Genes involved in innate immunity associated with asbestos-related fibrotic changes.
ABSTRACT: To determine whether genetic polymorphisms in several candidate genes related to innate immunity and protease-antiprotease balance modify individual susceptibility to develop asbestos-related fibrotic pleuropulmonary changes.Sixteen polymorphisms from nine genes (NLRP3, CARD8, TNF, TGFB1, GC, MMP1, MMP9, MMP12 and TIMP2) were genotyped from 951 Finnish asbestos-exposed workers. The genotype/haplotype data were compared to signs of fibrosis and pleural thickenings using linear and logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounders.A functional polymorphism (Q705K; rs35829419) in the NLRP3 gene was associated with interstitial lung fibrosis (p=0.013), and the TGFB1 rs2241718 SNP with visceral pleural fibrosis (VPF) (p=0.044). In stratified analysis, the carriage of at least one NLRP3 variant allele conferred a 2.5-fold increased risk for pathological interstitial lung fibrosis (OR 2.44, 95% CI 0.97 to 6.14). Conversely, the carriage of at least one TGFB1 rs2241718 variant allele protected against VPF (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.98). The TIMP2 rs2277698 SNP and a haplotype consisting of the TGFB1 rs1800469 and rs1800470 SNPs were associated with the degree of pleural thickening calcification (p=0.037 and p=0.035), and the CARD8 rs2043211 SNP with the greatest thickness of pleural plaques (p=0.015).Our results support the hypothesis that the NLRP3 inflammasome is important in the development of fibrotic lung disease by associating the NLRP3 rs35829419 variant allele with increased risk of asbestos-related interstitial lung fibrosis, and the TGFB1 rs2241718 variant allele with decreased risk of asbestos-related VPF. Polymorphisms in CARD8 and TIMP2 are proposed to modify the development and/or calcification of pleural thickenings.
Project description:BackgroundThis study aimed to investigate the association between NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms and the risk of developing pleural plaques, asbestosis, and malignant mesothelioma (MM), and to study the influence of the interactions between polymorphisms and asbestos exposure on the risk of developing these diseases.MethodsThe case-control study included 416 subjects with pleural plaques, 160 patients with asbestosis, 154 subjects with MM and 149 subjects with no asbestos disease. The NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms were determined using real-time PCR-based methods. In the statistical analysis, standard descriptive statistics was followed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression modelling.ResultsAsbestos exposure (medium and high vs low) was associated with the risk for each studied asbestos-related disease. An increased risk of pleural plaques was found for CARD8 rs2043211 at + TT genotypes (OR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.01-2.16, p = 0.042). When the analysis was performed for MM patients as cases, and pleural plaques patients as controls, a decreased MM risk was observed for carriers of CARD8 rs2043211 TT genotype (OR = 0.52, 95% CI 0.27-1.00, p = 0.049). The interactions between NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 genotypes did not influence the risk of any asbestos-related disease. However, when testing interactions with asbestos exposure, a decreased risk of asbestosis was found for NLRP3 CA+AA genotypes (OR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01-0.60, p = 0.014).ConclusionsThe results of our study suggest that NLRP3 and CARD8 polymorphisms could affect the risk of asbestos-related diseases.
Project description:NRLP1 (rs12150220, rs9889625, rs9900356, rs6502867, rs2670660) and NLRP3 (rs35829419, rs10754558) polymorphisms have been analyzed in 69 subjects with documented asbestos exposure and death for malignant pleural mesothelioma and 59 patients with documented asbestos exposure but death for other causes, all from a North East Italy. No association was found between NLRP1 and NLRP3 polymorphisms and susceptibility to develop mesothelioma using the general, dominant or recessive models. Also haplotype analysis did not reveal any significant association with mesothelioma. Our findings, being controversial with respect to another study on Italian patients, do suggest the need of further studies to unravel the contribution of NLRP1 and NLRP3 in susceptibility to mesothelioma.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The activation of NLRP3-inflammasome may contribute to inflammatory processes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Functional polymorphisms in the genes coding for its components NLRP3 and CARD8 were associated with a proinflammatory phenotype. Our aim was to investigate the influence of these polymorphisms on RA susceptibility and disease activity at the time of diagnosis and after six months of treatment. METHODS:A group of 128 RA patients treated with methotrexate and 122 healthy controls were genotyped for NLRP3 rs35829419 (p. Q705K) and CARD8 rs2043211 (p. C10X) polymorphisms. RESULTS:RA susceptibility was not influenced by the investigated polymorphisms or their interaction. The investigated polymorphisms explained 8% of variability in DAS28 at the time of diagnosis. Carriers of NLRP3 rs35829419 or CARD8 rs2043211 polymorphisms had significantly higher DAS28 at the time of diagnosis (p=0.003; p=0.022; respectively). Polymorphic CARD8 rs2043211 TT genotype was also associated with higher DAS28 after six months of treatment (p=0.033). CONCLUSIONS:Genetic variability of inflammasome components may contribute to higher disease activity at the time of diagnosis and after 6 months of methotrexate treatment in RA patients. Better understanding of the immunological mechanisms behind a more active course of RA may suggest novel treatment approaches in a subset of patients with a proinflammatory phenotype.
Project description:Genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for inflammasome components nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain leucine rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) and caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 8 (CARD8) have been associated with autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. On the other hand several studies suggested that NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to maintenance of gastrointestinal immune homeostasis and that activation of NLRP3 is regulated by protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22). PTPN22 polymorphism was implicated in the risk for various autoimmune diseases including type 1 diabetes (T1D) but not for celiac disease (CD). The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of inflammasome related polymorphisms in subjects with either T1D or CD as well as in subjects affected by both diseases. We examined PTPN22 rs2476601 (p.Arg620Trp), NLRP3 rs35829419 (p.Gln705Lys), and CARD8 rs2043211 (p.Cys10Ter) in 66 subjects with coexisting T1D and CD, 65 subjects with T1D who did not develop CD, 67 subjects diagnosed only with CD and 127 healthy unrelated Slovenian individuals. All results were adjusted for clinical characteristic and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk. PTPN22 rs2476601 allele was significantly more frequent among subjects with T1D (Padj = 0.001) and less frequent in subjects with CD (Padj = 0.039) when compared to controls. In patients with coexisting T1D and CD this variant was significantly less frequent compared to T1D group (Padj = 0.010). Protective effect on CD development in individuals with T1D was observed only within the low risk HLA group. On the other hand, we found no association of NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211 with the development of T1D, CD or both diseases together. In conclusion PTPN22 rs2476601polymorphism was significantly associated with the risk of developing T1D in Slovenian population, while no associations of proinflammatory NLRP3 and CARD8 polymorphisms with T1D and CD were observed. Interestingly, the same PTPN22 variant protected from CD. We hypothesize that this effect may be mediated through the NLRP3 inflammasome activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:It is generally accepted that poor glycemic control, arterial hypertension and/or hyperlipidemia, and the associated oxidative stress may contribute to the development of macro- and microvascular complications in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Such metabolic damage signals may activate inflammasome and trigger chronic inflammation. We investigated common polymorphisms in inflammasome coding genes and the risk for macro- and microvascular complications in T2D. METHODS:In total 181 clinically well-characterised T2D patients were genotyped for NLRP3 rs35829419 and CARD8 rs2043211. Risk for diabetic complications was assessed using logistic regression. RESULTS:Patients with median duration of T2D 11 (6-17) years had relatively well controlled blood glucose and lipid levels and blood pressure on the prescribed treatment regimen. Duration of T2D and plasma cholesterol levels were the most important clinical risk factors for macrovascular complications (P = 0.007 and P = 0.031). NLRP3 rs35829419 was associated with increased risk for macrovascular complications (P = 0.004), with myocardial infarction in particular (P = 0.052). No association was observed between CARD8 polymorphism and any of T2D complications. CONCLUSIONS:Our preliminary data suggest the role of NLRP3 polymorphism in diabetic macrovascular complications, especially in myocardial infarction.
Project description:Pleural fibrosis and malignant mesotheliomas (MM) occur after exposures to pathogenic fibers, yet the mechanisms initiating these diseases are unclear.We document priming and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in human mesothelial cells by asbestos and erionite that is causally related to release of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF). Transcription and release of these proteins are inhibited in vitro using Anakinra, an IL-1 receptor antagonist that reduces these cytokines in a human peritoneal MM mouse xenograft model.These novel data show that asbestos-induced priming and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome triggers an autocrine feedback loop modulated via the IL-1 receptor in mesothelial cell type targeted in pleural infection, fibrosis, and carcinogenesis.
Project description:Chronic inflammation is a pivotal contributor to the liver damage mediated by hepatitis C virus (HCV). The NOD-like receptor, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome is activated by HCV in both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells. The aim of our study was to investigate the association of nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms in four inflammasome genes (NLRP3, CARD8, IL-1?, and IL-18) with the susceptibility to HCV infection and outcome of interferon treatment in 201 Egyptian chronic hepatitis C patients and 95 healthy controls. The genotyping was conducted using TaqMan predesigned SNP assay. In the comparative analysis, the CC genotype of the NLRP3 rs1539019 was found to be associated with the lower risk to chronic HCV infection (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.17-0.62). This association was also found for the CA genotype and the A allele of the NLRP3 rs35829419 (OR: 0.18 and 0.22, respectively), in addition to the GG genotype and G allele of IL-18 rs1946518 (OR: 0.55 and 0.61, respectively). In contrast, the AA genotype of the IL-1? rs1143629 was significantly more frequent in HCV patients (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1-2.86). Notably, the frequency of the AA genotype of NLRP3 rs1539019 was significantly higher in patients with lack of response (NR) to the interferon treatment (OR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1-3.7). A similar association was found for both the CC genotype and C allele of the NLRP3 rs35829419 (OR: 2.78 and 2.73, respectively) and for the TT genotype and T allele of CARD8 rs2043211 (OR: 2.64 and 1.54, respectively). Yet, the IL-1? (rs1143629, rs1143634) and IL-18 (rs187238, rs1946518) polymorphisms did not show any significant association with response to interferon treatment. In conclusion, this study reports, for the first time, the association of genetic variations in NLRP3 with hepatitis C susceptibility and response to treatment in Egyptian patients. However, further large-scale studies are recommended to confirm our findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare fibroinflammatory disease that leads to hydronephrosis and renal failure. In a case-control study, we have recently shown that asbestos exposure was the most important risk factor for RPF in the Finnish population. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of asbestos exposure to radiologically confirmed lung and pleural fibrosis among patients with RPF. METHODS: Chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was performed on 16 unexposed and 22 asbestos-exposed RPF patients and 18 asbestos-exposed controls. Parietal pleural plaques (PPP), diffuse pleural thickening (DPT) and parenchymal fibrosis were scored separately. RESULTS: Most of the asbestos-exposed RPF patients and half of the asbestos-exposed controls had bilateral PPP, but only a few had lung fibrosis. Minor bilateral plaques were detected in two of the unexposed RPF patients, and none had lung fibrosis. DPT was most frequent and thickest in the asbestos-exposed RPF-patients. In three asbestos-exposed patients with RPF we observed exceptionally large pleural masses that were located anteriorly in the pleural space and continued into the anterior mediastinum.Asbestos exposure was associated with DPT in comparisons between RPF patients and controls (case-control analysis) as well as among RPF patients (case-case analysis). CONCLUSION: The most distinctive feature of the asbestos-exposed RPF patients was a thick DPT. An asbestos-related pleural finding was common in the asbestos-exposed RPF patients, but only a few of these patients had parenchymal lung fibrosis. RPF without asbestos exposure was not associated with pleural or lung fibrosis. The findings suggest a shared etiology for RPF and pleural fibrosis and furthermore possibly a similar pathogenetic mechanisms.
Project description:UNLABELLED: BACKGROUND:An increasing incidence of malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases in patients with low levels of asbestos exposure suggests the interference of alternative cofactors. SV40 infection was detected, as co-morbidity factor, only in 22% of asbestos-MM patients from a North-Eastern Italy area. An additional mechanism of injury related to asbestos exposure in MM development has been recently associated to inflammatory responses, principally driven by interleukin (IL)-1 beta (ß) activated within the inflammasome complex.NLRP3 inflammosome has been described as the intracellular sensor for asbestos able to induce inflammasome activation and IL-1ß secretion while NLRP1 is expressed in lung epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages and contributes to the immune response and to survival/apoptosis balance. This study proposes to evaluate the impact of known NLRP3 and NLRP1 polymorphisms in the individual susceptibility to asbestos-induced mesothelioma in subjects from a hyperendemic area for MM. METHODS:134 Italian patients with diagnosis of mesothelioma due (MMAE, n=69) or not (MMAF, n=65) to asbestos, 256 healthy Italian blood donors and 101 Italian healthy subjects exposed to asbestos (HCAE) were genotyped for NLRP1 (rs2670660 and rs12150220) and NLRP3 (rs35829419 and rs10754558) polymorphisms. RESULTS:While NLRP3 SNPs were not associated to mesothelioma, the NLRP1 rs12150220 allele T was significantly more frequent in MMAE (0.55) than in HCAE (0.41) (p=0.011; OR=1.79) suggesting a predisponent effect of this allele on the development of mesothelioma. This effect was amplified when the NLRP1 rs2670660 allele was combined with the NLRP1 rs12150220 allele (p=0.004; OR=0.52). CONCLUSION:Although NLRP3 SNPs was not involved in mesothelioma predisposition, these data proposed NLRP1 as a novel factor possibly involved in the development of mesothelioma.
Project description:Inflammation is a multifaceted process that underlies the pathophysiology of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Variations in the inflammasome-related NLRP3 gene have been associated with risk for a number of different inflammatory diseases. Therefore, Q705K polymorphism in NLRP3 gene likely confers susceptibility to risk for MI. A First-ever myocardial Infarction study in Ac-county (FIA) cohort comprising 555 MI patients and 1,016 controls was used to genotype rs35829419 in the NLRP3 gene by TaqMan single-nucleotide polymorphism assay. C-reactive protein (CRP) was measured in the study participants by ELISA. The results showed no significant association between the variant rs35829419 and MI. However, the minor A allele of the rs35829419 polymorphism conferred a protective effect against the risk of developing MI in females. The minor A allele of rs35829419 polymorphism was also associated with increased CRP levels in males. Results of the study suggested a gender-specific deregulation of NLRP3 gene mediated by rs35829419 polymorphism that confers protection against MI in females but has no effect on MI susceptibility in males. However, the rs35829419 polymorphism was associated with increased CRP levels among the male subjects, thereby demonstrating the possible effect of the Q705K polymorphism in elevating the basal active state of innate immune response.