ABSTRACT: Abiotic stresses are major environmental factors that affect agricultural productivity worldwide. NAC transcription factors play pivotal roles in abiotic stress signaling in plants. As a staple crop, wheat production is severely constrained by abiotic stresses whereas only a few NAC transcription factors have been characterized functionally. To promote the application of NAC genes in wheat improvement by biotechnology, a novel NAC gene designated TaNAC67 was characterized in common wheat. To determine its role, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaNAC67-GFP controlled by the CaMV-35S promoter was generated and subjected to various abiotic stresses for morphological and physiological assays. Gene expression showed that TaNAC67 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold and ABA treatments. Localization assays revealed that TaNAC67 localized in the nucleus. Morphological analysis indicated the transgenics had enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, simultaneously supported by enhanced expression of multiple abiotic stress responsive genes and improved physiological traits, including strengthened cell membrane stability, retention of higher chlorophyll contents and Na(+) efflux rates, improved photosynthetic potential, and enhanced water retention capability. Overexpression of TaNAC67 resulted in pronounced enhanced tolerances to drought, salt and freezing stresses, therefore it has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerance in crops.
Project description:Environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold are major factors that significantly limit agricultural productivity. NAC transcription factors play essential roles in response to various abiotic stresses. However, the paucity of wheat NAC members functionally characterized to date does not match the importance of this plant as a world staple crop. Here, the function of TaNAC2 was characterized in Arabidopsis thaliana. A fragment of TaNAC2 was obtained from suppression subtractive cDNA libraries of wheat treated with polyethylene glycol, and its full-length cDNA was obtained by searching a full-length wheat cDNA library. Gene expression profiles indicated that TaNAC2 was involved in response to drought, salt, cold, and abscisic acid treatment. To test its function, transgenic Arabidopsis lines overexpressing TaNAC2-GFP controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. Overexpression of TaNAC2 resulted in enhanced tolerances to drought, salt, and freezing stresses in Arabidopsis, which were simultaneously demonstrated by enhanced expression of abiotic stress-response genes and several physiological indices. Therefore, TaNAC2 has potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerances in crops.
Project description:NAC transcription factors play diverse roles in plant development and responses to abiotic stresses. However, the biological roles of NAC family members in wheat are not well understood. Here, we reported the isolation and functional characterization of a novel wheat TaNAC47 gene. TaNAC47 encoded protein, localizing in the nucleus, is able to bind to the ABRE cis-element and transactivate transcription in yeast, suggesting that it likely functions as a transcriptional activator. We also showed that TaNAC47 is differentially expressed in different tissues, and its expression was induced by the stress treatments of salt, cold, polyethylene glycol and exogenous abscisic acid. Furthermore, overexpression of TaNAC47 in Arabidopsis resulted in ABA hypersensitivity and enhancing tolerance of transgenic plants to drought, salt, and freezing stresses. Strikingly, overexpression of TaNAC47 was found to activate the expression of downstream genes and change several physiological indices that may enable transgenic plants to overcome unfavorable environments. Taken together, these results uncovered an important role of wheat TaNAC47 gene in response to ABA and abiotic stresses.
Project description:Osmotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold are major environmental factors that limit agricultural productivity worldwide. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation are major signalling events induced by osmotic stress in higher plants. Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase2 family members play essential roles in response to hyperosmotic stresses in Arabidopsis, rice, and maize. In this study, the function of TaSnRK2.4 in drought, salt, and freezing stresses in Arabidopsis was characterized. A translational fusion protein of TaSnRK2.4 with green fluorescent protein showed subcellular localization in the cell membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus. To examine the role of TaSnRK2.4 under various environmental stresses, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing wheat TaSnRK2.4 under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter were generated. Overexpression of TaSnRK2.4 resulted in delayed seedling establishment, longer primary roots, and higher yield under normal growing conditions. Transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaSnRK2.4 had enhanced tolerance to drought, salt, and freezing stresses, which were simultaneously supported by physiological results, including decreased rate of water loss, enhanced higher relative water content, strengthened cell membrane stability, improved photosynthesis potential, and significantly increased osmotic potential. The results show that TaSnRK2.4 is involved in the regulation of enhanced osmotic potential, growth, and development under both normal and stress conditions, and imply that TaSnRK2.4 is a multifunctional regulatory factor in Arabidopsis. Since the overexpression of TaSnRK2.4 can significantly strengthen tolerance to drought, salt, and freezing stresses and does not retard the growth of transgenic Arabidopsis plants under well-watered conditions, TaSnRK2.4 could be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stresses in crops.
Project description:NAC (NAM, no apical meristem; ATAF, Arabidopsis transcription activation factor and CUC, cup-shaped cotyledon) proteins are among the largest transcription factor (TF) families playing fundamental biological processes, including cell expansion and differentiation, and hormone signaling in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study, 172 RsNACs comprising 17 membrane-bound members were identified from the whole radish genome. In total, 98 RsNAC genes were non-uniformly distributed across the nine radish chromosomes. In silico analysis revealed that expression patterns of several NAC genes were tissue-specific such as a preferential expression in roots and leaves. In addition, 21 representative NAC genes were selected to investigate their responses to heavy metals (HMs), salt, heat, drought and abscisic acid (ABA) stresses using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). As a result, differential expressions among these genes were identified where RsNAC023 and RsNAC080 genes responded positively to all stresses except ABA, while RsNAC145 responded more actively to salt, heat and drought stresses compared with other genes. The results provides more valuable information and robust candidate genes for future functional analysis for improving abiotic stress tolerances in radish.
Project description:Ethylene regulates plant abiotic stress responses and tolerances, and ethylene-insensitive3 (EIN3)/EIN3-like (EIL) proteins are the key components of ethylene signal transduction. Although the functions of EIN3/EIL proteins in response to abiotic stresses have been investigated in model plants, little is known in non-model plants, including mulberry (Morus L.), which is an economically important perennial woody plant. We functionally characterized a gene encoding an EIN3-like protein from mulberry, designated as MnEIL3. A quantitative real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of MnEIL3 could be induced in roots and shoot by salt and drought stresses. Arabidopsis overexpressing MnEIL3 exhibited an enhanced tolerance to salt and drought stresses. MnEIL3 overexpression in Arabidopsis significantly upregulated the transcript abundances of ethylene biosynthetic genes. Furthermore, MnEIL3 enhanced the activities of the MnACO1 and MnACS1 promoters, which respond to salt and drought stresses. Thus, MnEIL3 may play important roles in tolerance to abiotic stresses and the expression of ethylene biosynthetic genes.
Project description:Environmental stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold are major adverse factors that significantly affect agricultural productivity. Protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation is a major signalling event induced by osmotic stress in higher plants. Sucrose non-fermenting 1-related protein kinase 2 (SnRK2) family members play essential roles in the response to hyperosmotic stresses in plants. In this study, the TaSnRK2.3 gene, a novel SnRK2 member was cloned, and three copies located on chromosomes 1A, 1B, and 1D were identified in common wheat. TaSnRK2.3 was strongly expressed in leaves, and responded to polyethylene glycol, NaCl, abscisic acid, and cold stresses. To characterize its function, transgenic Arabidopsis overexpressing TaSnRK2.3-GFP controlled by the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter was generated and subjected to severe abiotic stresses. Overexpression of TaSnRK2.3 resulted in an improved root system and significantly enhanced tolerance to drought, salt, and freezing stresses, simultaneously demonstrated by enhanced expression of abiotic stress-responsive genes and ameliorative physiological indices, including a decreased rate of water loss, enhanced cell membrane stability, improved photosynthetic potential, and significantly increased osmotic potential and free proline content under normal and/or stressed conditions. These results demonstrate that TaSnRK2.3 is a multifunctional regulator, with potential for utilization in transgenic breeding for improved abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants.
Project description:NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) transcription factors play important roles in plant biological processes, including phytohormone homeostasis, plant development, and in responses to various environmental stresses.TaNAC29 was introduced into Arabidopsis using the Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated floral dipping method. TaNAC29-overexpression plants were subjected to salt and drought stresses for examining gene functions. To investigate tolerant mechanisms involved in the salt and drought responses, expression of related marker genes analyses were conducted, and related physiological indices were also measured. Expressions of genes were analyzed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).A novel NAC transcription factor gene, designated TaNAC29, was isolated from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Sequence alignment suggested that TaNAC29 might be located on chromosome 2BS. TaNAC29 was localized to the nucleus in wheat protoplasts, and proved to have transcriptional activation activities in yeast. TaNAC29 was expressed at a higher level in the leaves, and expression levels were much higher in senescent leaves, indicating that TaNAC29 might be involved in the senescence process. TaNAC29 transcripts were increased following treatments with salt, PEG6000, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA). To examine TaNAC29 function, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaNAC29 were generated. Germination and root length assays of transgenic plants demonstrated that TaNAC29 overexpression plants had enhanced tolerances to high salinity and dehydration, and exhibited an ABA-hypersensitive response. When grown in the greenhouse, TaNAC29-overexpression plants showed the same tolerance response to salt and drought stresses at both the vegetative and reproductive period, and had delayed bolting and flowering in the reproductive period. Moreover, TaNAC29 overexpression plants accumulated lesser malondialdehyde (MDA), H2O2, while had higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities under high salinity and/or dehydration stress.Our results demonstrate that TaNAC29 plays important roles in the senescence process and response to salt and drought stresses. ABA signal pathway and antioxidant enzyme systems are involved in TaNAC29-mediated stress tolerance mechanisms.
Project description:Arginine is an important medium for the transport and storage of nitrogen, and arginase (also known as arginine amidohydrolase, ARGAH) is responsible for catalyse of arginine into ornithine and urea in plants. In this study, the impact of AtARGAHs on abiotic stress response was investigated by manipulating AtARGAHs expression. In the knockout mutants of AtARGAHs, enhanced tolerances were observed to multiple abiotic stresses including water deficit, salt, and freezing stresses, while AtARGAH1- and AtARGAH2-overexpressing lines exhibited reduced abiotic stress tolerances compared to the wild type. Consistently, the enhanced tolerances were confirmed by the changes of physiological parameters including electrolyte leakage, water loss rate, stomatal aperture, and survival rate. Interestingly, the direct downstream products of arginine catabolism including polyamines and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations significantly increased in the AtARGAHs-knockout lines, but decreased in overexpressing lines under control conditions. Additionally, the AtARGAHs-overexpressing and -knockout lines displayed significantly reduced relative arginine (% of total free amino acids) relative to the wild type. Similarly, reactive oxygen species accumulation was remarkably regulated by AtARGAHs under abiotic stress conditions, as shown from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide radical ( ) concentrations, and antioxidant enzyme activities. Taken together, this is the first report, as far as is known, to provide evidence that AtARGAHs negatively regulate many abiotic stress tolerances, at least partially, attribute to their roles in modulating arginine metabolism and reactive oxygen species accumulation. Biotechnological strategy based on manipulation of AtARGAHs expression will be valuable for future crop breeding.
Project description:Environmental stresses frequently affect plant growth and development, and many genes have been found to be induced by unfavorable environmental conditions. Here, we reported the biological functions of TaNAC2D, a stress-related NAC (NAM, ATAF, and CUC) gene from wheat. TaNAC2D showed transcriptional activator activity in yeast. TaNAC2D-GFP fusion protein was localized in the nucleus of wheat mesophyll protoplasts. TaNAC2D transcript abundance was significantly induced by NaCl, PEG6000, and abscisic acid (ABA) at seedling stage, and repressed by NaCl and PEG6000 at mature plant stage. When TaNAC2D was introduced into Arabidopsis, the 35-day-old soil-grown TaNAC2D-overexpression (TaNAC2D-OX) plants displayed slower stomatal closure, higher water loss rate, and more sensitivity to salt and drought stresses compared with WT plants. In contrast, TaNAC2D-OX seedlings, grown on 1/2 MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of NaCl, Mannitol, and MV, had enhanced tolerances to salt, osmotic and oxidative stresses during seed germination and post-germination periods. The opposite stress-responsive phenotypes of transgenic Arabidopsis were consistent with the expression patterns of TaNAC2D in wheat. Moreover, under high salinity and dehydration conditions, three marker genes, including NCED3, RD29A, and RD29B, were down-regulated in 35-day-old TaNAC2D-OX plants grown in soil and up-regulated in 14-day-old TaNAC2D-OX seedlings grown on 1/2 MS medium. Our results suggest that the change in growth stages and environmental conditions may regulate TaNAC2D's function.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The calcineurin B-like protein (CBL)-interacting protein kinase (CIPK) signaling pathway responds to various abiotic stresses in plants. RESULTS:Wheat CIPK23, isolated from wheat drought transcriptome data set, was induced by multiple abiotic stresses, including drought, salt, and abscisic acid (ABA). Compared with wild-type plants, TaCIPK23-overexpression wheat and Arabidopsis showed an higher survival rate under drought conditions with enhanced germination rate, developed root system, increased accumulation of osmolytes, and reduced water loss rate. Over-expression of TaCIPK23 rendered transgenic plants ABA sensitivity, as evidenced by delayed seed germination and the induction of stomatal closure. Consistent with the ABA-sensitive phenotype, the expression level of drought- and ABA-responsive genes were increased under drought conditions in the transgenic plants. In addition, using yeast two-hybrid system, pull-down and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFc) assays, TaCIPK23 was found to interact with TaCBL1 on the plasma membrane. CONCLUSIONS:These results suggest that TaCIPK23 plays important roles in ABA and drought stress responses, and mediates crosstalk between the ABA signaling pathway and drought stress responses in wheat.