Ranolazine for congenital and acquired late INa-linked arrhythmias: in silico pharmacological screening.
ABSTRACT: The antianginal ranolazine blocks the human ether-a-go-go-related gene-based current IKr at therapeutic concentrations and causes QT interval prolongation. Thus, ranolazine is contraindicated for patients with preexisting long-QT and those with repolarization abnormalities. However, with its preferential targeting of late INa (INaL), patients with disease resulting from increased INaL from inherited defects (eg, long-QT syndrome type 3 or disease-induced electric remodeling (eg, ischemic heart failure) might be exactly the ones to benefit most from the presumed antiarrhythmic properties of ranolazine.We developed a computational model to predict if therapeutic effects of pharmacological targeting of INaL by ranolazine prevailed over the off-target block of IKr in the setting of inherited long-QT syndrome type 3 and heart failure.We developed computational models describing the kinetics and the interaction of ranolazine with cardiac Na(+) channels in the setting of normal physiology, long-QT syndrome type 3-linked ?KPQ mutation, and heart failure. We then simulated clinically relevant concentrations of ranolazine and predicted the combined effects of Na(+) channel and IKr blockade by both the parent compound ranolazine and its active metabolites, which have shown potent blocking effects in the therapeutically relevant range. Our simulations suggest that ranolazine is effective at normalizing arrhythmia triggers in bradycardia-dependent arrhythmias in long-QT syndrome type 3 as well tachyarrhythmogenic triggers arising from heart failure-induced remodeling.Our model predictions suggest that acute targeting of INaL with ranolazine may be an effective therapeutic strategy in diverse arrhythmia-provoking situations that arise from a common pathway of increased pathological INaL.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr) and late Na+ current (INaL) significantly shape the cardiac action potential (AP). Changes in their magnitudes can cause either long or short QT syndromes associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. METHODS:Physiological self AP-clamp was used to measure INaL and IKr during the AP in rabbit and porcine ventricular cardiomyocytes to test our hypothesis that the balance between IKr and INaL affects repolarization stability in health and disease conditions. RESULTS:We found comparable amount of net charge carried by IKr and INaL during the physiological AP, suggesting that outward K+ current via IKr and inward Na+ current via INaL are in balance during physiological repolarization. Remarkably, IKr and INaL integrals in each control myocyte were highly correlated in both healthy rabbit and pig myocytes, despite high overall cell-to-cell variability. This close correlation was lost in heart failure myocytes from both species. Pretreatment with E-4031 to block IKr (mimicking long QT syndrome 2) or with sea anemone toxin II to impair Na+ channel inactivation (mimicking long QT syndrome 3) prolonged AP duration (APD); however, using GS-967 to inhibit INaL sufficiently restored APD to control in both cases. Importantly, INaL inhibition significantly reduced the beat-to-beat and short-term variabilities of APD. Moreover, INaL inhibition also restored APD and repolarization stability in heart failure. Conversely, pretreatment with GS-967 shortened APD (mimicking short QT syndrome), and E-4031 reverted APD shortening. Furthermore, the amplitude of AP alternans occurring at high pacing frequency was decreased by INaL inhibition, increased by IKr inhibition, and restored by combined INaL and IKr inhibitions. CONCLUSIONS:Our data demonstrate that IKr and INaL are counterbalancing currents during the physiological ventricular AP and their integrals covary in individual myocytes. Targeting these ionic currents to normalize their balance may have significant therapeutic potential in heart diseases with repolarization abnormalities. Visual Overview: A visual overview is available for this article.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The basic defect in long-QT syndrome type III (LQT3) is an excessive inflow of sodium current during phase 3 of the action potential caused by mutations in the SCN5A gene. Most sodium channel blockers reduce the early (peak) and late components of the sodium current (INa and INaL), but ranolazine preferentially reduces INaL. We, therefore, evaluated the effects of ranolazine in LQT3 caused by the D1790G mutation in SCN5A. METHODS AND RESULTS:We performed an experimental study of ranolazine in TSA201 cells expressing the D1790G mutation. We then performed a long-term clinical evaluation of ranolazine in LQT3 patients carrying the D1790G mutation. In the experimental study, INaL was significantly higher in D1790G than in wild-type channels expressed in the TSA201 cells. Ranolazine exerted a concentration-dependent block of INaL of the SCN5A-D1790G channel without reducing peak INa significantly. In the clinical study, among 8 patients with LQT3 and confirmed D1790G mutation, ranolazine had no effects on the sinus rate or QRS width but shortened the QTc from 509±41 to 451±26 ms, a mean decrease of 56±52 ms (10.6%; P=0.012). The QT-shortening effect of ranolazine remained effective throughout the entire study period of 22.8±12.8 months. Ranolazine reduced the QTc at all heart rates but less so during extreme nocturnal bradycardia. A type I Brugada ECG was never noticed. CONCLUSIONS:Ranolazine blocks INaL in experimental models of LQT3 harboring the SCN5A-D1790G mutation and shortened the QT interval of LQT3 patients. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT01728025.
Project description:Mutations of the cardiac voltage-gated sodium channel (SCN5A gene encoding voltage-gated sodium channel [NaV1.5]) cause congenital long-QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3). Most NaV1.5 mutations associated with LQT3 promote a mode of sodium channel gating in which some channels fail to inactivate, contributing to increased late sodium current (INaL), which is directly responsible for delayed repolarization and prolongation of the QT interval. LQT3 patients have highest risk of arrhythmia during sleep or during periods of slow heart rate. During exercise (high heart rate), there is elevated steady-state intracellular free calcium (Ca(2+)) concentration. We hypothesized that higher levels of intracellular Ca(2+) may lower arrhythmia risk in LQT3 subjects through effects on INaL.We tested this idea by examining the effects of varying intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations on the level of INaL in cells expressing a typical LQT3 mutation, delKPQ, and another SCN5A mutation, R225P. We found that elevated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration significantly reduced INaL conducted by mutant channels but not wild-type channels. This attenuation of INaL in delKPQ expressing cells by Ca(2+) was not affected by the CaM kinase II inhibitor KN-93 but was partially attenuated by truncating the C-terminus of the channel.We conclude that intracellular Ca(2+) contributes to the regulation of INaL conducted by NaV1.5 mutants and propose that, during excitation-contraction coupling, elevated intracellular Ca(2+) suppresses mutant channel INaL and protects cells from delayed repolarization. These findings offer a plausible explanation for the lower arrhythmia risk in LQT3 subjects during fast heart rates.
Project description:The prolongation of the QT interval represents the main feature of the long QT syndrome (LQTS), a life-threatening genetic disease. The heterozygous SCN5A V411M mutation of the human sodium channel leads to a LQTS type 3 with severe proarrhythmic effects due to an increase in the late component of the sodium current (INaL). The two sodium blockers flecainide and ranolazine are equally recommended by the current 2015 ESC guidelines to treat patients with LQTS type 3 and persistently prolonged QT intervals. However, awareness of pro-arrhythmic effects of flecainide in LQTS type 3 patients arose upon the study of the SCN5A E1784K mutation. Regarding SCN5A V411M individuals, flecainide showed good results albeit in a reduced number of patients and no evidence supporting the use of ranolazine has ever been released. Therefore, we ought to compare the effect of ranolazine and flecainide in a SCN5A V411M model using an in-silico modeling and simulation approach. We collected clinical data of four patients. Then, we fitted four Markovian models of the human sodium current (INa) to experimental and clinical data. Two of them correspond to the wild type and the heterozygous SCN5A V411M scenarios, and the other two mimic the effects of flecainide and ranolazine on INa. Next, we inserted them into three isolated cell action potential (AP) models for endocardial, midmyocardial and epicardial cells and in a one-dimensional tissue model. The SCN5A V411M mutation produced a 15.9% APD90 prolongation in the isolated endocardial cell model, which corresponded to a 14.3% of the QT interval prolongation in a one-dimensional strand model, in keeping with clinical observations. Although with different underlying mechanisms, flecainide and ranolazine partially countered this prolongation at the isolated endocardial model by reducing the APD90 by 8.7 and 4.3%, and the QT interval by 7.2 and 3.2%, respectively. While flecainide specifically targeted the mutation-induced increase in peak INaL, ranolazine reduced it during the entire AP. Our simulations also suggest that ranolazine could prevent early afterdepolarizations triggered by the SCN5A V411M mutation during bradycardia, as flecainide. We conclude that ranolazine could be used to treat SCN5A V411M patients, specifically when flecainide is contraindicated.
Project description:Ranolazine is a Food and Drug Administration-approved antianginal agent. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that ranolazine has antiarrhythmic effects in both ventricles and atria. In the ventricles, ranolazine can suppress arrhythmias associated with acute coronary syndrome, long QT syndrome, heart failure, ischemia, and reperfusion. In atria, ranolazine effectively suppresses atrial tachyarrhythmias and atrial fibrillation (AF). Recent studies have shown that the drug may be effective and safe in suppressing AF when used as a pill-in-the pocket approach, even in patients with structurally compromised hearts, warranting further study. The principal mechanism underlying ranolazine's antiarrhythmic actions is thought to be primarily via inhibition of late I(Na) in the ventricles and via use-dependent inhibition of peak I(Na) and I(Kr) in the atria. Short- and long-term safety of ranolazine has been demonstrated in the clinic, even in patients with structural heart disease. This review summarizes the available data regarding the electrophysiologic actions and antiarrhythmic properties of ranolazine in preclinical and clinical studies.
Project description:Ion channels represent the molecular entities that give rise to the cardiac action potential, the fundamental cellular electrical event in the heart. The concerted function of these channels leads to normal cyclical excitation and resultant contraction of cardiac muscle. Research into cardiac ion channel regulation and mutations that underlie disease pathogenesis has greatly enhanced our knowledge of the causes and clinical management of cardiac arrhythmia. Here we review the molecular determinants, pathogenesis, and pharmacology of congenital Long QT Syndrome. We examine mechanisms of dysfunction associated with three critical cardiac currents that comprise the majority of congenital Long QT Syndrome cases: 1) IKs, the slow delayed rectifier current; 2) IKr, the rapid delayed rectifier current; and 3) INa, the voltage-dependent sodium current. Less common subtypes of congenital Long QT Syndrome affect other cardiac ionic currents that contribute to the dynamic nature of cardiac electrophysiology. Through the study of mutations that cause congenital Long QT Syndrome, the scientific community has advanced understanding of ion channel structure-function relationships, physiology, and pharmacological response to clinically employed and experimental pharmacological agents. Our understanding of congenital Long QT Syndrome continues to evolve rapidly and with great benefits: genotype-driven clinical management of the disease has improved patient care as precision medicine becomes even more a reality.
Project description:The QT interval is a phase of the cardiac cycle that corresponds to action potential duration (APD) including cellular repolarization (T-wave). In both clinical and experimental settings, prolongation of the QT interval of the electrocardiogram (ECG) and related proarrhythmia have been so strongly associated that a prolonged QT interval is largely accepted as surrogate marker for proarrhythmia. Accordingly, drugs that prolong the QT interval are not considered for further preclinical development resulting in removal of many promising drugs from development. While reduction of drug interactions with hERG is an important goal, there are promising means to mitigate hERG block. Here, we examine one possibility and test the hypothesis that selective inhibition of the cardiac late Na current (INaL) by the novel compound GS-458967 can suppress proarrhythmic markers.New experimental data has been used to calibrate INaL in the Soltis-Saucerman computationally based model of the rabbit ventricular action potential to study effects of GS-458967 on INaL during the rabbit ventricular AP. We have also carried out systematic in silico tests to determine if targeted block of INaL would suppress proarrhythmia markers in ventricular myocytes described by TRIaD: Triangulation, Reverse use dependence, beat-to-beat Instability of action potential duration, and temporal and spatial action potential duration Dispersion.Our computer modeling approach based on experimental data, yields results that suggest that selective inhibition of INaL modifies all TRIaD related parameters arising from acquired Long-QT Syndrome, and thereby reduced arrhythmia risk. This study reveals the potential for adjunctive pharmacotherapy via targeted block of INaL to mitigate proarrhythmia risk for drugs with significant but unintended off-target hERG blocking effects.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:The reliable assessment of proarrhythmic risk of compounds under development remains an elusive goal. Current safety guidelines focus on the effects of blocking the KCNH2/HERG ion channel-in tissues and animals with intact repolarization. Novel models with better predictive value are needed that more closely reflect the conditions in patients with cardiac remodelling and reduced repolarization reserve. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:We have developed a model for the long QT syndrome type-5 in rabbits (LQT5 ) with cardiac-specific overexpression of a mutant (G52R) KCNE1 ?-subunit of the channel that carries the slow delayed-rectifier K(+) -current (IKs ). ECG parameters, including short-term variability of the QT interval (STVQT ), a biomarker for proarrhythmic risk, and arrhythmia development were recorded. In vivo, arrhythmia susceptibility was evaluated by i.v. administration of the IKr blocker dofetilide. K(+) currents were measured with the patch-clamp technique. KEY RESULTS:Patch-clamp studies in ventricular myocytes isolated from LQT5 rabbits revealed accelerated IKs and IKr deactivation kinetics. At baseline, LQT5 animals exhibited slightly but significantly prolonged heart-rate corrected QT index (QTi) and increased STVQT . Dofetilide provoked Torsade-de-Pointes arrhythmia in a greater proportion of LQT5 rabbits, paralleled by a further increase in STVQT . CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:We have created a novel transgenic LQT5 rabbit model with increased susceptibility to drug-induced arrhythmias that may represent a useful model for testing proarrhythmic potential and for investigations of the mechanisms underlying arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death due to repolarization disturbances.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:Reliable prediction of pro-arrhythmic side effects of novel drug candidates is still a major challenge. Although drug-induced pro-arrhythmia occurs primarily in patients with pre-existing repolarisation disturbances, healthy animals are employed for pro-arrhythmia testing. To improve current safety screening, transgenic long QT (LQTS) rabbit models with impaired repolarisation reserve were generated by overexpressing loss-of-function mutations of human HERG (HERG-G628S, loss of IKr ; LQT2), KCNE1 (KCNE1-G52R, decreased IKs ; LQT5), or both transgenes (LQT2-5) in the heart. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Effects of K+ channel blockers on cardiac repolarisation and arrhythmia susceptibility were assessed in healthy wild-type (WT) and LQTS rabbits using in vivo ECG and ex vivo monophasic action potential and ECG recordings in Langendorff-perfused hearts. KEY RESULTS:LQTS models reflect patients with clinically "silent" (LQT5) or "manifest" (LQT2 and LQT2-5) impairment in cardiac repolarisation reserve: they were more sensitive in detecting IKr -blocking (LQT5) or IK1 /IKs -blocking (LQT2 and LQT2-5) properties of drugs compared to healthy WT animals. Impaired QT-shortening capacity at fast heart rates was observed due to disturbed IKs function in LQT5 and LQT2-5. Importantly, LQTS models exhibited higher incidence, longer duration, and more malignant types of ex vivo arrhythmias than WT. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS:LQTS models represent patients with reduced repolarisation reserve due to different pathomechanisms. As they demonstrate increased sensitivity to different specific ion channel blockers (IKr blockade in LQT5 and IK1 and IKs blockade in LQT2 and LQT2-5), their combined use could provide more reliable and more thorough prediction of (multichannel-based) pro-arrhythmic potential of novel drug candidates.
Project description:We elucidate the role of late Na+ current (INaL) for diastolic intracellular Ca2+ (DCa) accumulation in chronic heart failure (HF). HF was induced in 19 dogs by multiple coronary artery microembolizations; 6 normal dogs served as control. Ca2+ transients were recorded in field-paced (0.25 or 1.5 Hz) fluo-4-loaded ventricular myocytes (VM). INaL and action potentials were recorded by patch-clamp. Failing VM, but not normal VM, exhibited (1) prolonged action potentials and Ca2+ transients at 0.25 Hz, (2) substantial DCa accumulation at 1.5 Hz, and (3) spontaneous Ca2+ releases, which occurred after 1.5 Hz stimulation trains in ~31% cases. Selective INaL blocker ranolazine (10 microM) or the prototypical Na+ channel blocker tetrodotoxin (2 microM) reversibly improved function of failing VM. The DCa accumulation and the beneficial effect of INaL blockade were reproduced in silico using an excitation-contraction coupling model. We conclude that INaL contributes to diastolic Ca2+ accumulation and spontaneous Ca2+ release in HF.