Neurotensin modulates pacemaker activity in interstitial cells of Cajal from the mouse small intestine.
ABSTRACT: Neurotensin, a tridecapeptide localized in the gut to discrete enteroendocrine cells of the small bowel mucosa, is a hormone that plays an important role in gastrointestinal secretion, growth, and motility. Neurotensin has inhibitory and excitatory effects on peristaltic activity and produces contractile and relaxant responses in intestinal smooth muscle. Our objective in this study is to investigate the effects of neurotensin in small intestinal interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and elucidate the mechanism. To determine the electrophysiological effects of neurotensin on ICC, whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in cultured ICC from the small intestine. Exposure to neurotensin depolarized the membrane of pacemaker cells and produced tonic inward pacemaker currents. Only neurotensin receptor1 was identified when RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry were performed with mRNA isolated from small intestinal ICC and c-Kit positive cells. Neurotensin-induced tonic inward pacemaker currents were blocked by external Na?-free solution and in the presence of flufenamic acid, an inhibitor of non-selective cation channels. Furthermore, neurotensin-induced action is blocked either by treatment with U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, or thapsigargin, a Ca²?-ATPase inhibitor in ICC. We found that neurotensin increased spontaneous intracellular Ca²? oscillations as seen with fluo4/AM recording. These results suggest that neurotensin modulates pacemaker currents via the activation of non-selective cation channels by intracellular Ca²?-release through neurotensin receptor1.
Project description:In this study we determined whether or not 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) has an effect on the pacemaker activities of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) from the mouse small intestine. The actions of 5-HT on pacemaker activities were investigated using a whole-cell patch-clamp technique, intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) analysis, and RT-PCR in ICC. Exogenously-treated 5-HT showed tonic inward currents on pacemaker currents in ICC under the voltage-clamp mode in a dose-dependent manner. Based on RT-PCR results, we found the existence of 5-HT(2B, 3, 4, and 7) receptors in ICC. However, SDZ 205557 (a 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist), SB 269970 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist), 3-tropanylindole - 3 - carboxylate methiodide (3-TCM; a 5-HT(3) antagonist) blocked the 5-HT-induced action on pacemaker activity, but not SB 204741 (a 5-HT(2B) receptor antagonist). Based on [Ca(2+)](i) analysis, we found that 5-HT increased the intensity of [Ca(2+)](i). The treatment of PD 98059 or JNK II inhibitor blocked the 5-HT-induced action on pacemaker activity of ICC, but not SB 203580. In summary, these results suggest that 5-HT can modulate pacemaker activity through 5-HT(3, 4, and 7) receptors via [Ca(2+)](i) mobilization and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases.
Project description:Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are the pacemaker cells that generate the rhythmic oscillation responsible for the production of slow waves in gastrointestinal smooth muscle. Spingolipids are known to present in digestive system and are responsible for multiple important physiological and pathological processes. In this study, we are interested in the action of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) on ICC. S1P depolarized the membrane and increased tonic inward pacemaker currents. FTY720 phosphate (FTY720P, an S1P(1,3,4,5) agonist) and SEW 2871 (an S1P(1) agonist) had no effects on pacemaker activity. Suramin (an S1P(3) antagonist) did not block the S1P-induced action on pacemaker currents. However, JTE-013 (an S1P(2) antagonist) blocked the S1P-induced action. RT-PCR revealed the presence of the S1P(2) in ICC. Calphostin C (a protein kinase C inhibitor), NS-398 (a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor), PD 98059 (a p42/44 inhibitor), or SB 203580 (a p38 inhibitor) had no effects on S1P-induced action. However, c-jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor II suppressed S1P-induced action. External Ca(2+)-free solution or thapsigargin (a Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum) suppressed action of S1P on ICC. In recording of intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) concentration using fluo-4/AM S1P increased intensity of spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations in ICC. These results suggest that S1P can modulate pacemaker activity of ICC through S1P(2) via regulation of external and internal Ca(2+) and mitogenactivated protein kinase activation.
Project description:Electrical pacemaker activity generates phasic contractions and motility patterns such as segmentation and peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract. Pacemaker currents are generated in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), which release Ca2+ from intracellular stores that stimulates Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCCs) in the plasma membrane. Thus, Ca2+ stores must be maintained to sustain pacemaker activity. Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) facilitates the refilling of Ca2+ stores by a mechanism dependent upon interactions between STIM and Orai proteins. We investigated the role of SOCE in ICC pacemaker activity. Reintroduction of extracellular Ca2+ in store-depleted ICC resulted in CaCC activation. Blocking CaCCs revealed an inwardly rectifying current with properties of a Ca2+ release-activated current (ICRAC). An inhibitory peptide that interfered with the STIM-Orai interaction blocked ICRAC in HEK 293 cells expressing STIM1 and Orai1 and blocked spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs) and slow wave currents in ICC. STICs, which are fundamental pacemaker events in ICC, were blocked by an Orai antagonist. Imaging of Ca2+ transients linked to pacemaker activity in ICC in intact muscles showed that the Orai antagonist blocked Ca2+ transients in ICC. These data suggest that Ca2+ recovery through STIM-Orai interactions is necessary to maintain ICC pacemaker activity.
Project description:Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are pacemaker cells that generate electrical slow waves in gastrointestinal (GI) smooth muscles. Slow waves organize basic motor patterns, such as peristalsis and segmentation in the GI tract. Slow waves depend upon activation of Ca2+-activated Cl- channels (CaCC) encoded by Ano1. Slow waves consist of an upstroke depolarization and a sustained plateau potential that is the main factor leading to excitation-contraction coupling. The plateau phase can last for seconds in some regions of the GI tract. How elevated Ca2+ is maintained throughout the duration of slow waves, which is necessary for sustained activation of CaCC, is unknown. Modeling has suggested a role for Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in regulating CaCC currents in ICC, so we tested this idea on murine intestinal ICC. ICC of small and large intestine express NCX isoforms. NCX3 is closely associated with ANO1 in ICC, as shown by immunoprecipitation and proximity ligation assays (PLA). KB-R7943, an inhibitor of NCX, increased CaCC current in ICC, suggesting that NCX, acting in Ca2+ exit mode, helps to regulate basal [Ca2+] i in these cells. Shifting NCX into Ca2+ entry mode by replacing extracellular Na+ with Li+ increased spontaneous transient inward currents (STICs), due to activation of CaCC. Stepping ICC from -80 to -40 mV activated slow wave currents that were reduced in amplitude and duration by NCX inhibitors, KB-R7943 and SN-6, and enhanced by increasing the NCX driving force. SN-6 reduced the duration of clustered Ca2+ transients that underlie the activation of CaCC and the plateau phase of slow waves. Our results suggest that NCX participates in slow waves as modeling has predicted. Dynamic changes in membrane potential and ionic gradients during slow waves appear to flip the directionality of NCX, facilitating removal of Ca2+ during the inter-slow wave interval and providing Ca2+ for sustained activation of ANO1 during the slow wave plateau phase.
Project description:The insect neuropeptide pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) is a functional ortholog of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, the coupling factor of the mammalian circadian pacemaker. Despite of PDF's importance for synchronized circadian locomotor activity rhythms its signaling is not well understood. We studied PDF signaling in primary cell cultures of the accessory medulla, the circadian pacemaker of the Madeira cockroach. In Ca²? imaging studies four types of PDF-responses were distinguished. In regularly bursting type 1 pacemakers PDF application resulted in dose-dependent long-lasting increases in Ca²? baseline concentration and frequency of oscillating Ca²? transients. Adenylyl cyclase antagonists prevented PDF-responses in type 1 cells, indicating that PDF signaled via elevation of intracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, in type 2 pacemakers PDF transiently raised intracellular Ca²? levels even after blocking adenylyl cyclase activity. In patch clamp experiments the previously characterized types 1-4 could not be identified. Instead, PDF-responses were categorized according to ion channels affected. Application of PDF inhibited outward potassium or inward sodium currents, sometimes in the same neuron. In a comparison of Ca²? imaging and patch clamp experiments we hypothesized that in type 1 cells PDF-dependent rises in cAMP concentrations block primarily outward K? currents. Possibly, this PDF-dependent depolarization underlies PDF-dependent phase advances of pacemakers. Finally, we propose that PDF-dependent concomitant modulation of K? and Na? channels in coupled pacemakers causes ultradian membrane potential oscillations as prerequisite to efficient synchronization via resonance.
Project description:Like the heart, intestinal smooth muscles exhibit electrical rhythmicity, which originates in pacemaker cells surrounding the myenteric plexus, called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY). In large mammals, ICC also line septa (ICC-SEP) between circular muscle (CM) bundles, suggesting they might be necessary for activating muscle bundles. It is important to determine their functional significance, because a loss of ICC in humans is associated with disordered motility. Our aims were therefore to determine the role of ICC-SEP in activating the thick CM in the human jejunum.The mucosa and submucosa were removed and muscle strips were cut and pinned in cross-section so that the ICC-MY and ICC-SEP networks and the CM could be readily visualized. The ICC networks and CM were loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator fluo-4, and pacemaker and muscle activity was recorded at 36.5 +/- 0.5( degrees )C.Ca(2+) imaging revealed that pacemaker activity in human ICC-MY can entrain ICC-SEP to excite CM bundles. Unlike the heart, pacemaker activity in ICC-MY varied in amplitude, propagation distance, and direction, leading to a sporadic activation of ICC-SEP.ICC-SEP form a crucial conduction pathway for spreading excitation deep into muscle bundles of the human jejunum, necessary for motor patterns underlying mixing. A loss of these cells could severely affect motor activity.
Project description:Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) generate electrical slow waves by coordinated openings of ANO1 channels, a Ca2+-activated Cl- (CaCC) conductance. Efflux of Cl- during slow waves must be significant, as there is high current density during slow-wave currents and slow waves are of sufficient magnitude to depolarize the syncytium of smooth muscle cells and PDGFR?+ cells to which they are electrically coupled. We investigated how the driving force for Cl- current is maintained in ICC. We found robust expression of Slc12a2 (which encodes an Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter, NKCC1) and immunohistochemical confirmation that NKCC1 is expressed in ICC. With the use of the gramicidin permeabilized-patch technique, which is reported to not disturb [Cl-]i, the reversal potential for spontaneous transient inward currents (ESTICs) was -10.5 mV. This value corresponds to the peak of slow waves when they are recorded directly from ICC in situ. Inhibition of NKCC1 with bumetanide shifted ESTICs to more negative potentials within a few minutes and reduced pacemaker activity. Bumetanide had no direct effects on ANO1 or CaV3.2 channels expressed in HEK293 cells or L-type Ca2+ currents. Reducing extracellular Cl- to 10 mM shifted ESTICs to positive potentials as predicted by the Nernst equation. The relatively rapid shift in ESTICs when NKCC1 was blocked suggests that significant changes in the transmembrane Cl- gradient occur during the slow-wave cycle, possibly within microdomains formed between endoplasmic reticulum and the plasma membrane in ICC. Recovery of Cl- via NKCC1 might have additional consequences on shaping the waveforms of slow waves via Na+ entry into microdomains.
Project description:Diabetes affects many organs including the stomach. Altered number and function of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the gastrointestinal pacemaker cells, underlie a number of gastrointestinal motility disorders, including diabetic gastroparesis. In the muscle layers, ICC selectively express Ano1, thought to underlie classical Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents. Mice homozygous for Ano1 knock-out exhibit abnormal ICC function and motility. Several transcripts for Ano1 are generated by alternative splicing of four exons. Here, we report expression levels of transcripts encoded by alternative splicing of Ano1 gene in gastric muscles of patients with diabetic gastroparesis and nondiabetic control tissues. Expression of mRNA from two alternatively transcribed exons are significantly different between patients and controls. Furthermore, patients with diabetic gastroparesis express mRNA for a previously unknown variant of Ano1. The 5' end of this novel variant lacks exons 1 and 2 and part of exon 3. Expression of this variant in HEK cells produces a decreased density of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) currents that exhibit slower kinetics compared with the full-length Ano1. These results identify important changes in expression and splicing of Ano1 in patients with diabetic gastroparesis that alter the electrophysiological properties of the channel. Changes in Ano1 expression in ICC may directly contribute to diabetic gastroparesis.
Project description:Proper expression and function of the cardiac pacemaker is a critical feature of heart physiology. Two main mechanisms have been proposed: (i) the "voltage-clock," where the hyperpolarization-activated funny current If causes diastolic depolarization that triggers action potential cycling; and (ii) the "Ca(2+) clock," where cyclical release of Ca(2+) from Ca(2+) stores depolarizes the membrane during diastole via activation of the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger. Nonetheless, these mechanisms remain controversial. Here, we used human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hESC-CMs) to study their autonomous beating mechanisms. Combined current- and voltage-clamp recordings from the same cell showed the so-called "voltage and Ca(2+) clock" pacemaker mechanisms to operate in a mutually exclusive fashion in different cell populations, but also to coexist in other cells. Blocking the "voltage or Ca(2+) clock" produced a similar depolarization of the maximal diastolic potential (MDP) that culminated by cessation of action potentials, suggesting that they converge to a common pacemaker component. Using patch-clamp recording, real-time PCR, Western blotting, and immunocytochemistry, we identified a previously unrecognized Ca(2+)-activated intermediate K(+) conductance (IK(Ca), KCa3.1, or SK4) in young and old stage-derived hESC-CMs. IK(Ca) inhibition produced MDP depolarization and pacemaker suppression. By shaping the MDP driving force and exquisitely balancing inward currents during diastolic depolarization, IK(Ca) appears to play a crucial role in human embryonic cardiac automaticity.
Project description:Pacemaker depolarization in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) is believed to be induced by Ca2+ transients and activation of anoctamin-1 (Ano1) channels in the plasma membrane. However, block of store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) or the Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC1) terminates pacemaker activity in ICC, indicating these transporters are involved in the initiation or maintenance of pacemaker activity. We hypothesized that SOCE contributes to pacemaker depolarization by maintaining [Ca2+] in the endoplasmic reticulum, which is the underlying source of Ca2+ transients for activation of Ano1. NKCC1 maintains the Cl- gradient supporting the driving force for inward current mediated by Ano1. Currently mechanisms sustaining release of Ca2+ and activation of Ano1 channels during the plateau phase of slow waves are unknown, but the reverse mode of the Na+/Ca2+ exchange may contribute. We generated a mathematical model of pacemaker activity based on current empirical observations from ICC of mouse small intestine that incorporates functions of SOCE and NKCC1. This model reproduces experimental findings, suggesting roles for SOCE and Ano1 channels: blocking of either NKCC1 or SOCE in our model terminates pacemaker activity. Direct contribution of NKCC1 to pacemaker activity in a beat-to-beat manner is not predicted by our model. Instead, NKCC1 plays a maintenance role supporting the driving force for Cl- efflux. Incorporation of SOCE allows the model to drive pacemaker activity without a diastolic depolarization, as observed in cardiac pacemaking. Further biological experiments are necessary to validate and further refine the roles of NKCC1, Na+/Ca2+ exchange, and Ano1 in the pacemaker mechanism of ICC.