The sphingolipid receptor S1PR2 is a receptor for Nogo-a repressing synaptic plasticity.
ABSTRACT: Nogo-A is a membrane protein of the central nervous system (CNS) restricting neurite growth and synaptic plasticity via two extracellular domains: Nogo-66 and Nogo-A-?20. Receptors transducing Nogo-A-?20 signaling remained elusive so far. Here we identify the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) as a Nogo-A-?20-specific receptor. Nogo-A-?20 binds S1PR2 on sites distinct from the pocket of the sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) and signals via the G protein G13, the Rho GEF LARG, and RhoA. Deleting or blocking S1PR2 counteracts Nogo-A-?20- and myelin-mediated inhibition of neurite outgrowth and cell spreading. Blockade of S1PR2 strongly enhances long-term potentiation (LTP) in the hippocampus of wild-type but not Nogo-A(-/-) mice, indicating a repressor function of the Nogo-A/S1PR2 axis in synaptic plasticity. A similar increase in LTP was also observed in the motor cortex after S1PR2 blockade. We propose a novel signaling model in which a GPCR functions as a receptor for two structurally unrelated ligands, a membrane protein and a sphingolipid. Elucidating Nogo-A/S1PR2 signaling platforms will provide new insights into regulation of synaptic plasticity.
Project description:Functional recovery from central neurotrauma, such as spinal cord injury, is limited by myelin-associated inhibitory proteins. The most prominent example, Nogo-A, imposes an inhibitory cue for nerve fibre growth via two independent domains: Nogo-A-?20 (residues 544-725 of the rat Nogo-A sequence) and Nogo-66 (residues 1026-1091). Inhibitory signalling from these domains causes a collapse of the neuronal growth cone via individual receptor complexes, centred around sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) for Nogo-A-?20 and Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1) for Nogo-66. Whereas the helical conformation of Nogo-66 has been studied extensively, only little structural information is available for the Nogo-A-?20 region. We used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to assess potential residual structural propensities of the intrinsically disordered Nogo-A-?20. Using triple resonance experiments, we were able to assign 94% of the non-proline backbone residues. While secondary structure analysis and relaxation measurements highlighted the intrinsically disordered character of Nogo-A-?20, three stretches comprising residues 561EAIQESL567, 639EAMNVALKALGT650, and 693SNYSEIAK700 form transient ?-helical structures. Interestingly, 561EAIQESL567 is situated directly adjacent to one of the most conserved regions of Nogo-A-?20 that contains a binding motif for ?1-integrin. Likewise, 639EAMNVALKALGT650 partially overlaps with the epitope recognized by 11C7, a Nogo-A-neutralizing antibody that promotes functional recovery from spinal cord injury. Diffusion measurements by pulse-field gradient NMR spectroscopy suggest concentration- and oxidation state-dependent dimerisation of Nogo-A-?20. Surprisingly, NMR and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) data could not validate previously shown binding of extracellular loops of S1PR2 to Nogo-A-?20.
Project description:Protein kinase A (PKA) controls major aspects of neurite outgrowth and morphogenesis and plays an essential role in synaptic plasticity and memory. However, the molecular mechanism(s) of PKA action on neurite sprouting and activity are still unknown. Here, we report that in response to neurotrophin or cAMP stimulation the RING ligase praja2 ubiquitinates and degrades NOGO-A, a major inhibitor of neurite outgrowth in mammalian brain. Genetic silencing of praja2 severely inhibited neurite extension of differentiating neuroblastoma cells and mesencephalic neurons and axon outgrowth and sprouting of striatal terminals in developing rat brain. This phenotype was rescued when both praja2 and NOGO-A were depleted, suggesting that NOGO-A is, indeed, a biologically relevant target of praja2 in neuronal cells. Our findings unveil a novel mechanism that functionally couples cAMP signaling with the proteolytic turnover of NOGO-A, positively impacting on neurite outgrowth in mammalian brain.
Project description:Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and clinical data suggest that children may recover from stroke better than adults; however, supporting experimental data are lacking. We used our novel mouse model of experimental juvenile ischemic stroke (MCAO) to characterize age-specific cognitive dysfunction following ischemia. Juvenile and adult mice subjected to 45-min MCAO, and extracellular field recordings of CA1 neurons were performed to assess hippocampal synaptic plasticity changes after MCAO, and contextual fear conditioning was performed to evaluate memory and biochemistry used to analyze Nogo-A expression. Juvenile mice showed impaired synaptic plasticity seven days after MCAO, followed by full recovery by 30 days. Memory behavior was consistent with synaptic impairments and recovery after juvenile MCAO. Nogo-A expression increased in ipsilateral hippocampus seven days after MCAO compared to contralateral and sham hippocampus. Further, inhibition of Nogo-A receptors reversed MCAO-induced synaptic impairment in slices obtained seven days after juvenile MCAO. Adult MCAO-induced impairment of LTP was not associated with increased Nogo-A. This study demonstrates that stroke causes functional impairment in the hippocampus and recovery of behavioral and synaptic function is more robust in the young brain. Nogo-A receptor activity may account for the impairments seen following juvenile ischemic injury.
Project description:We have generated a transgenic rat model using RNAi and used it to study the role of the membrane protein Nogo-A in synaptic plasticity and cognition. The membrane protein Nogo-A is expressed in CNS oligodendrocytes and subpopulations of neurons, and it is known to suppress neurite growth and regeneration. The constitutively expressed polymerase II-driven transgene was composed of a microRNA-targeting Nogo-A placed into an intron preceding the coding sequence for EGFP, thus quantitatively labeling cells according to intracellular microRNA expression. The transgenic microRNA in vivo efficiently reduced the concentration of Nogo-A mRNA and protein preferentially in neurons. The resulting significant increase in long-term potentiation in both hippocampus and motor cortex indicates a repressor function of Nogo-A in synaptic plasticity. The transgenic rats exhibited prominent schizophrenia-like behavioral phenotypes, such as perseveration, disrupted prepulse inhibition, and strong withdrawal from social interactions. This fast and efficient microRNA-mediated knockdown provides a way to silence gene expression in vivo in transgenic rats and shows a role of Nogo-A in regulating higher cognitive brain functions.
Project description:A tight regulation of the balance between inhibitory and excitatory synaptic transmission is a prerequisite for synaptic plasticity in neuronal networks. In this context, the neurite growth inhibitor membrane protein Nogo-A modulates synaptic plasticity, strength, and neurotransmitter receptor dynamics. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these actions are unknown. We show that Nogo-A loss-of-function in primary mouse hippocampal cultures by application of a function-blocking antibody leads to higher excitation following a decrease in GABA<sub>A</sub>Rs at inhibitory and an increase in the GluA1, but not GluA2 AMPAR subunit at excitatory synapses. This unbalanced regulation of AMPAR subunits results in the incorporation of Ca<sup>2+</sup>-permeable GluA2-lacking AMPARs and increased intracellular Ca<sup>2+</sup> levels due to a higher Ca<sup>2+</sup> influx without affecting its release from the internal stores. Increased neuronal activation upon Nogo-A loss-of-function prompts the phosphorylation of the transcription factor CREB and the expression of c-Fos. These results contribute to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of the excitation/inhibition balance and thereby of plasticity in the brain.
Project description:Endothelial dysfunction is a critical factor in many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension. Although lipid signaling has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease, specific molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we report that Nogo-B, a membrane protein of the endoplasmic reticulum, regulates endothelial sphingolipid biosynthesis with direct effects on vascular function and blood pressure. Nogo-B inhibits serine palmitoyltransferase, the rate-limiting enzyme of the de novo sphingolipid biosynthetic pathway, thereby controlling production of endothelial sphingosine 1-phosphate and autocrine, G protein-coupled receptor-dependent signaling by this metabolite. Mice lacking Nogo-B either systemically or specifically in endothelial cells are hypotensive, resistant to angiotensin II-induced hypertension and have preserved endothelial function and nitric oxide release. In mice that lack Nogo-B, pharmacological inhibition of serine palmitoyltransferase with myriocin reinstates endothelial dysfunction and angiotensin II-induced hypertension. Our study identifies Nogo-B as a key inhibitor of local sphingolipid synthesis and shows that autocrine sphingolipid signaling within the endothelium is critical for vascular function and blood pressure homeostasis.
Project description:Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid produced by mast cells (MCs) on cross-linking of their high-affinity receptors for IgE by antigen that can amplify MC responses by binding to its S1P receptors. An acute MC-dependent allergic reaction can lead to systemic shock, but the early events of its development in lung tissues have not been investigated, and S1P functions in the onset of allergic processes remain to be examined.We used a highly specific neutralizing anti-S1P antibody (mAb) and the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 (S1PR2) antagonist JTE-013 to study the signaling contributions of S1P and S1PR2 to MC- and IgE-dependent airway allergic responses in mice within minutes after antigen challenge.Allergic reaction was triggered by a single intraperitoneal dose of antigen in sensitized mice pretreated intraperitoneally with anti-S1P, isotype control mAb, JTE-013, or vehicle before antigen challenge.Kinetics experiments revealed early pulmonary infiltration of mostly T cells around blood vessels of sensitized mice 20 minutes after antigen exposure. Pretreatment with anti-S1P mAb inhibited in vitro MC activation, as well as in vivo development of airway infiltration and MC activation, reducing serum levels of histamine, cytokines, and the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein 1/CCL2, macrophage inflammatory protein 1?/CCL3, and RANTES/CCL5. S1PR2 antagonism or deficiency or MC deficiency recapitulated these results. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated MC S1PR2 dependency for chemokine release and the necessity for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 activation.Activation of S1PR2 by S1P and downstream signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling in MCs regulate early T-cell recruitment to antigen-challenged lungs through chemokine production.
Project description:The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors (S1PRs) are a well-studied class of transmembrane G protein-coupled sphingolipid receptors that mediate multiple cellular processes. However, S1PRs have not been previously reported to be involved in the genetic etiology of human traits. S1PR2 lies within the autosomal-recessive nonsyndromic hearing impairment (ARNSHI) locus DFNB68 on 19p13.2. From exome sequence data we identified two pathogenic S1PR2 variants, c.323G>C (p.Arg108Pro) and c.419A>G (p.Tyr140Cys). Each of these variants co-segregates with congenital profound hearing impairment in consanguineous Pakistani families with maximum LOD scores of 6.4 for family DEM4154 and 3.3 for family PKDF1400. Neither S1PR2 missense variant was reported among ?120,000 chromosomes in the Exome Aggregation Consortium database, in 76 unrelated Pakistani exomes, or in 720 Pakistani control chromosomes. Both DNA variants affect highly conserved residues of S1PR2 and are predicted to be damaging by multiple bioinformatics tools. Molecular modeling predicts that these variants affect binding of sphingosine-1-phosphate (p.Arg108Pro) and G protein docking (p.Tyr140Cys). In the previously reported S1pr2(-/-) mice, stria vascularis abnormalities, organ of Corti degeneration, and profound hearing loss were observed. Additionally, hair cell defects were seen in both knockout mice and morphant zebrafish. Family PKDF1400 presents with ARNSHI, which is consistent with the lack of gross malformations in S1pr2(-/-) mice, whereas family DEM4154 has lower limb malformations in addition to hearing loss. Our findings suggest the possibility of developing therapies against hair cell damage (e.g., from ototoxic drugs) through targeted stimulation of S1PR2.
Project description:The endothelium, as the interface between blood and all tissues, plays a critical role in inflammation. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid, highly abundant in plasma, that potently regulates endothelial responses through interaction with its receptors (S1PRs). Here, we studied the role of S1PR2 in the regulation of the proadhesion and proinflammatory phenotype of the endothelium. By using genetic approaches and a S1PR2-specific antagonist (JTE013), we found that S1PR2 plays a key role in the permeability and inflammatory responses of the vascular endothelium during endotoxemia. Experiments with bone marrow chimeras (S1pr2(+/+) ? S1pr2(+/+), S1pr2(+/+) ? S1pr2(-/-), and S1pr2(-/-) ? S1pr2(+/+)) indicate the critical role of S1PR2 in the stromal compartment, in the regulation of vascular permeability and vascular inflammation. In vitro, JTE013 potently inhibited tumor necrosis factor ?-induced endothelial inflammation. Finally, we provide detailed mechanisms on the downstream signaling of S1PR2 in vascular inflammation that include the activation of the stress-activated protein kinase pathway that, together with the Rho-kinase nuclear factor kappa B pathway (NF-kB), are required for S1PR2-mediated endothelial inflammatory responses. Taken together, our data indicate that S1PR2 is a key regulator of the proinflammatory phenotype of the endothelium and identify S1PR2 as a novel therapeutic target for vascular disorders.
Project description:Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a biologically active sphingolipid that has pleiotropic effects in a variety of cell types including ECs, SMCs, and macrophages, all of which are central to the development of atherosclerosis. It may therefore exert stimulatory and inhibitory effects on atherosclerosis. Here, we investigated the role of the S1P receptor S1PR2 in atherosclerosis by analyzing S1pr2-/- mice with an Apoe-/- background. S1PR2 was expressed in macrophages, ECs, and SMCs in atherosclerotic aortas. In S1pr2-/-Apoe-/- mice fed a high-cholesterol diet for 4 months, the area of the atherosclerotic plaque was markedly decreased, with reduced macrophage density, increased SMC density, increased eNOS phosphorylation, and downregulation of proinflammatory cytokines compared with S1pr2+/+Apoe-/- mice. Bone marrow chimera experiments indicated a major role for macrophage S1PR2 in atherogenesis. S1pr2-/-Apoe-/- macrophages showed diminished Rho/Rho kinase/NF-κB (ROCK/NF-κB) activity. Consequently, they also displayed reduced cytokine expression, reduced oxidized LDL uptake, and stimulated cholesterol efflux associated with decreased scavenger receptor expression and increased cholesterol efflux transporter expression. S1pr2-/-Apoe-/- ECs also showed reduced ROCK and NF-κB activities, with decreased MCP-1 expression and elevated eNOS phosphorylation. Pharmacologic S1PR2 blockade in S1pr2+/+Apoe-/- mice diminished the atherosclerotic plaque area in aortas and modified LDL accumulation in macrophages. We conclude therefore that S1PR2 plays a critical role in atherogenesis and may serve as a novel therapeutic target for atherosclerosis.