Disintegration of wheat aleurone structure has an impact on the bioavailability of phenolic compounds and other phytochemicals as evidenced by altered urinary metabolite profile of diet-induced obese mice.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Phenolic acids are covalently bound to the arabinoxylan fibre matrix of wheat aleurone layer. In order to be bioavailable they need to be released by endogenous or bacterial enzymes and absorbed within the intestinal lumen. The intestinal microbiota can metabolize phenolic acids and other food-born phytochemicals. However, the effect of structure of the cereal bran or aleurone layer on these processes is not comprehensively studied. METHODS: The structure of aleurone layer was modified either by dry-grinding or by enzymatic treatments with xylanase alone or in combination with feruloyl esterase. Diet induced obese C57BL6/J mice were fed with high-fat diets containing either pure ferulic acid, or one of the four differentially treated aleurone preparations for 8 weeks. The diets were designed to be isocaloric and to have similar macronutrient composition. The urinary metabolite profiles were investigated using non-targeted LC-qTOF-MS-metabolomics approach. RESULTS: The different dietary groups were clearly separated in the principal component analysis. Enzymatic processing of aleurone caused increased excretion of ferulic acid sulfate and glycine conjugates reflecting the increase in unbound form of readily soluble ferulic acid in the diet. The urinary metabolite profile of the diet groups containing native and cryo-ground aleurone was more intense with metabolites derived from microbial processing including hippuric acid, hydroxyl- and dihydroxyphenylpropionic acids. Furthermore, aleurone induced specific fingerprint on the urinary metabolite profile seen as excretion of benzoxazinoid metabolites, several small dicarboyxlic acids, and various small nitrogen containing compounds. CONCLUSIONS: The structural modifications on wheat aleurone fraction resulted in altered metabolism of aleurone derived phenolic acids and other phytochemicals excreted in urine of diet-induced obese mice.
Project description:Urinary excretion of 34 dietary polyphenols and their variations according to diet and other lifestyle factors were measured by tandem mass spectrometry in 475 adult participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cross-sectional study. A single 24-hour urine sample was analysed for each subject from 4 European countries. The highest median levels were observed for phenolic acids such as 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (157??mol/24?h), followed by 3-hydroxyphenylacetic, ferulic, vanillic and homovanillic acids (20-50??mol/24?h). The lowest concentrations were observed for equol, apigenin and resveratrol (<0.1??mol/24?h). Urinary polyphenols significantly varied by centre, followed by alcohol intake, sex, educational level, and energy intake. This variability is largely explained by geographical variations in the diet, as suggested by the high correlations (r?>?0.5) observed between urinary polyphenols and the intake of their main food sources (e.g., resveratrol and gallic acid ethyl ester with red wine intake; caffeic, protocatechuic and ferulic acids with coffee consumption; and hesperetin and naringenin with citrus fruit intake). The large variations in urinary polyphenols observed are largely determined by food preferences. These polyphenol biomarkers should allow more accurate evaluation of the relationships between polyphenol exposure and the risk of chronic diseases in large epidemiological studies.
Project description:SCOPE:Wholegrain has been associated with reduced chronic disease mortality, with oat intake particularly notable for lowering blood cholesterol and glycemia. To better understand the complex nutrient profile of oats, we studied urinary excretion of phenolic acids and avenanthramides after ingestion of oat bran in humans. METHODS AND RESULTS:After a 2-d (poly)phenol-low diet, seven healthy men provided urine 12 h before and 48 h after consuming 60 g oat bran (7.8 ?mol avenanthramides, 139.2 ?mol phenolic acids) or a phenolic-low (traces of phenolics) control in a crossover design. Analysis by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-MS/MS showed that oat bran intake resulted in an elevation in urinary excretion of 30 phenolics relative to the control, suggesting that they are oat bran-derived. Mean excretion levels were elevated between 0-2 and 4-8 h, following oat bran intake, and amounted to a total of 33.7 ± 7.3 ?mol total excretion (mean recovery: 22.9 ± 5.0%), relative to control. The predominant metabolites included: vanillic acid, 4- and 3-hydroxyhippuric acids, and sulfate-conjugates of benzoic and ferulic acids, which accounted collectively for two thirds of total excretion. CONCLUSION:Oat bran phenolics follow a relatively rapid urinary excretion, with 30 metabolites excreted within 8 h of intake. These levels of excretion suggest that bound phenolics are, in part, rapidly released by the microbiota.
Project description:Phenolic acids are thought to be beneficial for human health and responsible for vegetables' health-promoting properties. Free, conjugated, and bound phenolic acids of seven commonly consumed vegetables, including kidney bean, cow pea, snow pea, hyacinth bean, green soy bean, soybean sprouts and daylily, from the regions of Beijing, Hangzhou, and Guangzhou, were identified and quantified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Three vegetables, namely green soy bean, soybean sprouts, and daylily (Hemerocallisfulva L.), from the Beijing region contained higher concentrations of total phenolic acids than those from the Hangzhou and Guangzhou regions. The results indicated that the phenolic acid content in the seven vegetables appeared to be species-dependent. The highest content of phenolic acids was found in daylily, followed by green soy bean, while the least amounts were identified in kidney bean and hyacinth bean. Typically, phenolic acids are predominantly found in conjugated forms. Principle component analysis (PCA) revealed some key compounds that differentiated the seven vegetables. Green soy bean, compared to the other six vegetables, was characterized by higher levels of syringic acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and sinapic acid. Other compounds, particularly p-coumaric acid, neochlorogenic acid, and caffeic acid, exhibited significantly higher concentrations in daylily. In addition, p-coumaric acid was the characteristic substance in cow pea. Results from this study can contribute to the development of vegetables with specific phytochemicals and health benefits.
Project description:The beneficial health effects of cranberries have been attributed to their (poly)phenol content. Recent studies have investigated the absorption, metabolism and excretion of cranberry (poly)phenols; however, little is known about whether they follow a dose response in vivo at different levels of intake. An acute double-blind randomized controlled trial in 10 healthy men with cranberry juices containing 409, 787, 1238, 1534 and 1910 mg total (poly)phenols was performed. Blood and urine were analyzed by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Sixty metabolites were identified in plasma and urine including cinnamic acids, dihydrocinnamic, flavonols, benzoic acids, phenylacetic acids, benzaldehydes, valerolactones, hippuric acids, catechols, and pyrogallols. Total plasma, but not excreted urinary (poly)phenol metabolites, exhibited a linear dose response (r² = 0.74, p < 0.05), driven by caffeic acid 4-O-ß-d-glucuronide, quercetin-3-O-ß-d-glucuronide, ferulic acid 4-O-ß-d-glucuronide, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid 3-O-ß-d-glucuronide, sinapic acid, ferulic acid 4-O-sulfate, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, syringic acid, vanillic acid-4-O-sulfate, (4R)-5-(3'-hydroxyphenyl)-?-valerolactone-4'-O-sulfate, 4-methylgallic acid-3-O-sulfate, and isoferulic acid 3-O-sulfate (all r² ? 0.89, p < 0.05). Inter-individual variability of the plasma metabolite concentration was broad and dependent on the metabolite. Herein, we show that specific plasma (poly)phenol metabolites are linearly related to the amount of (poly)phenols consumed in cranberry juice. The large inter-individual variation in metabolite profile may be due to variations in the gut microbiome.
Project description:Ferulic acid is an important phenolic antioxidant found in or added to diet supplements, beverages, and cosmetic creams. Two designs of paper-based platforms for the fast, simple and inexpensive evaluation of ferulic acid contents in food and pharmaceutical cosmetics were evaluated. The first, a paper-based electrochemical device, was developed for ferulic acid detection in uncomplicated matrix samples and was created by the photolithographic method. The second, a paper-based colorimetric device was preceded by thin layer chromatography (TLC) for the separation and detection of ferulic acid in complex samples using a silica plate stationary phase and an 85:15:1 (v/v/v) chloroform: methanol: formic acid mobile phase. After separation, ferulic acid containing section of the TLC plate was attached onto the patterned paper containing the colorimetric reagent and eluted with ethanol. The resulting color change was photographed and quantitatively converted to intensity. Under the optimal conditions, the limit of detection of ferulic acid was found to be 1 ppm and 7 ppm (S/N = 3) for first and second designs, respectively, with good agreement with the standard HPLC-UV detection method. Therefore, these methods can be used for the simple, rapid, inexpensive and sensitive quantification of ferulic acid in a variety of samples.
Project description:Polyphenols in whole grain wheat have potential health benefits, but little is known about the expression patterns of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes and the accumulation of phenolic acid compounds in different-colored wheat grains. We found that purple wheat varieties had the highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity. Among phenolic acid compounds, bound ferulic acid, vanillic, and caffeic acid levels were significantly higher in purple wheat than in white and red wheat, while total soluble phenolic acid, soluble ferulic acid, and vanillic acid levels were significantly higher in purple and red wheat than in white wheat. Ferulic acid and syringic acid levels peaked at 14 days after anthesis (DAA), whereas p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid levels peaked at 7 DAA, and vanillic acid levels gradually increased during grain filling and peaked near ripeness (35 DAA). Nine phenolic acid biosynthesis pathway genes (TaPAL1, TaPAL2, TaC3H1, TaC3H2, TaC4H, Ta4CL1, Ta4CL2, TaCOMT1, and TaCOMT2) exhibited three distinct expression patterns during grain filling, which may be related to the different phenolic acids levels. White wheat had higher phenolic acid contents and relatively high gene expression at the early stage, while purple wheat had the highest phenolic acid contents and gene expression levels at later stages. These results suggest that the expression of phenolic acid biosynthesis genes may be closely related to phenolic acids accumulation.
Project description:Wheat bran, and especially wheat aleurone fraction, are concentrated sources of a wide range of components which may contribute to the health benefits associated with higher consumption of whole-grain foods. This study used NMR metabolomics to evaluate urine samples from baseline at one and two hours postprandially, following the consumption of minimally processed bran, aleurone or control by 14 participants (7 Females; 7 Males) in a randomized crossover trial. The methodology discriminated between the urinary responses of control, and bran and aleurone, but not between the two fractions. Compared to control, consumption of aleurone or bran led to significantly and substantially higher urinary concentrations of lactate, alanine, N-acetylaspartate acid and N-acetylaspartylglutamate and significantly and substantially lower urinary betaine concentrations at one and two hours postprandially. There were sex related differences in urinary metabolite profiles with generally higher hippurate and citrate and lower betaine in females compared to males. Overall, this postprandial study suggests that acute consumption of bran or aleurone is associated with a number of physiological effects that may impact on energy metabolism and which are consistent with longer term human and animal metabolomic studies that used whole-grain wheat diets or wheat fractions.
Project description:Epidemiological studies indicate that the daily intake of antioxidants from a traditional Asian diet reduces the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration. Many of the phytochemicals that are abundant in whole grains exhibit a wide variety of biological activity such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Ferulic acid (FA) is a phenolic acid found in vegetables and grains that has therapeutic potential for diabetes mellitus, Alzheimer's disease, and other diseases. We investigated the retinal protective effect of FA in a sodium iodate (NaIO3)-induced model of retinal degeneration. In a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line, FA attenuated H2O2-induced injury and lipopolysaccharide- or 7-ketocholesterol-induced inflammation. In mice, the oral administration of FA or its analog, ethyl ferulate, attenuated the morphological and functional features of NaIO3-induced retinal degeneration according to optical coherence tomography and electroretinography. Our results demonstrate that the oral administration of FA provides protective effects to the retina, suggesting that the intake of FA as a daily supplement or daily healthy diet containing rich vegetables and whole grains may prevent age-related macular degeneration.
Project description:Four bacterial phenolic acid decarboxylases (PAD) from Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Bacillus subtilis, and Bacillus pumilus were expressed in Escherichia coli, and their activities on p-coumaric, ferulic, and caffeic acids were compared. Although these four enzymes displayed 61% amino acid sequence identity, they exhibit different activities for ferulic and caffeic acid metabolism. To elucidate the domain(s) that determines these differences, chimeric PAD proteins were constructed and expressed in E. coli by exchanging their individual carboxy-terminal portions. Analysis of the chimeric enzyme activities suggests that the C-terminal region may be involved in determining PAD substrate specificity and catalytic capacity. In order to test phenolic acid toxicity, the levels of growth of recombinant E. coli displaying and not displaying PAD activity were compared on medium supplemented with different concentrations of phenolic acids and with differing pHs. Though these acids already have a slight inhibitory effect on E. coli, vinyl phenol derivatives, created during decarboxylation of phenolic acids, were much more inhibitory to the E. coli control strain. To take advantage of this property, a solid medium with the appropriate pH and phenolic acid concentration was developed; in this medium the recombinant E. coli strains expressing PAD activity form colonies approximately five times smaller than those formed by strains devoid of PAD activity.
Project description:The synthesis of five novel methyl 10-undecenoate-based lipoconjugates of phenolic acids from undecenoic acid was carried out. Undecenoic acid was methylated to methyl 10-undecenoate which was subjected to a thiol-ene reaction with cysteamine hydrochloride. Further amidation of the amine was carried out with different phenolic acids such as caffeic, ferulic, sinapic, coumaric and cinnamic acid. All synthesized compounds were fully characterized and their structures were con?rmed by spectral data. The anti-oxidant activity of the synthesized lipoconjugates of phenolic acids was studied by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay and also by the inhibition of linoleic acid oxidation in micellar medium by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The prepared compounds were also screened for their cytotoxic activity against five cell lines. It was observed that the lipoconjugates of caffeic acid, sinapic acid, ferulic acid, and coumaric acid displayed anticancer and anti-oxidant properties. The anticancer properties of these derivatives have been assessed by their IC50 inhibitory values in the proliferation of MDA-MB231, SKOV3, MCF7, DU 145 and HepG2 cancer cell lines.