Draft Genome Sequence of Streptomyces niveus NCIMB 11891, Producer of the Aminocoumarin Antibiotic Novobiocin.
ABSTRACT: Streptomyces niveus NCIMB 11891 is the producer of the gyrase inhibitor novobiocin, which belongs to the aminocoumarin class of antibiotics. The genome sequence of this strain was found to contain, besides the gene cluster for novobiocin, a putative gene cluster for the macrolactam antibiotic BE-14106 and further secondary metabolite gene clusters.
Project description:The aminocoumarin resistance genes of the biosynthetic gene clusters of novobiocin, coumermycin A(1), and clorobiocin were investigated. All three clusters contained a gyrB(R) resistance gene, coding for a gyrase B subunit. Unexpectedly, the clorobiocin and the coumermycin A(1) clusters were found to contain an additional, similar gene, named parY(R). Its predicted gene product showed sequence similarity with the B subunit of type II topoisomerases. Expression of gyrB(R) and likewise of parY(R) in Streptomyces lividans TK24 resulted in resistance against novobiocin and coumermycin A(1), suggesting that both gene products are able to function as aminocoumarin-resistant B subunits of gyrase. Southern hybridization experiments showed that the genome of all three antibiotic producers and of Streptomyces coelicolor contained two additional genes which hybridized with either gyrB(R) or parY(R) and which may code for aminocoumarin-sensitive GyrB and ParY proteins. Two putative transporter genes, novA and couR5, were found in the novobiocin and the coumermycin A(1) cluster, respectively. Expression of these genes in S. lividans TK24 resulted in moderate levels of resistance against novobiocin and coumermycin A(1), suggesting that these genes may be involved in antibiotic transport.
Project description:In enteric bacteria, DNA supercoiling is highly responsive to environmental conditions. Host specific features of environment serve as cues for the expression of genes required for colonization of host niches via changing supercoiling . It has been shown that substitution at position 87 of GyrA of Salmonella enterica str. SL1344 influences global supercoiling and results in an altered transcriptome with increased expression of stress response pathways . Aminocoumarin antibiotics, such as novobiocin, can be used to relax supercoiling and alter the expression of supercoiling-sensitive genes. Meanwhile, Salmonella enterica demonstrates a significant resistance to this antibiotic and relatively small variability of supercoiling in response to the growth phase, osmotic pressure, and novobiocin treatment. Here we present for the first time transcriptome data of Salmonella enterica subsp. Enterica serovar Typhimurium str. 14028S grown in the presence of novobiocin. These data will help identify genes involved in novobiocin resistance and adaptation processes associated with torsion perturbations in S. enterica. Cleaned FASTQ files for the RNA-seq libraries are deposited in the NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SRA, Identifier: SRP239815) and have been assigned BioProject accession PRJNA599397.
Project description:Crystals of recombinant NovN, an O-carbamoyltransferase from Streptomyces spheroides, were grown by vapour diffusion. The protein crystallized in two different crystal forms. Crystal form I belonged to space group C2 and native data were collected to 2.9 A resolution in-house. Crystal form II had I-centred orthorhombic symmetry and native data were recorded to a resolution of 2.3 A at a synchrotron. NovN catalyses the final step in the biosynthesis of the aminocoumarin antibiotic novobiocin that targets the essential bacterial enzyme DNA gyrase.
Project description:The biosynthetic gene cluster of the aminocoumarin antibiotic coumermycin A(1) was cloned by screening of a cosmid library of Streptomyces rishiriensis DSM 40489 with heterologous probes from a dTDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase gene, involved in deoxysugar biosynthesis, and from the aminocoumarin resistance gyrase gene gyrB(r). Sequence analysis of a 30.8-kb region upstream of gyrB(r) revealed the presence of 28 complete open reading frames (ORFs). Fifteen of the identified ORFs showed, on average, 84% identity to corresponding ORFs in the biosynthetic gene cluster of novobiocin, another aminocoumarin antibiotic. Possible functions of 17 ORFs in the biosynthesis of coumermycin A(1) could be assigned by comparison with sequences in GenBank. Experimental proof for the function of the identified gene cluster was provided by an insertional gene inactivation experiment, which resulted in an abolishment of coumermycin A(1) production.
Project description:MbtH-like proteins consist of ?70 amino acids and are encoded in the biosynthetic gene clusters of non-ribosomally formed peptides and other secondary metabolites derived from amino acids. Recently, several MbtH-like proteins have been shown to be required for the adenylation of amino acid in non-ribosomal peptide synthesis. We now investigated the role of MbtH-like proteins in the biosynthesis of the aminocoumarin antibiotics novobiocin, clorobiocin, and simocyclinone D8 and of the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin. The tyrosine-adenylating enzymes CloH, SimH, and Pcza361.18, involved in the biosynthesis of clorobiocin, simocyclinone D8, and vancomycin, respectively, required the presence of MbtH-like proteins in a 1:1 molar ratio, forming heterotetrameric complexes. In contrast, NovH, involved in novobiocin biosynthesis, showed activity in the absence of MbtH-like proteins. Comparison of the active centers of CloH and NovH showed only one amino acid to be different, i.e. Leu-383 versus Met-383. Mutation of this amino acid in CloH (L383M) indeed led to MbtH-independent adenylating activity. All investigated tyrosine-adenylating enzymes exhibited remarkable promiscuity for MbtH-like proteins from different pathways and organisms. YbdZ, the MbtH-like protein from the expression host Escherichia coli, was found to bind to adenylating enzymes during expression and to influence their biochemical properties markedly. Therefore, the use of ybdZ-deficient expression hosts is important in biochemical studies of adenylating enzymes.
Project description:A method was developed for the heterologous expression of biosynthetic gene clusters in different Streptomyces strains and for the modification of these clusters by single or multiple gene replacements or gene deletions with unprecedented speed and versatility. Lambda-Red-mediated homologous recombination was used for genetic modification of the gene clusters, and the attachment site and integrase of phage phiC31 were employed for the integration of these clusters into the heterologous hosts. This method was used to express the gene clusters of the aminocoumarin antibiotics novobiocin and clorobiocin in the well-studied strains Streptomyces coelicolor and Streptomyces lividans, which, in contrast to the natural producers, can be easily genetically manipulated. S. coelicolor M512 derivatives produced the respective antibiotic in yields comparable to those of natural producer strains, whereas S. lividans TK24 derivatives were at least five times less productive. This method could also be used to carry out functional investigations. Shortening of the cosmids' inserts showed which genes are essential for antibiotic production.
Project description:For Staphylococcus aureus it was shown previously that aminocoumarinecoumarin antibiotics such as novobiocin lead to immediate down-regulation of recA expression and thereby inhibition of the SOS response, the mutation frequency and the recombination capacity. Aminocoumarinecoumarin function by inhibition of the ATPase activity of the gyrase subunit B. Here we analysed the global impact of the DNA relaxing agent novobiocin on gene expression in S. aureus. By use of a novobiocin resistant mutant, it became evident that the change in recA expression is due to gyrase inhibition. Microarray analysis and Northern blot hybridization revealed that the expression of a distinct set of genes is increased (e.g. recF-gyrB-gyrA, rib operon and ure operon …)), or decreased (e.g. arlRS, recA, lukA, hlgC, fnbA) by novobiocin. The two-component ArlRS system was previously found to decrease the supercoiling level in S. aureus. Thus, down-regulation of arlRS might in part compensate for the relaxing effect of novobiocin. Novobiocin resulted in down-regulation of several of arlRS repressed target genes in an arl mutant. Global analysis and gene mapping of supercoiling sensitive genes did not give indications that they are clustered in the genome. Promoter fusion assays confirmed that responsiveness of a given gene is intrinsic to the promoter region but independent of the chromosomal location. The results indicate that molecular property of the spacers of a given promoter dictatesa given promoter rather than chromosomal topology dictates the responsiveness towards changes in supercoiling rather than chromosomal topology. We analyzed S. aureus global gene expression changes to the treatment of novobiocin
Project description:The novobiocin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces spheroides NCIB 11891 was cloned by using homologous deoxynucleoside diphosphate (dNDP)-glucose 4,6-dehydratase gene fragments as probes. Double-stranded sequencing of 25.6 kb revealed the presence of 23 putative open reading frames (ORFs), including the gene for novobiocin resistance, gyrB(r), and at least 11 further ORFs to which a possible role in novobiocin biosynthesis could be assigned. An insertional inactivation experiment with a dNDP-glucose 4, 6-dehydratase fragment resulted in abolishment of novobiocin production, since biosynthesis of the deoxysugar moiety of novobiocin was blocked. Heterologous expression of a key enzyme of novobiocin biosynthesis, i.e., novobiocic acid synthetase, in Streptomyces lividans TK24 further confirmed the involvement of the analyzed genes in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic.
Project description:Streptomyces roseochromogenes subsp. oscitans DS 12.976 is the producer of the gyrase-inhibiting aminocoumarin antibiotic clorobiocin. Here, we present a draft genome sequence of this strain, in which we identified the clorobiocin gene cluster as well as an unusually high number (43) of further putative secondary metabolite clusters.