Artificial weathering as a function of CO2 injection in Pahang Sandstone Malaysia: investigation of dissolution rate in surficial condition.
ABSTRACT: Formation of carbonate minerals by CO2 sequestration is a potential means to reduce atmospheric CO2 emissions. Vast amount of alkaline and alkali earth metals exist in silicate minerals that may be carbonated. Laboratory experiments carried out to study the dissolution rate in Pahang Sandstone, Malaysia, by CO2 injection at different flow rate in surficial condition. X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and weight losses measurement were performed to analyze the solid and liquid phase before and after the reaction process. The weight changes and mineral dissolution caused by CO2 injection for two hours CO2 bubbling and one week' aging were 0.28% and 18.74%, respectively. The average variation of concentrations of alkaline earth metals in solution varied from 22.62% for Ca(2+) to 17.42% for Mg(2+), with in between 16.18% observed for the alkali earth metal, potassium. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test is performed to determine significant differences of the element concentration, including Ca, Mg, and K, before and after the reaction experiment. Such changes show that the deposition of alkali and alkaline earth metals and the dissolution of required elements in sandstone samples are enhanced by CO2 injection.
Project description:Interactions between injected CO2, brine, and rock during CO2 sequestration in deep saline aquifers alter their natural hydro-mechanical properties, affecting the safety, and efficiency of the sequestration process. This study aims to identify such interaction-induced mineralogical changes in aquifers, and in particular their impact on the reservoir rock's flow characteristics. Sandstone samples were first exposed for 1.5 years to a mixture of brine and super-critical CO2 (scCO2), then tested to determine their altered geochemical and mineralogical properties. Changes caused uniquely by CO2 were identified by comparison with samples exposed over a similar period to either plain brine or brine saturated with N2. The results show that long-term reaction with CO2 causes a significant pH drop in the saline pore fluid, clearly due to carbonic acid (as dissolved CO2) in the brine. Free H(+) ions released into the pore fluid alter the mineralogical structure of the rock formation, through the dissolution of minerals such as calcite, siderite, barite, and quartz. Long-term CO2 injection also creates a significant CO2 drying-out effect and crystals of salt (NaCl) precipitate in the system, further changing the pore structure. Such mineralogical alterations significantly affect the saline aquifer's permeability, with important practical consequences for the sequestration process.
Project description:It is well known that graphite has a low capacity for Na but a high capacity for other alkali metals. The growing interest in alternative cation batteries beyond Li makes it particularly important to elucidate the origin of this behavior, which is not well understood. In examining this question, we find a quite general phenomenon: among the alkali and alkaline earth metals, Na and Mg generally have the weakest chemical binding to a given substrate, compared with the other elements in the same column of the periodic table. We demonstrate this with quantum mechanics calculations for a wide range of substrate materials (not limited to C) covering a variety of structures and chemical compositions. The phenomenon arises from the competition between trends in the ionization energy and the ion-substrate coupling, down the columns of the periodic table. Consequently, the cathodic voltage for Na and Mg is expected to be lower than those for other metals in the same column. This generality provides a basis for analyzing the binding of alkali and alkaline earth metal atoms over a broad range of systems.
Project description:Alkaline earth elements and alkali metals (Mg, Ca, Na and K) play an important role in the geochemical evolution of saline lakes as the final brine type is defined by the abundance of these elements. The role of major ions in brine evolution has been studied in great detail, but little has been done to investigate the behaviour of minor alkali elements in these systems despite their similar chemical affinities to the major cations. We have examined three major anionic brine types, chloride, sulphate, and bicarbonate-carbonate, in fifteen lakes in North America and Antarctica to determine the geochemical behaviour of lithium, rubidium, strontium, and barium. Lithium and rubidium are largely conservative in all water types, and their concentrations are the result of long-term solute input and concentration through evaporation and/or sublimation. Strontium and barium behaviours vary with anionic brine type. Strontium can be removed in sulphate and carbonate-rich lakes by the precipitation of carbonate minerals. Barium may be removed in chloride and sulphate brines by either the precipitation of barite and perhaps biological uptake.
Project description:Interactions between supercritical (sc) CO2 and minerals are important when CO2 is injected into geologic formations for storage and as working fluids for enhanced oil recovery, hydraulic fracturing, and geothermal energy extraction. It has previously been shown that at the elevated pressures and temperatures of the deep subsurface, scCO2 alters smectites (typical swelling phyllosilicates). However, less is known about the effects of scCO2 on nonswelling phyllosilicates (illite and muscovite), despite the fact that the latter are the dominant clay minerals in deep subsurface shales and mudstones. Our studies conducted by using single crystals, combining reaction (incubation with scCO2), visualization [atomic force microscopy (AFM)], and quantifications (AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and off-gassing measurements) revealed unexpectedly high CO2 uptake that far exceeded its macroscopic surface area. Results from different methods collectively suggest that CO2 partially entered the muscovite interlayers, although the pathways remain to be determined. We hypothesize that preferential dissolution at weaker surface defects and frayed edges allows CO2 to enter the interlayers under elevated pressure and temperature, rather than by diffusing solely from edges deeply into interlayers. This unexpected uptake of CO2, can increase CO2 storage capacity by up to ?30% relative to the capacity associated with residual trapping in a 0.2-porosity sandstone reservoir containing up to 18 mass % of illite/muscovite. This excess CO2 uptake constitutes a previously unrecognized potential trapping mechanism.
Project description:Copper mining generates large quantities of waste, tailings, and acid outflows causing long-term environmental impacts and potential threats to human health. Valea ?esei is the largest tailing impoundment in Romania, created by flooding the valley (known as Valea ?esei) of the Metalliferous Mountains (a division of the Apuseni Mountains) with copper mining waste. The present study (i) estimated the total volume of tailings in this area; (ii) screened the concentration of 65 elements (rare earth and platinum group elements, alkali metals and alkali earth metals, transition and post-transition metals and metalloids) and cyanide concentrations in wastewater samples collected from tailing impoundment; (iii) evaluated the toxicity of these water samples using five in vitro bioassays employing human cells isolated from healthy donors and a short-term (1 h) exposure model. The sampled waters were highly acidic (pH 2.1-4.9) and had high electrical conductivity (2.80-15.61 mS cm<sup>-1</sup>). No cyanides were detected in any sample. Water samples collected from the stream (AMD) inflowing to the tailing impoundment were characterized by the greatest concentrations of alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition and post-transition metals, metalloids, rare earth elements, and noble metal group. At other sites, the elemental concentrations were lower but remained high enough to pose a relevant risk. The greatest magnitude of in vitro toxic effects was induced by AMD. Observed alterations included redox imbalance in human neutrophils followed by lipid peroxidation and decreased cell survival, significant aggregation of red blood cells, and increased prothrombin time. The study highlights that Valea ?esei is a large sink for toxic elements, posing environmental and health risks, and requiring action to prevent further release of chemicals and to initiate restoration of the area.
Project description:Fluid-mediated mineral dissolution and reprecipitation processes are the most common mineral reaction mechanism in the solid Earth and are fundamental for the Earth's internal dynamics. Element exchange during such mineral reactions is commonly thought to occur via aqueous solutions with the mineral solubility in the coexisting fluid being a rate limiting factor. Here we show in high-pressure/low temperature rocks that element transfer during mineral dissolution and reprecipitation can occur in an alkali-Al-Si-rich amorphous material that forms directly by depolymerization of the crystal lattice and is thermodynamically decoupled from aqueous solutions. Depolymerization starts along grain boundaries and crystal lattice defects that serve as element exchange pathways and are sites of porosity formation. The resulting amorphous material occupies large volumes in an interconnected porosity network. Precipitation of product minerals occurs directly by repolymerization of the amorphous material at the product surface. This mechanism allows for significantly higher element transport and mineral reaction rates than aqueous solutions with major implications for the role of mineral reactions in the dynamic Earth.
Project description:Different kinds of aluminosilicate minerals were employed to fabricate CoAl2O4 hybrid pigment for studying its formation and coloring mechanism. It revealed that the color of the obtained hybrid pigments was determined by the content of Al2O3 and lightness of clay minerals. The higher the Al2O3 content and the lightness of clay minerals, the better the color parameters of hybrid pigments. During the preparation of hybrid pigments, CoAl2O4 nanoparticles were confined to be loaded on the surface of the aluminosilicate minerals, which effectively prevented from the aggregation and the size increase of CoAl2O4 nanoparticles. What's more, aluminosilicate mineral might be an ideal natural aluminum source to compensate the aluminum loss due to the dissolution of Al(OH)3 at alkaline medium during precursor preparation, keeping an optimum molar ratio of Co2+/Al3+ for formation of spinel CoAl2O4 pigments in the process of high-temperature crystallization.
Project description:At room environment, all materials can be classified as insulators or metals or in-between semiconductors, by judging whether they are capable of conducting the flow of electrons. One can expect an insulator to convert into a metal and to remain in this state upon further compression, i.e., pressure-induced metallization. Some exceptions were reported recently in elementary metals such as all of the alkali metals and heavy alkaline earth metals (Ca, Sr, and Ba). Here we show that a compound of CLi4 becomes progressively less conductive and eventually insulating upon compression based on ab initio density-functional theory calculations. An unusual path with pressure is found for the phase transition from metal to semimetal, to semiconductor, and eventually to insulator. The Fermi surface filling parameter is used to describe such an antimetallization process.
Project description:7 billion tonnes of alkaline materials are produced globally each year as a product or by-product of industrial activity. The aqueous dissolution of these materials creates high pH solutions that dissolves CO2 to store carbon in the form of solid carbonate minerals or dissolved bicarbonate ions. Here we show that these materials have a carbon dioxide storage potential of 2.9-8.5 billion tonnes per year by 2100, and may contribute a substantial proportion of the negative emissions required to limit global temperature change to <2 °C.
Project description:An important advantage of pattern-based chemosensor sets is their potential to detect and differentiate a large number of analytes with only few sensors. Here we test this principle at a conceptual limit by analyzing a large set of metal ion analytes covering essentially the entire periodic table, employing fluorescent DNA-like chemosensors on solid support. A tetrameric "oligodeoxyfluoroside" (ODF) library of 6561 members containing metal-binding monomers was screened for strong responders to 57 metal ions in solution. Our results show that a set of 9 chemosensors could successfully discriminate the 57 species, including alkali, alkaline earth, post-transition, transition, and lanthanide metals. As few as 6 ODF chemosensors could detect and differentiate 50 metals at 100 ?M; sensitivity for some metals was achieved at midnanomolar ranges. A blind test with 50 metals further confirmed the discriminating power of the ODFs.