin with the exception that the middle pyrrole (Ring B) has not been reduced. The final step of the marineosin pathway is thus a MarA catalyzed reduction of this ring. Replacement of marG (a homologue of redG that directs undecylprodiginine cyclization to give streptorubin B) in the JND2 strain leads to the loss of all spiroaminal products and the accumulation of 23-hydroxyundecylprodiginine and a shunt product, 23-ketoundecylprodiginine. MarG thus catalyzes the penultimate step of the marineosin pathway catalyzing conversion of 23-hydroxyundecylprodiginine to premarineosin. The preceding steps of the biosynthetic marineosin pathway likely mirror that in the red-directed biosynthetic process, with the exception of the introduction of the hydroxyl functionality required for spiroaminal formation. This work presents the first experimentally supported scheme for biosynthesis of marineosin and provides a new biologically active molecule, premarineosin.
Project description:A short and robust approach for the synthesis of 2-(hetero)aryl substituted thieno[2,3-b]indoles from easily available 1-alkylisatins and acetylated (hetero)arenes has been advanced. The two-step procedure includes the "aldol-crotonic" type of condensation of the starting materials, followed by treatment of the intermediate 3-(2-oxo-2-(hetero)arylethylidene)indolin-2-ones with Lawesson's reagent. The latter process involves two sequential reactions, namely reduction of the C=C ethylidene double bond of the intermediate indolin-2-ones followed by the Paal-Knorr cyclization, thus affording tricyclic thieno[2,3-b]indoles.