Development of a paediatric population-based model of the pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban.
ABSTRACT: Venous thromboembolism has been increasingly recognised as a clinical problem in the paediatric population. Guideline recommendations for antithrombotic therapy in paediatric patients are based mainly on extrapolation from adult clinical trial data, owing to the limited number of clinical trials in paediatric populations. The oral, direct Factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban has been approved in adult patients for several thromboembolic disorders, and its well-defined pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characteristics and efficacy and safety profiles in adults warrant further investigation of this agent in the paediatric population.The objective of this study was to develop and qualify a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for rivaroxaban doses of 10 and 20 mg in adults and to scale this model to the paediatric population (0-18 years) to inform the dosing regimen for a clinical study of rivaroxaban in paediatric patients.Experimental data sets from phase I studies supported the development and qualification of an adult PBPK model. This adult PBPK model was then scaled to the paediatric population by including anthropometric and physiological information, age-dependent clearance and age-dependent protein binding. The pharmacokinetic properties of rivaroxaban in virtual populations of children were simulated for two body weight-related dosing regimens equivalent to 10 and 20 mg once daily in adults. The quality of the model was judged by means of a visual predictive check. Subsequently, paediatric simulations of the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC), maximum (peak) plasma drug concentration (C max) and concentration in plasma after 24 h (C 24h) were compared with the adult reference simulations.Simulations for AUC, C max and C 24h throughout the investigated age range largely overlapped with values obtained for the corresponding dose in the adult reference simulation for both body weight-related dosing regimens. However, pharmacokinetic values in infants and preschool children (body weight <40 kg) were lower than the 90 % confidence interval threshold of the adult reference model and, therefore, indicated that doses in these groups may need to be increased to achieve the same plasma levels as in adults. For children with body weight between 40 and 70 kg, simulated plasma pharmacokinetic parameters (C max, C 24h and AUC) overlapped with the values obtained in the corresponding adult reference simulation, indicating that body weight-related exposure was similar between these children and adults. In adolescents of >70 kg body weight, the simulated 90 % prediction interval values of AUC and C 24h were much higher than the 90 % confidence interval of the adult reference population, owing to the weight-based simulation approach, but for these patients rivaroxaban would be administered at adult fixed doses of 10 and 20 mg.The paediatric PBPK model developed here allowed an exploratory analysis of the pharmacokinetics of rivaroxaban in children to inform the dosing regimen for a clinical study in paediatric patients.
Project description:Background:The EINSTEIN-Jr program will evaluate rivaroxaban for the treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in children, targeting exposures similar to the 20 mg once-daily dose for adults. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for pediatric rivaroxaban dosing has been constructed. Methods:We quantitatively assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a single rivaroxaban dose in children using population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) modelling and assessed the applicability of the PBPK model. Plasma concentration-time data from the EINSTEIN-Jr phase I study were analysed by non-compartmental and PopPK analyses and compared with the predictions of the PBPK model. Two rivaroxaban dose levels, equivalent to adult doses of rivaroxaban 10 mg and 20 mg, and two different formulations (tablet and oral suspension) were tested in children aged 0.5-18 years who had completed treatment for VTE. Results:PK data from 59 children were obtained. The observed plasma concentration-time profiles in all subjects were mostly within the 90% prediction interval, irrespective of dose or formulation. The PopPK estimates and non-compartmental analysis-derived PK parameters (in children aged ≥6 years) were in good agreement with the PBPK model predictions. Conclusions:These results confirmed the applicability of the rivaroxaban pediatric PBPK model in the pediatric population aged 0.5-18 years, which in combination with the PopPK model, will be further used to guide dose selection for the treatment of VTE with rivaroxaban in EINSTEIN-Jr phase II and III studies. Trial registration:ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01145859; registration date: 17 June 2010.
Project description:Long-term use of imatinib is effective and well-tolerated in children with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) yet defining an optimal dosing regimen for imatinib in younger patients is a challenge. The potential interactions between imatinib and coadministered drugs in this "special" population also remains largely unexplored. This study implements a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling approach to investigate optimal dosing regimens and potential drug interactions with imatinib in the paediatric population. A PBPK model for imatinib was developed in the Simcyp Simulator (version 17) utilizing in silico, in vitro drug metabolism, and in vivo pharmacokinetic data and verified using an independent set of published clinical pharmacokinetic data. The model was then extrapolated to children and adolescents (aged 2-18 years) by incorporating developmental changes in organ size and maturation of drug-metabolising enzymes and plasma protein responsible for imatinib disposition. The PBPK model described imatinib pharmacokinetics in adult and paediatric populations and predicted drug interaction with carbamazepine, a cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 and 2C8 inducer, with a good accuracy (evaluated by visual inspections of the simulation results and predicted pharmacokinetic parameters that were within 1.25-fold of the clinically observed values). The PBPK simulation suggests that the optimal dosing regimen range for imatinib is 230-340 mg/m2/d in paediatrics, which is supported by the recommended initial dose for treatment of childhood CML. The simulations also highlighted that children and adults being treated with imatinib have similar vulnerability to CYP modulations. A PBPK model for imatinib was successfully developed with an excellent performance in predicting imatinib pharmacokinetics across age groups. This PBPK model is beneficial to guide optimal dosing regimens for imatinib and predict drug interactions with CYP modulators in the paediatric population.
Project description:AIMS:Carboplatin dosage is calculated by using the estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to achieve a target plasma area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). The aims of the present study were to investigate factors that influence the pharmacokinetics of carboplatin in children with high-risk neuroblastoma, and whether target exposures for carboplatin were achieved using current treatment protocols. METHODS:Data on children receiving high-dose carboplatin, etoposide and melphalan for neuroblastoma were obtained from two study sites [European International Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOP) Neuroblastoma study, Children's Hospital at Westmead; n = 51]. A population pharmacokinetic model was built for carboplatin to evaluate various dosing formulas. The pharmacokinetics of etoposide and melphalan was also investigated. The final model was used to simulate whether target carboplatin AUC (16.4 mg ml-1 ·min) would be achieved using the paediatric Newell formula, modified Calvert formula and weight-based dosing. RESULTS:Allometric weight was the only significant, independent covariate for the pharmacokinetic parameters of carboplatin, etoposide and melphalan. The paediatric Newell formula and modified Calvert formula were suitable for achieving the target AUC of carboplatin for children with a GFR <100 ml min-1 1.73 m-2 but not for those with a GFR ?100 ml min-1 1.73 m-2 . A weight-based dosing regimen of 50 mg kg-1 achieved the target AUC more consistently than the other formulas, regardless of renal function. CONCLUSIONS:GFR did not appear to influence the pharmacokinetics of carboplatin after adjusting pharmacokinetic parameters for weight. This model-based approach validates the use of weight-based dosing as an appropriate alternative for carboplatin in children with either mild renal impairment or normal renal function.
Project description:The aims of the study were to develop a population pharmacokinetic model of orally administered brivaracetam in paediatric patients and to provide dosing suggestions.Analysis included 600 brivaracetam plasma concentrations from a phase 2a study (NCT00422422; N01263) in 96 paediatric patients with epilepsy aged 1 month to 16 years, taking one to three concomitant antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Pharmacokinetic analysis was performed using non-linear mixed effects modelling, and a stepwise covariate search was used to determine factors influencing brivaracetam clearance. Simulations were performed to investigate dosing regimens.The final model consisted of first-order absorption, single compartment distribution and first-order elimination components with allometric scaling of clearance and volume using lean body weight and fixed allometric exponents. Co-administration with phenobarbital or carbamazepine was associated with a 29% (95%CI 17%/39%) and 32% (22%/42%) decrease in exposure, respectively. Co-administration with valproate was associated with an 11% (1%/23%) increase in exposure. Simulations demonstrated that the majority of children were predicted to have an exposure similar to that in adults, using an age-independent dosing regimen of 2.0 mg/kg bid with a maximum of 100 mg bid for body weight >50 kg.A paediatric dose adaptation of 2.0 mg/kg twice daily with a maximum of 100 mg twice daily for body weight >50 kg is predicted to ensure steady-state plasma concentrations in the same range as in adult patients receiving 100 mg twice daily (highest recommended dose). Data suggest no need to change brivaracetam dosing when used concomitantly with carbamazepine, phenobarbital or valproate.
Project description:The aim of the study was to simplify the dosing regimen of peginterferon alfa-2a in paediatric patients with chronic hepatitis C.A population pharmacokinetic (PK) model was developed using PK data from 14 children aged 2-8 years and 402 adults. Simulations were produced to identify a simplified dosing regimen that would provide exposures similar to those observed in the paediatric clinical trials and in the range known to be safe/efficacious in adults. Model predictions were evaluated against observed adult and paediatric data to reinforce confidence of the proposed dosing regimen.The final model was a two compartment model with a zero order resorption process. Covariates included a linear influence of body surface area (BSA) on apparent oral clearance (CL/F) and a linear influence of body weight on apparent volume of distribution of the central compartment (V1 /F). A simplified dosing regimen was developed which is expected to provide exposures in children aged ?5 years similar to the dosing formula used in the paediatric clinical trial and within the range that is safe/efficacious in adults. This simplified regimen is approved in the EU and in other countries for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in treatment-naive children/adolescents aged ?5 years in combination with ribavirin.Pre-existing adult PK data were combined with relatively limited paediatric PK data to develop a PK model able to predict exposure in both populations adequately. This provided increased confidence in characterizing PK in children and helped in the development of a simplified dosing regimen of peginterferon alfa-2a in paediatric patients.
Project description:Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant drug, presents a narrow therapeutic window and a large pharmacokinetic variability with poor correlation between drug dosing regimen and blood concentration. The objective was to identify predictive factors influencing tacrolimus trough concentrations (C0) using a bottom-up approach. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of tacrolimus was proposed, taking into account the body weight, the proportion of fat (P(fat)), hematocrit, lipid fraction of organs, typical intrinsic clearance (CLi(typ)), CYP3A5 genotype of liver donor, plasma unbound fraction of tacrolimus (fu(p)), and concomitant drugs (CYP3A4 inhibitors). For the evaluation of the PBPK model, mean C0 and concentrations 2 h after oral dose of tacrolimus were compared with those from 66 liver transplant recipients included in a multicentric pharmacokinetic study and were found very close. Tacrolimus concentration profiles were simulated in a virtual population defined by a set of covariate values similar to those from the real population. The sensitivity of tacrolimus C0 with respect to each covariate has been tested to identify the most influential ones. With the range of covariate values tested, the impact of each covariate on tacrolimus C0 may be ranked as follows: fu(p), CLi(typ), bioavailability, body weight, hematocrit, CYP3A5 polymorphism, P(fat), and CYP3A4 inhibitory drug-drug interactions. Values for initial dosing regimen of tacrolimus in order to reach a C0 of 10 ng/ml at day 5 (assuming a constant dosing schedule) as a function of CYP3A5 donor genotype and patient's hematocrit and body weight are proposed.
Project description:The protein therapeutic and CD95L inhibitor asunercept is currently under clinical investigation for the treatment of glioblastoma and myelodysplastic syndrome. The purpose of this study was to predict the asunercept pharmacokinetics in children and to give dose recommendations for its first use in pediatric glioblastoma patients. A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model of asunercept in healthy and diseased adults was successfully developed using the available clinical Phase I and Phase II study data. This model was then extrapolated to different pediatric populations, to predict the asunercept exposure in children and to find equivalent starting doses. Simulation of the asunercept serum concentration-time curves in children between 1?18 years of age shows that a dosing regimen based on body weight results in a similar asunercept steady-state exposure in all patients (pediatric or adult) above 12 years of age. For children between 1?12 years, higher doses per kg body weight are recommended, with the highest dose for the very young patients. Translational PBPK modeling is strongly encouraged by regulatory agencies to help with the initial dose selection for pediatric trials. To our knowledge, this is the first report of pediatric PBPK to support the dose selection of a therapeutic protein before its administration to children.
Project description:AIM:The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of bevacizumab and various dosing strategies for this agent in paediatric patients. METHODS:Data were collected from 232 paediatric patients (1971 concentrations) in five studies, with a wide range of age (0.5-21 years), body weight (BWT; 5.9-125 kg), and regimens (5-15 mg kg(-1) biweekly or triweekly). Data from 152 patients (1427 concentrations) and 80 patients (544 concentrations) were used for model building and external validation, respectively. Steady-state exposure was simulated under BWT-based, body surface area (BSA)-based, ideal body weight (IBW)-based, and tier-based doses. NONMEM and R were used for analyses. RESULTS:Typical estimates of clearance, central volume of distribution (V1), and median half-life were 9.04 ml h(-1) , 2851 ml, and 19.6 days, respectively. Clearance decreased with increasing albumin. Clearance and V1 increased with BWT and were higher in male patients. Clearance and V1 were lower in children with primary central nervous system (CNS) tumours than in children with sarcomas, resulting in 49% higher trough (C min) and 29% higher peak (Cmax) concentrations. BWT-adjusted clearance and V1 remained unchanged across ages. Paediatric C min was similar to adult C min under all dosing strategies. Paediatric Cmax exceeded adult Cmax under tier-based doses. CONCLUSIONS:BWT-adjusted pharmacokinetic parameter estimates in paediatric patients were similar to those in adults, and similar across ages. Bevacizumab exposure was higher in children with primary CNS tumours than in children with sarcomas. BSA-based, IBW-based, and tier-based doses offered no substantial advantage over the BWT-based dose currently used in adults for bevacizumab. Given the similarity in pharmacokinetics among many monoclonal antibodies, this may help to develop practical paediatric dosing guidelines for other therapeutic antibodies.
Project description:Applying physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling in paediatric cancer drug development is still challenging. We aimed to demonstrate how PBPK modelling can be applied to optimize dose and sampling times for a paediatric pharmacokinetic (PK) bridging study in oncology and to compare with the allometric scaling population PK (AS-popPK) approach, using docetaxel as an example.A PBPK model for docetaxel was first developed for adult cancer patients using Simcyp® and subsequently used to predict its PK profiles in children by accounting for age-dependent physiological differences. Dose (mg m(-2) ) requirements for children aged 0-18 years were calculated to achieve targeted exposure in adults. Simulated data were then analyzed using population PK modelling with MONOLIX® in order to perform design optimization with the population Fisher information matrix (PFIM). In parallel, the AS-popPK approach was performed for the comparison.The PBPK model developed for docetaxel adequately predicted its PK profiles in both adult and paediatric cancer patients (predicted clearance and volume of distribution within 1.5 fold of observed data). The revised dose of docetaxel for a child over 1.5 years old was higher than the adult dose. Considering clinical constraints, the optimal design contained two groups of 15 patients, having three or four sampling times and had good predicted relative standard errors (RSE<30%) for almost all parameters. The AS-popPK approach performed reasonably well but could not predict for very young children.This research shows the clinical utility of PBPK modelling in combination with population PK modelling and optimal design to support paediatric oncology development.
Project description:Covariate modeling is a key step in the analysis of clinical data and is essential for establishing dosing recommendations for specific populations, e.g., in obese individuals and children. So far, no systematic approach exists to leverage the knowledge inherent in physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models in this context. We introduce (i) a novel approach to model interindividual variability in PBPK models based on lean body weight (LBW); and (ii) a systematic approach to translate interindividual variability into the design of mechanistic covariate models. We derive a new covariate relation for the volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) that seamlessly integrates body weight and LBW as covariates, with a weighting factor depending on the physicochemical properties of the drug. We further show that for children, PBPK-based extrapolation and allometric scaling result in very similar predictions for Vss and blood clearance.CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology (2012) 1, e4; doi:10.1038/psp.2012.3; advance online publication 26 September 2012.