Prokaryotic Expression, Identification and Bioinformatics Analysis of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3807c Gene Encoding the Putative Enzyme Committed to Decaprenylphosphoryl-d-arabinose Synthesis.
ABSTRACT: Decaprenylphosphoryl-d-arabinofuranosyl (DPA), the immediate donor for the polymerized d-Araf residues of mycobacterial arabinan, is synthesized from 5-phosphoribose-1-diphosphate (PRPP) in three-step reactions. (i) PRPP is transferred to decaprenyl-phosphate (DP) to form decaprenylphosphoryl-d-5-phosphoribose (DPPR). (ii) DPPR is dephosphorylated to form decaprenylphosphoryl-d-ribose (DPR). (iii) DPR is formed to DPA by the epimerase. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv3806c and heteromeric Rv3790/Rv3791 have been identified as the PRPP: decaprenyl-phosphate 5-phosphoribosyltransferase and the epimerase respectively. Rv3807c, however, as the candidate of phospholipid phosphatase, catalyzing the biosynthesis of decapreny-l-phosphoryl-ribose (DPR) from decaprenylphosphoryl-?-d-5-phosphoribose by dephosphorylating, has no direct experimental evidence of its essentiality in any species of mycobacterium. In this study, Rv3807c gene was amplified from the genome of M. tuberculosis H37Rv by PCR, and was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) via the recombinant plasmid pColdII-Rv3807c. The resulting protein with the 6× His-tag was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. The protein was predicted through bioinformatics to contain three transmembrane domains, the N-terminal peptide, and a core structure with phosphatidic acid phosphatase type2/haloperoxidase. This study provides biochemical and bioinformatics evidence for the importance of Rv3807c in mycobacteria, and further functional studies will be conducted for validating Rv3807c as a promising phospholipid phosphatase in the synthetic pathway of DPA.
Project description:The enzymes decaprenylphosphoryl-?-D-ribose oxidase (DprE1) and decaprenylphosphoryl-?-D-ribose-2-epimerase (DprE2) catalyze epimerization of decaprenylphosporyl ribose (DPR) todecaprenylphosporyl arabinose (DPA) and are critical for the survival of Mtb. Crystal structures of DprE1 so far reported display significant disordered regions and no structural information is known for DprE2. We used homology modeling, protein threading, molecular docking and dynamics studies to investigate the structural and dynamic features of Mtb DprE1 and DprE2 and DprE1-DprE2 complex. A three-dimensional model for DprE2 was generated using the threading approach coupled with ab initio modeling. A 50 ns simulation of DprE1 and DprE2 revealed the overall stability of the structures. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) demonstrated the convergence of sampling in both DprE1 and DprE2. In DprE1, residues in the 269-330 area showed considerable fluctuation in agreement with the regions of disorder observed in the reported crystal structures. In DprE2, large fluctuations were detected in residues 95-113, 146-157, and 197-226. The study combined docking and MD simulation studies to map and characterize the key residues involved in DprE1-DprE2 interaction. A 60 ns MD simulation for DprE1-DprE2 complex was also performed. Analysis of data revealed that the docked complex is stabilized by H-bonding, hydrophobic and ionic interactions. The key residues of DprE1 involved in DprE1-DprE2 interactions belong to the disordered region. We also examined the docked complex of DprE1-BTZ043 to investigate the binding pocket of DprE1 and its interactions with the inhibitor BTZ043. In summary, we hypothesize that DprE1-DprE2 interaction is crucial for the synthesis of DPA and DprE1-DprE2 complex may be a new therapeutic target amenable to pharmacological validation. The findings have important implications in tuberculosis (TB) drug discovery and will facilitate drug development efforts against TB.
Project description:The major cell wall carbohydrate of Corynebacterineae is arabinogalactan (AG), a branched polysaccharide that is essential for the physiology of these bacteria. Decaprenylphosphoryl-D-arabinose (DPA), the lipid donor of D-arabinofuranosyl residues of AG, is synthesized through a series of unique biosynthetic steps, the last one being the epimerization of decaprenylphosphoryl-beta-D-ribose (DPR) into DPA, which is believed to proceed via a sequential oxidation-reduction mechanism. Two proteins from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Rv3790 and Rv3791) have been shown to catalyse this epimerization in an in vitro system. The present study addressed the exact function of these proteins through the inactivation of the corresponding orthologues in Corynebacterium glutamicum (NCgl0187 and NCgl0186, respectively) and the analysis of their in vivo effects on AG biosynthesis. We showed that NCgl0187 is essential, whereas NCgl0186 is not. Deletion of NCgl0186 led to a mutant possessing an AG that contained half the arabinose and rhamnose, and less corynomycolates linked to AG but more trehalose mycolates, compared with the parental strain. A candidate gene that may encode a protein functionally similar to NCgl0186 was identified in both C. glutamicum (NCgl1429) and M. tuberculosis (Rv2073c). While the deletion of NCgl1429 had no effect on AG biosynthesis of the mutant, the gene could complement the mycolate defect of the AG of the NCgl0186 mutant, strongly supporting the concept that the two proteins play a similar function in vivo. Consistent with this, the NCgl1429 gene appeared to be essential in the NCgl0186-inactivated mutant. A detailed bioinformatics analysis showed that NCgl1429, NCgl0186, Rv3791 and Rv2073c could constitute, with 52 other proteins belonging to the actinomycetales, a group of closely related short-chain reductases/dehydrogenases (SDRs) with atypical motifs. We propose that the epimerization of DPR to DPA involves three enzymes that catalyse two distinct steps, each being essential for the viability of the bacterial cells.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis possesses a thick and highly hydrophobic cell wall principally composed of a mycolyl-arabinogalactan-peptidoglycan complex, which is critical for survival and virulence. DprE1 is a well-characterized component of decaprenyl-phospho-ribose epimerase, which produces decaprenyl-phospho-arabinose (DPA) for the biosynthesis of mycobacterial arabinans. Upstream of dprE1 lies rv3789, which encodes a short transmembrane protein of the GtrA family, whose members are often involved in the synthesis of cell surface polysaccharides. We demonstrate that rv3789 and dprE1 are cotranscribed from a common transcription start site situated 64 bp upstream of rv3789. Topology mapping revealed four transmembrane domains in Rv3789 and a cytoplasmic C terminus consistent with structural models built using analysis of sequence coevolution. To investigate its role, we generated an unmarked rv3789 deletion mutant in M. tuberculosis. The mutant was characterized by impaired growth and abnormal cell morphology, since the cells were shorter and more swollen than wild-type cells. This phenotype likely stems from the decreased incorporation of arabinan into arabinogalactan and was accompanied by an accumulation of DPA. A role for Rv3789 in arabinan biosynthesis was further supported by its interaction with the priming arabinosyltransferase AftA, as demonstrated by a two-hybrid approach. Taken together, the data suggest that Rv3789 does not act as a DPA flippase but, rather, recruits AftA for arabinogalactan biosynthesis.Upstream of the essential dprE1 gene, encoding a key enzyme of the decaprenyl phospho-arabinose (DPA) pathway, lies rv3789, coding for a short transmembrane protein of unknown function. In this study, we demonstrated that rv3789 and dprE1 are cotranscribed from a common transcription start site located 64 bp upstream of rv3789 in M. tuberculosis. Furthermore, the deletion of rv3789 led to a reduction in arabinan content and to an accumulation of DPA, confirming that Rv3789 plays a role in arabinan biosynthesis. Topology mapping, structural modeling, and protein interaction studies suggest that Rv3789 acts as an anchor protein recruiting AftA, the first arabinosyl transferase. This investigation provides deeper insight into the mechanism of arabinan biosynthesis in mycobacteria.
Project description:Decaprenylphosphoryl-?-d-ribose oxidase (DprE1) is the flavoprotein subunit of decaprenylphosphoryl-d-ribose epimerase involved in cell wall synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and catalyzes the conversion of decaprenylphosphoryl ribose to decaprenylphosphoryl arabinose. DprE1 is a potential target against tuberculosis, including multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. We identified potential DprE1 inhibitors from the ChemDiv dataset through virtual screening based on pharmacophore and molecular docking. Thirty selected compounds were subjected to absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity prediction with the Discovery Studio software package. Two compounds were obtained as hits for inhibiting DprE1 activity in M. tuberculosis and are suitable for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation.
Project description:A critical feature of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis (TB), is its ability to survive and multiply within macrophages, making these host cells an ideal niche for persisting microbes. Killing the intracellular tubercle bacilli is a key requirement for efficient tuberculosis treatment, yet identifying potent inhibitors has been hampered by labor-intensive techniques and lack of validated targets. Here, we present the development of a phenotypic cell-based assay that uses automated confocal fluorescence microscopy for high throughput screening of chemicals that interfere with the replication of M. tuberculosis within macrophages. Screening a library of 57,000 small molecules led to the identification of 135 active compounds with potent intracellular anti-mycobacterial efficacy and no host cell toxicity. Among these, the dinitrobenzamide derivatives (DNB) showed high activity against M. tuberculosis, including extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains. More importantly, we demonstrate that incubation of M. tuberculosis with DNB inhibited the formation of both lipoarabinomannan and arabinogalactan, attributable to the inhibition of decaprenyl-phospho-arabinose synthesis catalyzed by the decaprenyl-phosphoribose 2' epimerase DprE1/DprE2. Inhibition of this new target will likely contribute to new therapeutic solutions against emerging XDR-TB. Beyond validating the high throughput/content screening approach, our results open new avenues for finding the next generation of antimicrobials.
Project description:New drugs are required to counter the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of 1,3-benzothiazin-4-ones (BTZs), a new class of antimycobacterial agents that kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, ex vivo, and in mouse models of TB. Using genetics and biochemistry, we identified the enzyme decaprenylphosphoryl-beta-d-ribose 2'-epimerase as a major BTZ target. Inhibition of this enzymatic activity abolishes the formation of decaprenylphosphoryl arabinose, a key precursor that is required for the synthesis of the cell-wall arabinans, thus provoking cell lysis and bacterial death. The most advanced compound, BTZ043, is a candidate for inclusion in combination therapies for both drug-sensitive and extensively drug-resistant TB.
Project description:New drugs are required to counter the tuberculosis (TB) pandemic. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of 1,3-benzothiazin-4-ones (BTZ), a new class of antimycobacterial agents that kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro, ex vivo and in murine models of TB. Using genetics and biochemistry, the enzyme decaprenylphosphoryl-β-D-ribose 2'-epimerase was identified as a major BTZ target. Inhibition of this enzymatic activity abolishes formation of decaprenylphosphoryl arabinose, a key precursor required for the synthesis of the cell-wall arabinans, thus provoking cell lysis and bacterial death. The most advanced compound, BTZ043 is a candidate for inclusion in combination therapies for both drug-sensitive and extensively-drug resistant TB. Data is also available from http://bugs.sgul.ac.uk/E-BUGS-80
Project description:The new antitubercular drug candidate 2-[2-S-methyl-1,4-dioxa-8-azaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]-8-nitro-6-(trifluoromethyl)-4H-1,3-benzothiazin-4-one (BTZ043) targets the DprE1 (Rv3790) subunit of the enzyme decaprenylphosphoryl-beta-d-ribose 2'-epimerase. To monitor the potential development of benzothiazinone (BTZ) resistance, a total of 240 sensitive and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from four European hospitals were surveyed for the presence of mutations in the dprE1 gene and for BTZ susceptibility. All 240 strains were susceptible, thus establishing the baseline prior to the introduction of BTZ043 in clinical trials.
Project description:Decaprenylphosphoryl-?-D-ribose 2'-epimerase (DprE1) is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of cell wall components and a target for development of anti-tuberculosis drugs. We determined the crystal structure of a truncated form of DprE1 from Mycobacterium smegmatis in two crystal forms to up to 2.35 Å resolution. The structure extends from residue 75 to the C-terminus and shares homology with FAD-dependent oxidoreductases of the vanillyl-alcohol oxidase family including the DprE1 homologue from M. tuberculosis. The M. smegmatis DprE1 structure reported here provides further insights into the active site geometry of this tuberculosis drug target.
Project description:We report a novel benzimidazole (BI) based DprE1 inhibitor that resulted from scaffold morphing of a 1,4-azaindole series. The clinical progression of the 1,4-azaindole series from our previous work validates the potential of exploring newer chemical entities with antimycobacterial activity driven via a noncovalent inhibition of the decaprenylphosphoryl-?-d-ribose-2'-epimerase (DprE1). The representative compounds from the new scaffold reported in this study exhibited an improved solubility and higher free plasma fraction, while retaining potent DprE1 inhibition and antimycobacterial activity. A representative compound from the benzimidazole series demonstrated good efficacy in a murine model of tuberculosis. Furthermore, molecular modeling of the BI scaffold suggests plausible modes of binding in the active site of DprE1 enzyme from Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can be used for further exploration of the series.