Napyradiomycins CNQ525.510B and A80915C target the Hsp90 paralogue Grp94.
ABSTRACT: The intracellular localization and target of the napyradiomycin congeners CNQ525.510B and A80815C were explored using an immunoaffinity fluorescence (IAF) approach. Semi-synthetic methods were used to prepare probes from napyradiomycin CNQ525.510B and derivative A80815C. The results of confocal microscopy indicated that probes from both natural products localized predominantly within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of HCT-116 human colon carcinoma cells. Parallel immunoaffinity precipitation efforts using a monoclonal antibody designed against the IAF tag, resulted in the isolation of an Hsp90 family member. This protein was identified as human Grp94 (hGrp94), by its specific mass spectral signature. This observation was validated by Western blot analyses and by the result of an in vitro Grp94 binding assay. The fact that the napyradiomycins CNQ525.510B and A80815C bind to hGrp94, and their associated probes localize within the ER, suggest the use of these materials as molecular probes for monitoring ER-based chaperone function.
Project description:Three new napyradiomycins (1-3) were isolated from the culture broth of a marine-derived actinomycete strain SCSIO 10428, together with six known related analogues napyradiomycin A1 (4), 18-oxonapyradiomycin A1 (5), napyradiomycin B1 (6), napyradiomycin B3 (7), naphthomevalin (8), and napyradiomycin SR (9). The strain SCSIO 10428 was identified as a Streptomyces species by the sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA gene. The structures of new compounds 1-3, designated 4-dehydro-4a-dechlorona pyradiomycin A1 (1), 3-dechloro-3-bromonapyradiomycin A1 (2), and 3-chloro-6, 8-dihydroxy-8-?-lapachone (3), respectively, were elucidated by comparing their 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data with known congeners. None of the napyradiomycins 1-9 showed antioxidative activities. Napyradiomycins 1-8 displayed antibacterial activities against three Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus and Bacillus strains with MIC values ranging from 0.25 to 32 ?g mL?¹, with the exception that compound 3 had a MIC value of above 128 ?g mL?¹ against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213. Napyradiomycins 2, 4, 6, and 7 exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against four human cancer cell lines SF-268, MCF-7, NCI-H460, and HepG-2 with IC?? values below 20 ?M, while the IC?? values for other five napyradiomycins 1, 3, 5, 8 and 9 were above 20 ?M.
Project description:Cancer cell cytotoxicity-guided fractionation of the acetone extracts of two cultured marine-derived Streptomyces strains belonging to the MAR4 group yielded six new napyradiomycins, compounds A-F (1-6), together with three known compounds, napyradiomycins B2-B4 (7-9). Napyradiomycins 1-4 are new members of the napyradiomycin "C type" meroterpenoids that possess a linear monoterpene moiety bridging between C-7 and C-10a. Compound 4 has an additional tetrahydropyran ring fused to the phenol moiety. Compounds 5-9 are related to the napyradiomycin "B type" meroterpenoids. The structures of all new compounds were assigned by interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR, MS and other spectroscopic data. The relative configurations were assigned based upon interpretation of ROESY 2D NMR experiments. The cytotoxicity of 1-9 against the human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-116, and their antibacterial activities against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are presented.
Project description:The biosynthetic route to the napyradiomycin family of bacterial meroterpenoids has been fully described 32 years following their original isolation and 11 years after their gene cluster discovery. The antimicrobial and cytotoxic natural products napyradiomycins A1 and B1 are produced using three organic substrates (1,3,6,8-tetrahydroxynaphthalene, dimethylallyl pyrophosphate, and geranyl pyrophosphate), and catalysis via five enzymes: two aromatic prenyltransferases (NapT8 and T9); and three vanadium dependent haloperoxidase (VHPO) homologues (NapH1, H3, and H4). Building upon the previous characterization of NapH1, H3, and T8, we herein describe the initial (NapT9, H1) and final (NapH4) steps required for napyradiomycin construction. This remarkably streamlined biosynthesis highlights the utility of VHPO enzymology in complex natural product generation, as NapH4 efficiently performs a unique chloronium-induced terpenoid cyclization to establish two stereocenters and a new carbon-carbon bond, and dual-acting NapH1 catalyzes chlorination and etherification reactions at two distinct stages of the pathway. Moreover, we employed recombinant napyradiomycin biosynthetic enzymes to chemoenzymatically synthesize milligram quantities in one pot in 1 day. This method represents a viable enantioselective approach to produce complex halogenated metabolites, like napyradiomycin B1, that have yet to be chemically synthesized.
Project description:The undesired attachment of micro and macroorganisms on water-immersed surfaces, known as marine biofouling, results in severe prevention and maintenance costs (billions €/year) for aquaculture, shipping and other industries that rely on coastal and off-shore infrastructures. To date, there are no sustainable, cost-effective and environmentally safe solutions to address this challenging phenomenon. Therefore, we investigated the antifouling activity of napyradiomycin derivatives that were isolated from actinomycetes from ocean sediments collected off the Madeira Archipelago. Our results revealed that napyradiomycins inhibited ?80% of the marine biofilm-forming bacteria assayed, as well as the settlement of Mytilus galloprovincialis larvae (EC50 < 5 µg/ml and LC50/EC50 >15), without viability impairment. In silico prediction of toxicity end points are of the same order of magnitude of standard approved drugs and biocides. Altogether, napyradiomycins disclosed bioactivity against marine micro and macrofouling organisms, and non-toxic effects towards the studied species, displaying potential to be used in the development of antifouling products.
Project description:As part of our continuing efforts to discover new bioactive compounds from microbial sources, a reinvestigation of extracts of scaled-up cultures of the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. strain CA-271078 resulted in the isolation and structural elucidation of four new napyradiomycins (1-3, 5). The known napyradiomycin SC (4), whose structural details had not been previously described in detail, and another ten related known compounds (6-15). The structures of the new napyradiomycins were characterized by HRMS and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopies and their relative configurations were established through a combination of molecular modelling with nOe and coupling constants NMR analysis. The absolute configuration of each compound is also proposed based on biosynthetic arguments and the comparison of specific rotation data with those of related compounds. Among the new compounds, 1 was determined to be the first non-halogenated member of napyradiomycin A series containing a functionalized prenyl side chain, while 2-4 harbor in their structures the characteristic chloro-cyclohexane ring of the napyradiomycin B series. Remarkably, compound 5 displays an unprecedented 14-membered cyclic ether ring between the prenyl side chain and the chromophore, thus representing the first member of a new class of napyradiomycins that we have designated as napyradiomycin D1. Anti-infective and cytotoxic properties for all isolated compounds were evaluated against a set of pathogenic microorganisms and the HepG2 cell line, respectively. Among the new compounds, napyradiomycin D1 exhibited significant growth-inhibitory activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and HepG2.
Project description:A system of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones has evolved to optimize the output of properly folded secretory and membrane proteins. An important player in this network is Glucose Regulated Protein 94 (GRP94). Over the last decade, new structural and functional data have begun to delineate the unique characteristics of GRP94 and have solidified its importance in ER quality control pathways. This review describes our current understanding of GRP94 and the four ways in which it contributes to the ER quality control: (1) chaperoning the folding of proteins; (2) interacting with other components of the ER protein folding machinery; (3) storing calcium; and (4) assisting in the targeting of malfolded proteins to ER-associated degradation (ERAD).
Project description:The tight coupling of protein folding pathways with disposal mechanisms promotes the efficacy of protein production in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It has been hypothesized that the ER-resident molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) is part of this quality control coupling because it supports folding of select client proteins yet also robustly associates with the lectin osteosarcoma amplified 9 (OS-9), a component involved in ER-associated degradation (ERAD). To explore this possibility, we investigated potential functions for the GRP94/OS-9 complex in ER quality control. Unexpectedly, GRP94 does not collaborate with OS-9 in ERAD of misfolded substrates, nor is the chaperone required directly for OS-9 folding. Instead, OS-9 binds preferentially to a subpopulation of GRP94 that is hyperglycosylated on cryptic N-linked glycan acceptor sites. Hyperglycosylated GRP94 forms have nonnative conformations and are less active. As a result, these species are degraded much faster than the major, monoglycosylated form of GRP94 in an OS-9-mediated, ERAD-independent, lysosomal-like mechanism. This study therefore clarifies the role of the GRP94/OS-9 complex and describes a novel pathway by which glycosylation of cryptic acceptor sites influences the function and fate of an ER-resident chaperone.
Project description:Glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94) is one of the most abundant endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident proteins and is the ER counterpart of the cytoplasmic heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). GRP94, a component of the GRP78 chaperone system in protein processing, has pro-survival properties with implicated function in cancer progression and autoimmune disease. Previous studies on the loss of GRP94 function showed that it is required for embryonic development, regulation of toll-like receptors and innate immunity of macrophages. Here we report the creation of mouse models targeting exon 2 of the Grp94 allele that allows both traditional and conditional knockout (KO) of Grp94. In this study, we utilized the viable Grp94+/+ and +/- mice, as well as primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts generated from them as experimental tools to study its role in ER chaperone balance and ER stress signaling. Our studies reveal that while Grp94 heterozygosity reduces GRP94 level it does not alter ER chaperone levels or the ER stress response. To study the effect of complete loss of GRP94 function, since homozygous GRP94 KO leads to embryonic lethality, we generated Grp94-/- embryonic stem cells. In contrast to Grp94 heterozygosity, complete knockout of GRP94 leads to compensatory upregulation of the ER chaperones GRP78, calnexin and calreticulin but not protein disulphide isomerase. Unexpectedly, loss of GRP94 leads to significant decrease in the level of ER-stress induced spliced form of XBP-1 protein, a downstream target of the IRE1 signaling pathway. Furthermore, from analysis of microarray database and immunohistochemical staining, we present predictions where GRP94 may play an important role in specific adult organ homeostasis and function.
Project description:Grp94 is a macromolecular chaperone belonging to the hsp90 family and is the most abundant glycoprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of mammals. In addition to its essential role in protein folding, Grp94 was proposed to participate in the ER-associated degradation quality control pathway by interacting with the lectin OS-9, a sensor for terminally misfolded proteins. To understand how OS-9 interacts with ER chaperone proteins, we mapped its interaction with Grp94. Glycosylation of the full-length Grp94 protein was essential for OS-9 binding, although deletion of the Grp94 N-terminal domain relieved this requirement suggesting that the effect was allosteric rather than direct. Although yeast OS-9 is composed of a well-established N-terminal mannose recognition homology lectin domain and a C-terminal dimerization domain, we find that the C-terminal domain of OS-9 in higher eukaryotes contains "mammalian-specific insets" that are specifically recognized by the middle and C-terminal domains of Grp94. Additionally, the Grp94 binding domain in OS-9 was found to be intrinsically disordered. The biochemical analysis of the interacting regions provides insight into the manner by which the two associate and it additionally hints at a plausible biological role for the Grp94/OS-9 complex.
Project description:The role of GRP94, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress protein with both pro- and anti-inflammatory functions, has not been investigated in macrophages during ER stress, whereas ER stress has been reported in many diseases involving macrophages. In this work, we studied GRP94 in M1/LPS?+?IFN? and M2/IL-4 primary macrophages derived from human monocytes (isolated from buffy coats), in basal and ER stress conditions induced by thapsigargin (Tg), an inducer of ER calcium depletion and tunicamycin (Tm), an inhibitor of N-glycosylation. We found that GRP94 was expressed on the membrane of M2 but not M1 macrophages. In M2, Tg, but not Tm, while decreased GRP94 content in the membrane, it induced its secretion. This correlated with the induction of a pro-inflammatory profile, which was dependent on the UPR IRE1? arm activation and on a functional GRP94. As we previously reported that GRP94 associated with complement C3 at the extracellular level, we analyzed C3 and confirmed GRP94-C3 interaction in our experimental model. Further, Tg increased this interaction and, in these conditions, C3b and cathepsin L were detected in the extracellular medium where GRP94 co-immunoprecipitated with C3 and C3b. Finally, we showed that the C3b inactivated fragment, iC3b, only present on non-stressed M2, depended on functional GRP94, making both GRP94 and iC3b potential markers of M2 cells. In conclusion, our results show that GRP94 is co-secreted with C3 under ER stress conditions which may facilitate its cleavage by cathepsin L, thus contributing to the pro-inflammatory profile observed in stressed M2 macrophages.