A multi-component meningococcal serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB): the clinical development program.
ABSTRACT: Recently approved in Europe and Australia, the multi-component meningococcal B vaccine, 4CMenB (Bexsero®, Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics), contains three surface-exposed recombinant proteins (fHbp, NadA, and NHBA) and New Zealand strain outer membrane vesicles (NZ OMV) with PorA 1.4 antigenicity. This comprehensive review of the 4CMenB clinical development program covers pivotal phase I/IIb/III studies in over 7,000 adults, adolescents, and infants. The immunological correlate for clinical protection used was human complement-mediated serum bactericidal activity titers ≥4 or 5 against indicator strains for individual antigens. Based on achievement of protective titers, a four-dose schedule (three primary doses and one booster dose) for infants and a two-dose schedule for adolescents provided the best results. Observed increases in injection site pain/tenderness and fever in infants, and injection site pain, malaise, and headache in adolescents compared with routine vaccines, were mostly mild to moderate; frequencies of rare events (Kawasaki disease, juvenile arthritis) were not significantly different from non-vaccinated individuals. 4CMenB is conservatively estimated to provide 66-91 % coverage against meningococcal serogroup B strains worldwide.
Project description:The multicomponent meningococcal serogroup B vaccine, 4CMenB, has demonstrated effectiveness in preventing invasive MenB disease in infants and in controlling MenB outbreaks. The need for/timing of additional booster doses is not yet established. We reviewed eight studies that evaluated antibody persistence and booster following primary 4CMenB vaccination of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. Putative seroprotective hSBA titers for ?1 vaccine antigen were maintained by 76-100% of children 24-36 months after priming during infancy and in 84-100% after priming in the second year of life. hSBA levels were higher in vaccinees at 4 and 7.5 years following priming during adolescence than in vaccine-naïve individuals of a similar age. Antibodies persisted at higher levels to NHBA and NadA than to PorA or fHbp. Booster vaccination induced robust anamnestic responses, demonstrating effective priming by 4CMenB across age-groups. These data can inform decision-making to optimize vaccination strategies.
Project description:Neisseria meningitidis is associated with high mortality and morbidity in infants and children worldwide. This phase 3 study (NCT02173704) evaluated safety and immunogenicity of a 4-component serogroup B recombinant meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) co-administered with routine vaccines in Taiwanese infants. In total, 225 healthy infants were randomized (2 : 1 ) to receive 4CMenB and routine vaccines (4CMenB+Routine) or routine vaccines only (Routine group) at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Routine vaccines were diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-inactivated poliovirus-Haemophilus influenzae type b, 13-valent pneumococcal, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines. Immune responses to 4CMenB components (factor H binding protein [fHbp], Neisserial adhesin A [NadA], porin A [PorA] and Neisseria heparin-binding antigen [NHBA]) were evaluated at 1 month post-primary and post-booster vaccination, using human serum bactericidal assay (hSBA). Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed. A sufficient immune response was demonstrated for fHbp, NadA and PorA, at 1 month post-primary and booster vaccination. In the 4CMenB+Routine group, hSBA titers ?5 were observed in all infants for fHbp and NadA, in 79% and 59% of infants for PorA and NHBA, respectively, at 1 month post-primary vaccination and in 92-99% of infants for all antigens, at 1 month post-booster vaccination. In the 4CMenB+Routine group, hSBA geometric mean titers for all antigens increased post-primary (8.41-963) and post-booster vaccination (17-2315) compared to baseline (1.01-1.36). Immunogenicity of 4CMenB was not impacted by co-administration with routine pediatric vaccines in infants. Reactogenicity was slightly higher in the 4CMenB+Routine group compared with Routine group, but no safety concerns were identified.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE:The four-component capsular group B meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) was introduced into the national immunisation schedule in the UK in September 2015 for infants in a 2?+?1 schedule at two, four and 12?months of age. A two-dose immunisation schedule for adolescents was also considered but was not found to be cost-effective in view of the relatively low rates of disease in this age group. Uncertainty about the longevity of protection induced by the vaccine and lack of certainty about an anamnestic response in primed individuals contributed to this decision. METHODS/DESIGN:This study is an open-label, descriptive immunogenicity analysis. Up to 113 participants will be recruited, including up to 83 children who are now aged 11?years and took part in previous trials involving the administration of 4CMenB to infants, plus a group of 30 naïve age-matched controls. All previously immunised participants will receive one booster dose of 4CMenB. The 30 naïve participants will be randomised to receive two doses of 4CMenB either at 0 and 28?days or 0 and 365?days. Blood samples will be collected from all participants at 0, 28, 180 and 365?days. The primary endpoint will explore immunogenicity at day 0 and 180 in previously immunised and naïve participants. Secondary outcomes will include investigating the persistence of antibody protection in previously immunised participants at the beginning of the study, describing the characteristics of the memory B-cell responses in previously immunised participants, and measuring reactogenicity in all participants following 4CMenB doses. DISCUSSION:This study aims to describe whether or not a single booster dose of 4CMenB given to those who have received an infant course of 4CMenB induces a recall immune response, while concurrently describing immune responses in naïve children of the same age. If an anamnestic response is proven, a single dose adolescent booster could be envisaged as an addition to the current UK vaccination schedule. TRIAL REGISTRATION:EudraCT, 2017-004732-11. ISRCTN, ISRCTN16774163. Registered on 10 May 2018 (retrospectively registered).
Project description:In countries with established programmes for vaccination of infants, toddlers and adolescents with meningococcal conjugate vaccines, serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease remains the major cause of septicaemia and meningitis in the paediatric and adolescent age groups. Novartis has developed a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, 4CMenB, to meet this need. We reviewed all 4CMenB studies. The studies found 4CMenB to be highly immunogenic when administered in all schedules, with protective antibody levels (serum bactericidal antibody titres ?4 or ?5 with human complement, hSBA) against serogroup B strains expressing vaccine antigens in >95% of vaccinated cohorts. When antibody levels waned, all tested groups demonstrated booster responses. Although possibly an underestimation, the Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS) technique predicts that global coverage of 4CMenB against all serogroup B strains is in the range 66% (Canada) to 91% (USA). The vaccine was found to be generally well tolerated, although local and systemic reactions, notably fever in infants, typical of many vaccines, were increased following concomitant administration of 4CMenB with routine vaccines. When tested, prophylactic paracetamol significantly decreased the frequency and severity of reactions in infants, with no clinically significant impact on immunogenicity of 4CMenB or concomitant routine vaccines. The vaccine is approved for use in the following age groups in the European Union (2?months+), Canada (2?months through 17 years), Australia (2?months+) and Chile (2?months+), following clinical evaluation in 4843 infants and toddlers, and 1712 adolescents and adults, in schedules including a three-dose (2, 3, 4 or 2, 4, 6 months) and a two-dose (6-11 months) infant series with a booster in the second year of life, a two-dose series in toddlers (12-23 months) and children (2-10 years) given 2 months apart (with a booster at least in the EU), and a two-dose series in adolescents (11-17 years) given 1-6 months apart. 4CMenB presents a solution to the unmet medical need of offering protection against serogroup B invasive meningococcal disease in all age groups above 2 months.
Project description:Meningococcal disease is rare, easily misdiagnosed, and potentially deadly. Diagnosis in the early stages is difficult and the disease often progresses extremely rapidly. In North America, the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is highest in infants and young children, with a secondary peak in adolescents, a population predominantly responsible for the carriage of disease. Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) accounts for a large proportion of meningococcal disease in North America, with documented outbreaks in three universities in the United States (US) during 2008-2013. Vaccination is the most effective way to protect against this aggressive disease that has a narrow timeframe for diagnosis and treatment. 4CMenB is a multi-component vaccine against MenB which contains four antigenic components. We describe in detail the immunogenicity and safety profile of 4CMenB based on results from four clinical trials; the use of 4CMenB to control MenB outbreaks involving vaccination at two US colleges during outbreaks in 2013-2014; and the use of 4CMenB in a Canadian mass vaccination campaign to control the spread of MenB disease. We discuss the reasons why adolescents should be vaccinated against MenB, by examining both the peak in disease incidence and carriage. We consider whether herd protection may be attained for MenB, by discussing published models and comparing with meningitis C (MenC) vaccines. In conclusion, MenB vaccines are now available in the US for people aged 10-25 years, representing an important opportunity to reduce the incidence of IMD in the country across the whole population, and more locally to combat MenB outbreaks.
Project description:The licensed meningococcal serogroup B vaccine, 4CMenB (Bexsero(®)), contains recombinant membrane proteins (rMenB) and outer membrane vesicles (OMV) of the New Zealand serogroup B strain. We investigated whether reducing the OMV and/or protein content influences 4CMenB immunogenicity and reactogenicity in healthy two month-old infants. Six formulations were studied: 4CMenB, rMenB with 0, ¼ or ½ the OMV dose in 4CMenB, a half-dose of 4CMenB or a prelicensure formulation of 4CMenB, as a 4-dose primary/booster series, concomitantly with routine vaccines (DTaP-HBV-IPV/Hib and 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate) at 2, 3, 4 and 12 months of age. Immunogenicity was assessed as serum bactericidal activity measured with human complement (hSBA) against indicator strains for Men B vaccine antigens before and after the 2,3,4-month series and 12-month dose. Parents recorded solicited reactions for 7 days after each vaccination, and any adverse events throughout the study period. All formulations elicited robust immune response against rMenB components at 5 months, there was some evidence of OMV and protein dose-dependence for Men B indicator strains tested. Titers waned up to the 12-month dose, which elicited further strong responses, which were still OMV and protein dose-dependent. Groups with no, or low-dose OMV displayed slightly lower reactogenicity profiles, but all formulations were generally well-tolerated, high fever was rare and transient, and only three transient SAEs were considered possibly vaccine-related. Decreasing or removing the OMV content reduced reactogenicity of 4CMenB to a certain extent, but had an unacceptable negative impact on the immunogenicity profile. Trial: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00937521.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) isolates currently account for approximately 90% of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Greece with ST-162 clonal complex predominating. The potential of a multicomponent meningococcal B vaccine (4CMenB) recently licensed in Europe was investigated in order to find whether the aforementioned vaccine will cover the MenB strains circulating in Greece. A panel of 148 serogroup B invasive meningococcal strains was characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and PorA subtyping. Vaccine components were typed by sequencing for factor H-binding protein (fHbp), Neisserial Heparin Binding Antigen (NHBA) and Neisseria adhesin A (NadA). Their expression was explored by Meningococcal Antigen Typing System (MATS). RESULTS: Global strain coverage predicted by MATS was 89.2% (95% CI 63.5%-98.6%) with 44.6%, 38.5% and 6.1% of strains covered by one, two and three vaccine antigens respectively. NHBA was the antigen responsible for the highest coverage (78.4%), followed by fHbp (52.7%), PorA (8.1%) and NadA (0.7%). The coverage of the major genotypes did not differ significantly. The most prevalent MLST genotype was the ST-162 clonal complex , accounting for 44.6% of the strains in the panel and with a predicted coverage of 86.4%, mainly due to NHBA and fHbp. CONCLUSIONS: 4CMenB has the potential to protect against a significant proportion of Greek invasive MenB strains.
Project description:We previously demonstrated the immunogenicity and tolerability of the serogroup B meningococcal vaccine, 4CMenB (Bexsero), in 11-17 y-olds randomized to receive 1, 2, or 3 doses at 1, 2, or 6 mo intervals. Participants in this extension study provided an additional blood sample 18-24 mo after last vaccine dose, to assess persistence of serum bactericidal activity with human complement (hSBA), and to compare with age-matched 4CMenB-naïve controls. In the original study, one month after one 4CMenB dose, 93% of subjects had seroprotective hSBA titers (?4) against indicator serogroup B strains for individual vaccine antigens (fHbp, NadA and NZOMV), increasing to ~100% after two or three doses. After 18-24 mo, 62-73% of subjects given one dose had titers ?4 against the three antigens, significantly lower rates than after two (77-94%) or three (86-97%) doses. Only proportions with titers ? 4 against NZOMV were significantly different between the two (77%) and three (90%, p < 0.0001) dose groups. These results confirm that two doses of 4CMenB, administered 1 to 6 mo apart, provide good levels of bactericidal activity against serogroup B meningococci, which were sustained at least 18-24 mo in over 64% of adolescents for all three tested vaccine-related antigens.
Project description:Background:The 4-component capsular group B meningococcal vaccine (4CMenB) was licensed as a 4-dose infant schedule but introduced into the United Kingdom as 3 doses at 2, 4, and 12 months of age. We describe the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of the 2 + 1 schedule in infants. Methods:Infants were randomized to receive 4CMenB with routine immunizations (test group) at 2, 4, and 12 months or 4CMenB alone at 6, 8, and 13 months of age (control group). Serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) assay against a serogroup B meningococcal reference strain (44/76-SL), memory B-cell responses to factor H binding protein, Neisseria adhesion protein A, Neisseria heparin binding antigen, Porin A (PorA), and reactogenicity was measured. Results:One hundred eighty-seven infants were randomized (test group: 94; control group: 93). In the test group, 4CMenB induced SBA titers above the putative protective threshold (1:4) after primary and booster doses in 97% of participants. Postbooster, the SBA GMT (72.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 51.7-100.4) was numerically higher than the serum bactericidal antibody geometric mean titre (SBA GMT) determined post-primary vaccination (48.6; 95% CI, 37.2-63.4). After primary immunizations, memory B-cell responses did not change when compared with baseline controls, but frequencies significantly increased after booster. Higher frequency of local and systemic adverse reactions was associated with 4CMenB. Conclusions:A reduced schedule of 4CMenB was immunogenic and established immunological memory after booster.
Project description:The 4-component vaccine 4CMenB, developed against invasive disease caused by meningococcal serogroup B, is approved for use in infants in several countries worldwide. 4CMenB is mostly used as 3 + 1 schedule, except for the UK, where a 2 + 1 schedule is used, and where the vaccine showed an effectiveness of 82.9%. Here we compared the coverage of two 4CMenB vaccination schedules (3 + 1 [2.5, 3.5, 5, 11 months] versus 2 + 1 [3.5, 5, 11 months of age]) against 40 serogroup B strains, representative of epidemiologically-relevant isolates circulating in England and Wales in 2007-2008, using sera from a previous phase 3b clinical trial. The strains were tested using hSBA on pooled sera of infants, collected at one month post-primary and booster vaccination. 4CMenB coverage was defined as the percentage of strains with positive killing (hSBA titres ? 4 after immunisation and negative baseline hSBA titres < 2). Coverage of 4CMenB was 40.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 24.9-56.7) and 87.5% (95%CI: 73.2-95.8) at one month post-primary and booster vaccination, respectively, regardless of immunisation schedule. Using a more conservative threshold (post-immunisation hSBA titres ? 8; baseline ? 2), at one month post-booster dose, strain coverages were 80% (3 + 1) and 70% (2 + 1). We used a linear regression model to assess correlation between post-immunisation hSBA data for each strain in the two groups; Pearson's correlation coefficients were 0.93 and 0.99 at one month post-primary and booster vaccination. Overall, there is no evidence for a difference in strain coverage when 4CMenB is administered according to a 3 + 1 or 2 + 1 infant vaccination schedule.