Regulation of skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and muscle mass by SIRT3.
ABSTRACT: We have previously reported that the expression of mitochondrial deacetylase SIRT3 is high in the slow oxidative muscle and that the expression of muscle SIRT3 level is increased by dietary restriction or exercise training. To explore the function of SIRT3 in skeletal muscle, we report here the establishment of a transgenic mouse model with muscle-specific expression of the murine SIRT3 short isoform (SIRT3M3). Calorimetry study revealed that the transgenic mice had increased energy expenditure and lower respiratory exchange rate (RER), indicating a shift towards lipid oxidation for fuel usage, compared to control mice. The transgenic mice exhibited better exercise performance on treadmills, running 45% further than control animals. Moreover, the transgenic mice displayed higher proportion of slow oxidative muscle fibers, with increased muscle AMPK activation and PPAR? expression, both of which are known regulators promoting type I muscle fiber specification. Surprisingly, transgenic expression of SIRT3M3 reduced muscle mass up to 30%, likely through an up-regulation of FOXO1 transcription factor and its downstream atrophy gene MuRF-1. In summary, these results suggest that SIRT3 regulates the formation of oxidative muscle fiber, improves muscle metabolic function, and reduces muscle mass, changes that mimic the effects of caloric restriction.
Project description:SIRT3 is a member of the sirtuin family of NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases, which is localized to the mitochondria and is enriched in kidney, brown adipose tissue, heart, and other metabolically active tissues. We report here that SIRT3 responds dynamically to both exercise and nutritional signals in skeletal muscle to coordinate downstream molecular responses. We show that exercise training increases SIRT3 expression as well as associated CREB phosphorylation and PGC-1alpha up-regulation. Furthermore, we show that SIRT3 is more highly expressed in slow oxidative type I soleus muscle compared to fast type II extensor digitorum longus or gastrocnemius muscles. Additionally, we find that SIRT3 protein levels in skeletal muscle are sensitive to diet, for SIRT3 expression increases by fasting and caloric restriction, yet it is decreased by high-fat diet. Interestingly, the caloric restriction regimen also leads to phospho-activation of AMPK in muscle. Conversely in SIRT3 knockout mice, we find that the phosphorylation of both AMPK and CREB and the expression of PGC-1alpha are down regulated, suggesting that these key cellular factors may be important components of SIRT3-mediated biological signals in vivo.
Project description:Sirt3 is a member of the sirtuin family of protein deacetylases that is localized in mitochondria and regulates mitochondrial function. Sirt3 expression in skeletal muscle is decreased in models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and regulated by feeding, fasting, and caloric restriction. Sirt3 knockout mice exhibit decreased oxygen consumption and develop oxidative stress in skeletal muscle, leading to JNK activation and impaired insulin signaling. This effect is mimicked by knockdown of Sirt3 in cultured myoblasts, which exhibit reduced mitochondrial oxidation, increased reactive oxygen species, activation of JNK, increased serine and decreased tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1, and decreased insulin signaling. Thus, Sirt3 plays an important role in diabetes through regulation of mitochondrial oxidation, reactive oxygen species production, and insulin resistance in skeletal muscle.
Project description:Individual skeletal muscles in the animal body are heterogeneous, as each is comprised of different fiber types. Type I muscle fibers are rich with mitochondria, and have high oxidative metabolisms while type IIB fibers have few mitochondria and high glycolytic metabolic capacity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1? (PGC-1?), a transcriptional co-activator that regulates mitochondrial biogenesis and respiratory function, is implicated in muscle fiber-type switching. Over-expression of PGC-1? in transgenic mice increased the proportion of red/oxidative type I fiber. During pig muscle growth, an increased number of type I fibers can give meat more red color. To explore the roles of PGC-1? in regulation of muscle fiber type conversion, we generated skeletal muscle-specific PGC-1? transgenic mice and pig. Ectopic over-expression of PGC-1? was detected in both fast and slow muscle fibers. The transgenic animals displayed a remarkable amount of red/oxidative muscle fibers in major skeletal muscle tissues. Skeletal muscles from transgenic mice and pigs have increased expression levels of oxidative fiber markers such as MHC1, MHC2x, myoglobin and Tnni1, and decreased expressions of glycolytic fiber genes (MHC2a, MHC2b, CASQ-1 and Tnni2). The genes responsible for the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation, cytochrome coxidase 2 and 4, and citrate synthase were also increased in the transgenic mice and pigs. These results suggested that transgenic over-expressed PGC-1? significantly increased muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, resulting in qualitative changes from glycolytic to oxidative energy generation. The transgenic animals also had elevated levels of PDK4 and PPAR? proteins in muscle tissue, which can lead to increased glycogen deposition and fatty acid oxidation. Therefore, the results support a significant role of PGC-1? in conversion of fast glycolytic fibers to slow and oxidative fiber through enhanced mitochondrial respiration and fatty acid oxidation, and transgenic over-expression of PGC-1? in skeletal muscle leads to more red meat production in pigs.
Project description:μ-Crystallin, encoded by the CRYM gene, binds the thyroid hormones, T3 and T4. Because T3 and T4 are potent regulators of metabolism and gene expression, and CRYM levels in human skeletal muscle can vary widely, we investigated the effects of overexpression of Crym. We generated transgenic mice, Crym tg, that expressed Crym protein specifically in skeletal muscle at levels 2.6–147.5 fold higher than in controls. Muscular functions, Ca2+ transients, contractile force, fatigue, running on treadmills or wheels, were not significantly altered, although T3 levels in tibialis anterior (TA) muscle were elevated ~190-fold and serum T4 was decreased 1.2-fold. Serum T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were unaffected. Crym transgenic mice studied in metabolic chambers showed a significant decrease in the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) corresponding to a 13.7% increase in fat utilization as an energy source compared to controls. Female but not male Crym tg mice gained weight more rapidly than controls when fed high fat or high simple carbohydrate diets. Although labeling for myosin heavy chains showed no fiber type differences in TA or soleus muscles, application of machine learning algorithms revealed small but significant morphological differences between Crym tg and control soleus fibers. RNA-seq and gene ontology enrichment analysis showed a significant shift towards genes associated with slower muscle function and its metabolic correlate, β-oxidation. Protein expression showed a similar shift, though with little overlap. Our study shows that μ-crystallin plays an important role in determining substrate utilization in mammalian muscle and that high levels of μ-crystallin are associated with a shift toward greater fat metabolism. Graphical abstract Image Highlights • μ-Crystallin (Crym) is expressed specifically in transgenic skeletal muscle at highly elevated levels.• T3 is increased ~190 fold in the Tibialis anterior muscle of Crym tg mice.• Small but significant changes in gene and protein expression in tg muscle towards a slow twitch, oxidative phenotype.• Metabolic studies show that Crym tg mice increase their use of fat as an energy source.• Female Crym tg mice gain weight faster on high fat or simple carbohydrate diets than controls.
Project description:This experiment was conducted to identify target genes of the microRNA-499 in skeletal muscle of transgenic mice that overexpressed miR-499. The following abstract from the submitted manuscript describes the major findings of this work. Coupling of mitochondrial function and skeletal muscle fiber type by a miR-499/Fnip1/AMPK circuit. Jing Liu, Xijun Liang, Danxia Zhou, Ling Lai, Tingting Fu, Yan Kong, Qian Zhou, Rick B. Vega, Min-Sheng Zhu, Daniel P. Kelly, Xiang Gao, and Zhenji Gan. Upon adaption of skeletal muscle to physiological and pathophysiological stimuli, muscle fiber type and mitochondrial function are coordinately regulated. Recent studies have identified pathways involved in control of contractile proteins of oxidative type fibers. However, the mechanism for coupling of mitochondrial function to muscle contractile machinery during fiber type transition remains unknown. Here, we show that the expression of the genes encoding type I myosins, Myh7/Myh7b and their intronic miR-208b/miR-499 parallels mitochondrial function during fiber type transitions. Using in vivo approaches in mice, we found that miR-499 drives a PGC-1a-dependent mitochondrial oxidative metabolism program to match shifts in slow-twitch muscle fiber composition. Mechanistically, miR-499 directly targets Fnip1, a known AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-interacting protein that negatively regulates AMPK, a known activator of PGC-1a. Inhibition of Fnip1 reactivated AMPK/PGC-1a signaling and mitochondrial function in myocytes. Restoration of the expression of miR-499 in the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) reduced the severity of DMD. Thus, we have identified a miR-499/Fnip1/AMPK circuit that can serve as a mechanism to couple muscle fiber type and mitochondrial function. Keywords: muscle, contractile fiber type, mitochondrial function, microRNA, gene regulation RNA from three wild-type (non-transgenic (NTG)) and three miR-499 overexpressing (MCK-miR-499) mice was analyzed. three replicates of each are provided.
Project description:Sirt3 is a mitochondrial sirtuin, predominantly expressed in highly metabolic tissues. Germline ablation of Sirt3 has major metabolic consequences, including increased susceptibility to metabolic damage and oxidative stress after high fat feeding. In order to determine the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to these phenotypes, we generated muscle-specific Sirt3 (Sirt3(skm-/-)) and liver-specific Sirt3 (Sirt3(hep-/-)) knock-out mice. Despite a marked global hyperacetylation of mitochondrial proteins, Sirt3(skm-/-) and Sirt3(hep-/-) mice did not manifest any overt metabolic phenotype under either chow or high fat diet conditions. Similarly, there was no evidence for increased oxidative stress in muscle or liver when Sirt3 was ablated in a tissue-specific manner. These observations suggest that the mitochondrial hyperacetylation induced by Sirt3-deletion in a tissue specific manner is not necessarily linked to mitochondrial dysfunction and does not recapitulate the metabolic abnormalities observed in the germline Sirt3 knock-out mice.
Project description:Estrogen-related receptor gamma (ERRgamma) regulates the perinatal switch to oxidative metabolism in the myocardium. We wanted to understand the significance of induction of ERRgamma expression in skeletal muscle by exercise. Muscle-specific VP16ERRgamma transgenic mice demonstrated an increase in exercise capacity, mitochondrial enzyme activity, and enlarged mitochondria despite lower muscle weights. Furthermore, peak oxidative capacity was higher in the transgenics as compared with control littermates. In contrast, mice lacking one copy of ERRgamma exhibited decreased exercise capacity and muscle mitochondrial function. Interestingly, we observed that increased ERRgamma in muscle generates a gene expression profile that closely overlays that of red oxidative fiber-type muscle. We further demonstrated that a small molecule agonist of ERRbeta/gamma can increase mitochondrial function in mouse myotubes. Our data indicate that ERRgamma plays an important role in causing a shift toward slow twitch muscle type and, concomitantly, a greater capacity for endurance exercise. Thus, the activation of this nuclear receptor provides a potential node for therapeutic intervention for diseases such as obesity, which is associated with reduced oxidative metabolism and a lower type I fiber content in skeletal muscle.
Project description:Pathological and physiological stimuli, including acute exercise, activate autophagy; however, it is unknown whether exercise training alters basal levels of autophagy and whether autophagy is required for skeletal muscle adaptation to training. We observed greater autophagy flux (i.e., a combination of increased LC3-II/LC3-I ratio and LC3-II levels and reduced p62 protein content indicating a higher rate of initiation and resolution of autophagic events), autophagy protein expression (i.e., Atg6/Beclin1, Atg7, and Atg8/LC3) and mitophagy protein Bnip3 expression in tonic, oxidative muscle compared to muscles of either mixed fiber types or of predominant glycolytic fibers in mice. Long-term voluntary running (4 wk) resulted in increased basal autophagy flux and expression of autophagy proteins and Bnip3 in parallel to mitochondrial biogenesis in plantaris muscle with mixed fiber types. Conversely, exercise training promoted autophagy protein expression with no significant increases of autophagy flux and mitochondrial biogenesis in the oxidative soleus muscle. We also observed increased basal autophagy flux and Bnip3 content without increases in autophagy protein expression in the plantaris muscle of sedentary muscle-specific Pgc-1? transgenic mice, a genetic model of augmented mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings reveal that endurance exercise training-induced increases in basal autophagy, including mitophagy, only take place if an enhanced oxidative phenotype is achieved. However, autophagy protein expression is mainly dictated by contractile activity independently of enhancements in oxidative phenotype. Exercise-trained mice heterozygous for the critical autophagy protein Atg6 showed attenuated increases of basal autophagy flux, mitochondrial content, and angiogenesis in skeletal muscle, along with impaired improvement of endurance capacity. These results demonstrate that increased basal autophagy is required for endurance exercise training-induced skeletal muscle adaptation and improvement of physical performance.
Project description:Mobilization of the GLUT4 glucose transporter from intracellular storage vesicles provides a mechanism for insulin-responsive glucose import into skeletal muscle. In humans, clathrin isoform CHC22 participates in formation of the GLUT4 storage compartment in skeletal muscle and fat. CHC22 function is limited to retrograde endosomal sorting and is restricted in its tissue expression and species distribution compared to the conserved CHC17 isoform that mediates endocytosis and several other membrane traffic pathways. Previously, we noted that CHC22 was expressed at elevated levels in regenerating rat muscle. Here we investigate whether the GLUT4 pathway in which CHC22 participates could play a role in muscle regeneration in humans and we test this possibility using CHC22-transgenic mice, which do not normally express CHC22. We observed that GLUT4 expression is elevated in parallel with that of CHC22 in regenerating skeletal muscle fibers from patients with inflammatory and other myopathies. Regenerating human myofibers displayed concurrent increases in expression of VAMP2, another regulator of GLUT4 transport. Regenerating fibers from wild-type mouse skeletal muscle injected with cardiotoxin also showed increased levels of GLUT4 and VAMP2. We previously demonstrated that transgenic mice expressing CHC22 in their muscle over-sequester GLUT4 and VAMP2 and have defective GLUT4 trafficking leading to diabetic symptoms. In this study, we find that muscle regeneration rates in CHC22 mice were delayed compared to wild-type mice, and myoblasts isolated from these mice did not proliferate in response to glucose. Additionally, CHC22-expressing mouse muscle displayed a fiber type switch from oxidative to glycolytic, similar to that observed in type 2 diabetic patients. These observations implicate the pathway for GLUT4 transport in regeneration of both human and mouse skeletal muscle, and demonstrate a role for this pathway in maintenance of muscle fiber type. Extrapolating these findings, CHC22 and GLUT4 can be considered markers of muscle regeneration in humans.
Project description:Skeletal muscle must perform a wide range of kinds of work, and different fiber types have evolved to accommodate these different tasks. The attributes of fibers are determined in large part by the coordinated regulation of oxidative capacity, as reflected by mitochondrial content, and the specific makeup of myofibrillar proteins. Adult muscle fibers contain four myosin heavy chain isotypes: I, IIa, IIx and IIb. Type I and IIa fibers have slower twitches and are rich in mitochondria, while type IIb fibers are fast-twitch and predominantly glycolytic. The intermediate IIx fibers are less well understood. Previous work had shown that the transcriptional coactivator PGC-1 alpha could drive the formation of type I and IIa muscle fibers. We show here that mice with transgenic expression of PGC-1 beta in skeletal muscle results in marked induction of IIx fibers. The fibers in transgenic mice are rich in mitochondria and are highly oxidative. As a result, PGC-1 beta transgenic animals can perform oxidative activity for longer and at higher work loads than wild type animals. In cell culture, PGC-1 beta coactivates the MEF2 family of transcription factors to stimulate the MHC IIx promoter. Together, these data indicate that PGC-1 beta is sufficient to drive the formation in vivo of highly oxidative fibers with type IIx characteristics.